Kriminalitet u kibernetskom prostoru Suvremene oblike Igor Bernik, Univerza v Mariboru, Fakulteta za varnostne vede Informacijska ili kibernetska sigurnost evolucija ili revolucija Revolucija infrastrukture Eksplozija podataka Stalno uključen, stalno priključen u kibernetski prostor Buduče financije - cash ili e-payment, substituti? Nove, strože regulacije i standardi Više interneta – zemlja nije jedna, zemlja je više? Novi modeli identitete i poverenja? (new identity and trust models) Kibernetski kriminalitet u modernom svjetu Institucije i zakonodaja, medžunarodna usaglašenost Izvršioci kibernetskog kriminala, motivi, klasifikacija izvršioca Kibernetička infrastruktura za vršenje različitih krivičnih djela Zaštita sistema od napada Novi pojavni oblici kibernetskog kriminaliteta Strah pred kibernetskim kriminalitetom Istraživanje kibernetskog kriminaliteta Introduction of topic What do we understand as cybercrime What is particularly ‘cyber’ about it? We belive: Criminal acts is punishable by law. For most of criminal acts conducted in cyberspace we use ’classic legislation’ (theft, abuse, child pornograpy, etc.). Cybercrime is the use of information technology to carry criminal acts. Guidelines To ensure protection against cyber criminals, to reduce endangerment and avoid possible consequences, it is important to adhere to the following basic guidelines: Be careful when opening links received by e-mail (Trojan horse malware, phishing etc.). Be aware that your personal data can be used to profile your activities, thus making you vulnerable to manipulation and/or identity theft. Try to check the identity of anyone who wishes to acquire your personal data. Be careful which data and software application you load onto your computer or mobile device. Some applications enable theft of personal or business data. Guidelines, cont. Make sure that your anti-virus program is regularly updated and that a firewall is installed. Protect your passwords, and take notice of anyone who is shoulder surfing while you type them in. Periodically change your passwords, choose “strong” passwords. Most importantly: use your common sense. Informing and educating about the dangers of cyber crime must become widespread, common and continuous at all level of society. Users will know how to use this technology rationally and responsible, and will not be afraid of it. Conclusion Users are relatively well informed about the various types of cybercrime, but the public is more aware of threats exposed by the news media, than of those from which they should truly protect themselves. Better security and thus greater safety can only be ensured, if users conduct themselves responsibly in cyberspace. Lack of understanding translates into inadequate security. Informacijska i(li) kibernetska borba poznato ili novo dogadganje Informacije i kibernetski prostor, snaga informacija i informacijski konflikt Tehnike, izvršioci i žrtve informacijske borbe Državno izvajanje informacijske borbe, špijunaža, aktivna borba, asimetrična, borba, informacijske operacije, propaganda Uloga organizacija i industrijska špijunaža Uloga država v informacijskem bojevanju; SAD, Kineska, Rusija, Izrael, ... položaj malih zemalja Medžunarodna zakonodavstvo, odbrana Političko i ideološko motivirane grupe ICT and Internet Crucial operations Daily work Business Economic loss, physical impact Cyber crime Information warfare Information warfare Information warfare = warfare for information power. Right information are basic capital of arganization!? Military, state, organizational and NGOs. Asimetric warfare. Nature of information warfare STATE IW Espionage (Echelon) Kinetic war (NCW, GIG) Information operations Propaganda CORPORATE IW Harassment Industrial espionage CIVIL IW Cyber terrorism Hacktivism ECD Animal, environment rights group Recommendations for counterfeiting 1. Information security politics should consider ISO standards. 2. Implementation of latest technology. 3. National strategy of information (cyber) security. 4. Mandatory information security standards for all organizations. 5. Safety classifications of valuable information. 6. International cooperation. What needs to be done for improvement? National level 1. Universal definition. 2. Definition of acceptable usage of ICT. 3. International harmonization. 4. Abolish legal constraints. 5. Trained law agencies. Organizational level: 1. Business ethics. 2. Security awareness. 3. Data classification and personal limitation. 4. Risk management and uninterrupted business. Further research: understanding, protection. Kibernetski terorizam šta je kibernetskog u terorizmu Kibernetksi terorizam ili klasički kibenetksi kriminalitet Nivoi kibernetskog terorizma, kibernetski prostor i terorističke akcije Izvršioci klasičkog kibernetskog kriminaliteta i teroristi »Risk management« na področju kibernetskog terorizma Posljedice kibernetskog terorizma, preventivne mjere Mjere protiv kibernetskim terorističkim napadima Aktivnosti na ravni organizacija, država, EU, NATO, globalno Cyber Terrorism - facts IS are a basic support element of every organizational structure - organizations cannot achieve their visions without them Companies feels necessity of securing IS Protection; risk management system - allows us to know our enemy Threats to IS are multiple and constant. Reason for protecting our IS is to defend it from external malware one of those vicious attacks is also CT. Cyber Terrorism – sum Definition: Cyber Terrorism is carefully planned, politically motivated attack on information, computer system, programs and data. Cyber Terrorism causing fear, damage or even death using attack with the enterprise IS influencing the (global) society and media attention. Computers as weapon • • Can not cause death or injury - indirect risks. Consequences and acts are therefore indirect. Computers control critical infrastructure: storage of vital information-damage or loss can lead to loss of lives (ex: medical environment). Difference with classic form of terrorism: • High level of computer knowledge • High level of motivation (possibility of recruiting hackers for terrorist needs) Difference is also seen in the usage of computers - at the moment computers are used as a support for planning and executing classical terrorist attacks- that will change in the future. Cyber Terrorism – consequences Psychological Physical Economic The most exposed critical areas: information and communications, electrical network, gas and oil (storage, transport, extraction), banking and finances, transport, water supply systems, government services. We must physical separate critical IS from internet. Protection Countries and organizations must take proactive measuraments for protecting IS and critical infrastructure from CT Risk management system is unavoidable (similar as classic system - consequences are the most important factor) Decision regarding the form of protection is dependent on every organization by itself Conclusion Cyber terrorism is (still) misunderstood. Terrorist actions in cyber world can become more often. New generations of terrorists are born in information society. They will posses knowledge of ICT and combine it with high level of motivation. Damage caused by these attacks can be bigger. High level of safety culture in organizations shows us that they are well prepared. Cybercrime and terrorism are unavoidable threats. What can we do? Prepare better process of recovery in case of incident. Preventive actions, education and raising safety culture will leads to improving information security. Risk management process - we must know our threats to fight them. Following trends of security and threat development is necessary.