Hot Seat - Protein Synthesis

Report
Protein Synthesis and Gene
Expression
Hot Seat
What is the relationship between the contents of the nuclei of
muscle and intestine cells?
A. The cells function in exactly the same ways
even though their nuclei are different
B. Both cells have the same DNA and use all of
the genetic information available
C. The genes in the nuclei are identical but the
information that is used is different
D. Muscle cells have genetic information that is
very different from that of intestine cells
The result of transcription is
•
•
•
•
DNA
mRNA
tRNA
protein
The result of translation is
A.
B.
C.
D.
DNA
mRNA
tRNA
protein
There are 4 nucleotides that make up RNA. Codons consist of three
adjacent nucleotides. Mathematically, there are 64 different codons,
but we find only 20 common amino acids encoded by DNA in living
systems. This suggests that…
A.
B.
C.
D.
Several codons are nonsense
Several codons code for each amino acid
Several amino acids have the same codon
More amino acids must be involved
The actual genetic code in genes has been
shown to be
A. Triplet sequences (Codons) of nucleotides in
DNA
B. Chemical bonds in amino acids
C. Protein chains in the cell nucleus
D. Enzymes acting on ribosomal RNA
The coded material that travels from a cell nucleus to a ribosome
where a particular protein will be synthesized is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
Ribosomal RNA
Transfer RNA
Messenger RNA
Codon DNA
How has genetic engineering recently been
put to use?
A. Producing bacteria that prevent frost damage
on plants
B. Locating the genes that cause cystic fibrosis
C. Inserting human DNA into bacteria to
manufacture insulin
D. All of these
The “Central Dogma” of genetics states the usual order of events in
protein synthesis proceeds along which of the following sequences?
A.
B.
C.
D.
RNA  DNA  Protein
DNA  Ribsome  RNA
DNA  Protein  RNA
DNA  RNA  Protein
Which of the following contains T instead
of U?
A. DNA
B. mRNA
C. tRNA
The three basepair sequence found on an
mRNA strand is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
Codon
Anticodon
Coda
Genome
DNA gel electrophoresis separates DNA
fragments by
A.
B.
C.
D.
Density
Strength of charge
Number of adenine subunits
Size
A mutation which results in the changing of all the codons
following the error is called a “_____” mutation
A.
B.
C.
D.
Frameshift (insertion or deletion)
Point mutation
Substitution
Chromosomal mutation
Proteins are synthesized at the
A.
B.
C.
D.
Nucleus
Ribosomes
Mitochondria
lysosomes
Transfer RNA has a/an ______
complementary to a mRNA codon
A.
B.
C.
D.
Anticodon
Intron
Codon
Interferon
During translation, a ribosome moves
along and “reads” a molecule of
A.
B.
C.
D.
tRNA
rRNA
mRNA
DNA
Each group of _____ bases on DNA or
mRNA codes for an amino acid
A.
B.
C.
D.
One
Two
Three
Four
Put the following steps of protein synthesis in order
1. mRNA leaves the nucleus with the DNA code,
and goes to the ribosomes
2. ribosomes make proteins
3. mRNA and tRNA meet in the ribosomes
4. DNA temporarily unzips
5. mRNA nucleotides match up to DNA
Decode the protein for which this gene
codes
• 5’ TAC GCG TAA TGA 3’
• 3’ AUG CGC AUU ACU 5’
• Met – Arg – Iso – Thr
Label #1-6
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
DNA
mRNA
ribosome
tRNA
anticodon
protein
In transcription, the nucleotide sequence CAT in
DNA would specify _______________ in mRNA.
A.
B.
C.
D.
TAC
GUA
GTA
GTU
The function of tRNA is to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
Be the location for protein synthesis
Transport amino acids to the ribosome
Read amino acids
Carry DNA’s message
The function of mRNA is to
A.
B.
C.
D.
Transport amino acids to the ribosome
Transcribe DNA
Read amino acids
Break down DNA
Identify the polypeptide that would be produced as a result of
transcribing and translating the following DNA sequence.
DNA: ...3' A C C A A G T C T 5'...
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
arg - phe – trp
arg - leu – gly
thr - lys – ser
trp - phe – arg
gly - leu - arg
Which suspect is guilty?
• Suspect #2 because
his/her DNA
fingerprint is an exact
match to the DNA
fingerprint from the
crime scene.
Gene expression occurs when the
____________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
protein is made
cell divides
ribosome engages both the mRNA and tRNA
DNA is replicated
Which father is the biological parent?
• Because the child’s DNA fingerprint matches
50% of each parent.
Your skin cells have different characteristics than
your muscle cells, because __________.
A. your skin cells have the genes needed to form
skin whereas your muscle cells have the genes
needed to form muscles
B. your skin cells activate only those genes needed
to make skin whereas your muscle cells activate
only those genes needed to make muscle
C. your skin cells have different DNA codes than
your muscle cells
D. your skin cells get mutated during development
to change their characteristics from those of
muscle cells
Write out the central dogma

similar documents