Roman and Urdu

Report
Miftah maashiyat e shariah
Certificate Course on basics of Sharia Finance
www.miftahindia.com
Prepared by Syed Kamran Razvi
and
Sharia Advisory Board.
Miftah maashiyat e shariah
Is mallomati course ka maqsad talaba hazrat
ko MASHIYAT ke USOOL aur uske talluq
Ya hawalei se; Sharia ke aisei ausoolon se waqif karana hai.
1.
2.
Jo talaba mashiyat se waqif hai unhei Sharia ke
ausoolon se waqfiyat aur aisei nazriye se waqfiyat hogi.
Jo Talaba Sharia ke ausool aur Islami taalimaat se waqif
hai unhe Mashiyati usool aur Mashiyat jaannein mein
madad miligi.
MAQASID E SHARIAH
Hashr ke din Musalamanon se paanch sawal kiye
jaenge jin mein se do ka talluq mashiyat se hai--Yaanei ke
usnei Kaisei daulat kamaaeii
aur
uska isteamal kaise kiya.
Aan Hazarat SAW ki zindagi ka tajziya karein to 90%
unki zindagi ek tajir ki tarah thii aur kisi bhi tajir ke
liye ye donon masail behad aham hain.
Isi ko maqasid e shariah mein Ummah e Musliman
ke liye shamil farmaya.
Ye Shariah ke un dusaron usulon ki tarah hain jinhe
Aan Hazrat SAW nein in ko usi shkl mein apnaya
jaisei ye us waqt thhei ya halaat ijazat dete thei, ya
pesh kiya jaa saktei thei.
Hum agli slide mein ibtidaei duar mein is kei usulon
ko smajhenge…
(c) Miftah Advisory (India) P Ltd.
3
Maqasid aur Tijarat
YE BAAT KE MAASHIYAT E SHARIA
Zindagi ke BUNIYADI usoolon pe hi mabni hain:
Hum munafei ke liye karobar kar tein hain ,
lekin karobar (business) ke liye
tajir (businessman) ko
investment (yaanei JO MAAL LAGAYA JAEEI GA)
ki zaroorat hoti hain.
Bas ye hi baat samjh ne waali hai;
Hum munafa apnein karobar ko chalanei ke liye zaroor le saktei hain
aur ek nizam ke tehat hi le saktein hain.
Aur jo paisa business(karobar) mein laga raha hai woh bhi ek tarekei se
MUNAFEI ka haqdar hai aur agar usmein nuksan ho to nuksan bhi uske
hisse mein aaega.
(c) Miftah Advisory (India) P Ltd.
4
Tareekhi Pasmanzar
• Gemach: Ye ibtada hai maashiyat e sharia ki aur Hazrat Musa ale
salaam ke zamanei se is ghair sudi nizam ko apnaya gaya.
• Ye nizam Torah mein ghair sudi loan ke barei mein aaei zikr pe
Shuruati Daur
mabni hai.
• In usulon ke mutabiq, munafa profit aur loss ki buniyaad pe
shirqat ki buniyad pe bataeei gaei hai
• In usulon ka us waqt ke economists or commerce ke mahirin
Hijri se pehle
nein Mashiyat e shariah ya maqasid e shariah ka hissa bataya hai.
• RIBA; Is ki ek misal hai :Sud yanei ke interest; YE aisa paisa hai
jo baghair munafei ya nuksaan kiye huei kamaya jaa sakei.
• Gharar yani aisi koi bhi kamai jismei bahaut ziyada risk ho hai
aur jiski buniyad kisi satte ki tarah lagti ho.
Usul e
Mashiyat
• Riba ki misaal koi shaks baghair kisi investment yani ke loan ki
shakl mein paise deta hai aur uspe increment ya nei uspe koi
munafa lena chahe to usei ALQURAN nein sakht HARAM chizon
mein shamil kiya hai.
(c) Miftah Advisory (India) P Ltd.
5
Commerce /Tijarat kya hai
1. Hamari Roz marra ki zindagi is tarah ki saekron haqiqi
misalon se bhari hui hai.
Misalein yun hain:
2. Chahei aap bazar se koi samaan laa rahei hon ya phir
koi cheez ya apni zaroorat ko puri karnei ki koshish kar
rahein hon.
3. AB kuch misalein lete hain jinse hamein karo bar ke
buniyadi usul aur mashiyat e sharia ke fawaid ka
andaza ho;;;;;;;;
KUCH MUDDAEI:
KEEMAT: (Cost) ; yani woh number ke jis ke barabar ki
(currency) ya maal aap agar dein to who samaan ki
milkiyat aap ki. Is mein samaan bananei walei ki lagat
(production costs); Tax (jis se sarkar hamein
sahoolatein faraham karti hai); Transport (saman ko
dukanon ya Bazaar tak pahunchanei ki lagat); aur phir
thhok vyapariyon ki adahat aur phir dukandaron ka
munafa bhi shamil hain:
Ye sab aap ki keemat ka hissa hain. Is taman process
mein ye Mashiyat e sharia lagu hoti hain. Isi tarah se
Maqasid e Shariah tae hota hai.
(c) Miftah Advisory (India) P Ltd.
6
Buniyadi Iqtisadiyat ke usool
Iqtisadiyat ke buniyad behad dilchasp hai; ye na sirf Mashiyat e
Shariya balke har iqtisadi nizam ki buniyad hai !!!!
A. Flow of Money:
Is model ka maqsad hai Paise ka chalan, yaani paise ka flow
ek darya ki tarah mustaqil chalte rahna chahiya. Ye “flow” ruk
gaya to tamam maliyat intezam bigarh jaaega.
B. DEMAND AND SUPPLY Ka balance:
Kharidaron ke liye samaan (goods) ki zaroorat aur bechne walei
kitna faraham kartei hain is pe munahsar karta hai iqtisadi
nizam , YE CYCLE ‘bazaar’ (market) mein customer ko kitnei
daam pe chizein faraham hongi tae karta hai.
C. Ek teesra pehlu in donon se nikalta hai aur who hai log kitna
aur kya kharid saktei hain.
D. Phir ye………yahin se nikalta hai ausool ke duniya------ kaisa
iqtisadi nizam ko tarji deti hai, agar bahaut Kharbpati log ho
jaein ya aisa nizam paida kar raha hai to us nizam mein
badnizami aur bad unwani aanei mein bahaut waqt nahin
lagta……. Bahaut se Arab aur Afriqi mumalik iski misal hain.
Agli slides hamein duniya mein mashiyate sharia ka aaj kitna phelau ho
chuka hai ye bataya gaya hai……..!!!!
(c) Miftah Advisory (India) P Ltd.
7
Mashiyat e Shariah ki buniyad
Ilm Al Masail aur Ilm Al Fadaail: (Part A)
Saeed Qutb ek Misri activist aur visionary theii, Unhonei Muslim
Brotherhood yanei Tabligh e Jamaat ;
Is ke bani Shyakh Hasal Al Banna se bahaut kuch sikha. Inki
koshish mein Mashiyat e Shariah ki farogh bhi zer e shumul
thii.
Lekin ye baat dilchasp hai ke is ko pehli saans Maghrib mein basei
hue musalmanon ki koshish se mili
aur
mashrik mein majuda Saudi Arabia aur Iran (1976 ke baad) nein
is nizam ko purei ahkam ke saath apnaya.
1965-70 ke dauran kuch Arab aur Hindustani Asatada nein is
nizam ki khubi ko samjha aur Yahudi tanzimon pe mabni is tehrik
ko shuru kiya.
Aaj UAE, Tunisia, Algeria, Egypt, Faras ki khadi ke mumalik aur
digar Arab mulkon mein ye aam nizam ban chuka hai, DILCHASP
HAI KE YE nizam behad tezi ke saath DUNIYA MEIN apnaya jaa
(c) Miftah Advisory (India) P Ltd.
8
raha hai.
Mashiyat e Shariah ki buniyad: PART B
Naei mulkon mein China, Japan, Korea, Thailand aur Cambodia jaise mulk shamil
hain.
Ye duniya mein aaj 200 Billion USDollar ka karobar Mashiyat e Sharia ke hi nizam ke
tehat hota hai
Kuch naei kadam YA PRODUCTS HAI JAISE KE stock market ya share bazaar ke
hawalei se, aaj duniya mein 40 se zaid stock market hain jo sirf Sharia Index yane
sharia ki nazr se karobar karnei wali companies hain.
Ab ye koshish ki jaa rahi hai agar koin company sharia Index ke hisab se jaiz hai to
who sab ek hi stock exchange ya share bazaar mein apnei share list kar sakei . Aur
awam ko ye sahulat ho ke who is tarh ke share ek hi jagah se kharid sakein.
Is tarh ka nizam ;barhe aur chottei tajiron ko muhaiyya karanein mein aasani deta
hai. Is mein SUKUK aur IJARA aham tariqa hain.
Agli slide mein hum iski karkardgi India mein samjhtei hain………….
(c) Miftah Advisory (India) P Ltd.
9
Mashiyat e Sharia : Hindutan mein ab tak
aur is ka makhsoos role ……………..
Hindustani asatadha nein Islamic finance ke farogh aur research mein ek aham
role ada kiya hai. Halankein ye sabhi mashiyat ke mahir hain magar unhon nein is
talim ko maqasid e sharia ki nazr se study kiya aur is ke phelaw mein khasa
tawwun kiya.
Is mein kuch naam jo sarei fehrist hain, unmein : Dr.Taqi Usmani, Dr.Mohammad
Nejatullah Siddiqi, Dr.Nazim Ali, Dr.Obaidullah , Mufti Khalid Saifullah Rehmani,
aur deegar afraad hain.
Aur naei kuch naam is tarah se hain;
Dr.Shariq Nisar, A.M. Shervani, Syed Kamran Razvi , Vinesh kr.saxena
AGLI SLIDE MEIN KAROBAR E STOCK MARKET SMAJHTEI HAIN::::::::::
(c) Miftah Advisory (India) P Ltd.
10
STOCK MARKET KYA HAI aur isse munafa ki surat:
Stock Market mein do alfaz hain :
STOCK ke manei yahan pe:
Company apnei shares ko kharidaron ya investors ko ek bazaar yaanei
market mein bechtin hain. TO YEHI STOCK MARKET HAI.
b. Is mein kaam karnei walon ko Stock Broker kehtein hain. In ka aur inke
Sub-brokers ke zariye bazaar mein phelau kya jaata hai.
c. Yeh stock broker apni fees jama karkei licence lete hain aur crores
mein apnei kharidaron ke liye kharid o farokht kartein hain in hein
orders kehtein hain. BROKERAGE inki kamai hai.
d. Is ko contract note ke zariye in kahridaron ko shaam tak bhej diya
jaata hai. Is mein fehrist hoti hain ke kitne ke shares ya stocks kis
keemat pe kharidei gaei.
Misal ke taur pe agli slide mein fehrist dekhein::
(c) Miftah Advisory (India) P Ltd.
11
STOCK MARKET MEIN SAUDA KAISE HOTA HAI
MARKET : SHARE BAZAAR jismein companies jaise
reliance, TATA, Birla, aisi bahaut se deegar 1000 se bhi
zaid companies ke shares bhi listed hotei hain.
Stock Broker
Company
Sub broker
KHARIDAR
EK MISAL SAMJHTEI
TCL ka
HAIN:Company ka
share
name
Is daam pe aap nein
becha to ek share pe
2 rs ka munafa aur
Rs.116
116 pe 0.5 %
brokerage ka kharch
hai
BROKER
Sub broker
Kharidar
Rs.112
Rs.114
Bazaar ka daam/bhau
Ye iska barha hua
daam jispe
kharida gaya
ORDER
Maujuda teen sharia Mutual FUNDS KI MARKET PERFORMANCE :
EK JAYAEZA::::::::::::::::::::
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
Shariah BeES
Taurus Ethical Fund
Tata Select Equity
1 Year
2 Year
Since
Inception
(c) Miftah Advisory (India) P Ltd.
13
Internet Pe kharid o faroght
Intermediary
Head office
DSA
Cluster 1
2
Intermediary
3
4
DSA
4
Team Leader 1
2
Intermediary
DSA
3
MICRO FINANCE AUR MASHIYAT E SHARIA ke ausool:::::::::
Kuch behad zaroorat
mand log aur ek
maqsad
Micro finance hamare
dehat aur kasbon
mein dukanein ya
karobar kayam karnei
mein madad karta hai
Iski wapasi ki
zimmadari sab
members ki hoti hai
Ye un kamaon
ko karti hain jo
BANKS nahin
kartei hain.
Ek company jo in sab
ke paisa jama karnei
mein madad kartei
hain
Chotei Chotei loan
detei hain.
(c) Miftah Advisory (India) P Ltd.
15
INDIA mein SHARIA companies KE FUND:
ETFs Shariah Indices
Mutual Fund
1.Shariah BeES (Corpus FUND: INR 1 Crore)
S&P CNX Nifty Shariah
2.Tata Select Equity (Corpus FUND: INR 5 Crore)
3. Taurus Ethical Fund (Corpus FUND: INR 2 Crore)
S&P CNX 500 Shariah (yeh ek meezan hai)
Portfolio Management:
1.Benchmark ACT
2. TAMCO PMS
India mein stock market ke alawa:
Ijara Al Sukuk aur murabaha aur takaful hain, Lekin is pe abhi koi bhi company
sidhei taur pe kaam nahin kar rahi hai.
(c) Miftah Advisory (India) P Ltd.
16
Internet se apni maloomaat badhein
A’qd
Hadith (Ahadith, plural)
Arbun
Halal
Bai al Inah
Haram
Fatwa(Fatawa,plural)
Muamalat
Hawala
Fiqh
Mudaraba
Fiqh al Muamalat Ijara
Mudarib
Gharar
Ijara Muntahia Bitamleek
Murabaha
Kafala
Ijara wa Iqtina
Musharaka
Istisn’a
Parallel Salam
Tabarru’
Qard
Sadaqat
Takaful
Qard al Hassan
Salam
Tawarruq
Quran
Sarf
Takaful
Sharia’a
Tawa
Rab al Mal (Arab al Mal,
Sukuk
plural)
Sunnah
Rahn
ReTakaful
Riba
Riba al-Fadl
Riba an-Naseeyah
(c) Miftah Advisory (India) P Ltd.
17
KuCH AUR DETAIL MEIN JAANEI
Kitabein:
Website:
Courses:
Aur hum se puchein:
[email protected]
(c) Miftah Advisory (India) P Ltd.
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