Mobile Learning

Report
Mobile Learning
What Exactly Is A Mobile Device?
Multi device world
Benefits of responsive e-Learning
Mobile learning: A perfect storm?
Frame model of mLearning
The subsets of flexible learning
Flexible Learning
Contact Learning
(residential/face-to-face)
Distance Learning
E-learning
Online
Learning
M-learning
Paper-based
Distance Learning
How is it Different from eLearning?
•
•
•
•
•
Distilled-down version – learning
“nuggets”
“Just enough” i.e. brief content
Always on
On demand (Just-in-time)
learning
Facilitates learning during
naturally occurring times
Potential Applications
• Performance support
• Students in field settings
• Students on the go
• Multi-way, active
learning
2-Way Communication
• Can add texting
capability to an
mLearning module
• Can transmit images and
other data
12 Principles Of Mobile Learning
12 Principles Of Mobile Learning
1. Access
A mobile learning environment is about access to content, peers, experts, portfolio artifacts, credible sources, and
previous thinking on relevant topics. It can be actuated via a smartphone or iPad, laptop or in-person, but access is
constant–which in turn shifts a unique burden to learn on the shoulders of the student.
2. Metrics
As mobile learning is a blend of the digital and physical, diverse metrics (i.e., measures) of understanding and
“performance of knowledge” will be available.
3. Cloud
The cloud is the enabler of “smart” mobility. With access to the cloud, all data sources and project materials are constantly
available, allowing for previously inaccessible levels and styles of revision and collaboration.
4. Transparent
Transparency is the natural byproduct of connectivity, mobility, and collaboration. As planning, thinking, performance, and
reflection are both mobile and digital, they gain an immediate audience with both local and global communities through
social media platforms from twitter to facebook, edmodo to instagram.
12 Principles Of Mobile Learning
5. Play
Play is one of the primary characteristics of authentic, progressive learning, both a cause and effect of an engaged
mind. In a mobile learning environment learners are encountering a dynamic and often unplanned set of data,
domains, and collaborators, changing the tone of learning from academic and compliant to personal and playful.
6. Asynchronous
Among the most powerful principles of mobile learning is asynchronous access. This unbolts an educational
environment from a school floor and allows it to move anywhere, anytime in pursuit of truly entrepreneurial learning.
It also enables a learning experience that is increasingly personalized: just in time, just enough, just for me.
7. Self-Actuated
With asynchronous access to content, peers, and experts comes the potential for self-actuation. Here, learners plan
topic, sequence, audience, and application via facilitation of teachers who now act as experts of resource and
assessment.
8. Diverse
With mobility comes diversity. As learning environments change constantly, that fluidity becomes a norm that provides
a stream of new ideas, unexpected challenges, and constant opportunities for revision and application of thinking.
Audiences are diverse, as are the environments data is being gleaned from and delivered to.
12 Principles Of Mobile Learning
9. Curation
Apps and mobile devices can not only support curation, but can do so better than even the most caffeinelaced teacher might hope to. By design, these technologies adapt to learners, store files, publish thinking,
and connect learners, making curation a matter of process rather than ability.
10. Blending
A mobile learning environment will always represent a blending of sorts–physical movement, personal
communication, and digital interaction.
11. Always-On
Always-on learning is self-actuated, spontaneous, iterative, and recursive. There is a persistent need for
information access, cognitive reflection, and interdependent function through mobile devices. It is also
embedded in communities capable of intimate and natural interaction with students.
12. Authentic
All of the previous 11 principles yield an authenticity to learning that is impossible to reproduce in a
classroom. They also ultimately converge to enable experiences that are truly personalized.
What’s Intriguing About mLearning?
• Social media focus
• Anytime, anywhere learning
• Incorporates texting
• Students can be resources
Mobile learning is effective when...
• Tip 1. Learners choose the learning content.
• Tip 2. Learners are integrating artifacts, realia, objects, and experiences that
surround their daily lives (real world learning).
• Tip 3. Learners are moving around with the device.
• Tip 4. Learners are motivated to expand the learning outside the classroom walls.
• Tip 5. Learners work collaboratively to explore the world around them.
• Tip 6. Learners are motivated to search for several possible options, solutions,
and answers to problems.
• Tip 7. Learners are presented with problems in which they must find many
possible solutions and are able to test out these solutions.
Some Examples of “Mobile Technology Tools”
CTAD Impatica
Zirada Kallisto
Where do you begin??
If allowed, how would students use a mobile device to help with
schoolwork?
If allowed, how would students use a mobile device to help with
schoolwork?
Apple in education
http://www.apple.com/education/ipodtouch-iphone/
A Few Recommended Apps
Sources: https://www.ischoolinitiative.com/Educational_Applications.html
http://www.eduinreview.com/blog/2009/05/8-must-have-education-apps-for-iphone/
Example:
Simple user interface
* Import right from the camera or photo library
* Paintbrush, eraser, rectangle, filled rectangle,
oval, and filled oval tools
* Select tool - double tap to select all
* Text tool - annotate your photos and drawings
* Many preselected colors to choose from
* Adjustable drawing width
* Cut, copy, paste, and delete
* Undo function
* Duplicate frames
* Scroll through frames or view as grid
http://www.goknow.com/
Engagement mLearning
How learners (of any age) use new
technologies to participate in virtual
communities where they share ideas,
comment upon one another's projects, and
plan, design, advance, implement, or simply
discuss their goals and ideas together.
Teachers’ Views
Larger Issues
Safety
• Who are students connecting with?
• What are they doing on the
phone?
• Who is using or has access to the data?
Ethical
• Is it easier to cheat with mobile?
• Do kids with better phones have
an academic advantage?
Health Debates
• Can phones cause brain damage?
Uniqueness of Mobile Learning
• Personal
• Informal and formal learning
• Dynamic context of content
• Social and constructive
• User-driven/Self Directed
• Ubiquity
• Mobility
Learning Spectrum
Formal
Self Directed
Informal
Types of mobile learning
• LMS
• A mobile extension/interface to learning management systems (Upside2Go) that allows users to access features/functions that are found the in
desktop version of the system.
• Content Delivery
• The classic delivery of courseware/presentations that are page-based and contains varied media elements. Users access and 'learn' as and when
they wish.
• Assessment Instruments
• Mobile devices are well suited to quick assessment that can serve as records of performance. Smart phones can render a variety of assessment
types.
• Performance Support
• This is one of the most common use-cases a learning designer will encounter. Where a learner needs to access reference material for completing a
task on hand.
• Social Learning
• Provide tools that allow for social interaction and collaboration, which in turn promote learning. Consider providing tools like video/audio
conferencing, message board systems, micro-blogging, etc.
• Augmented Reality
• These are newish tools that allow learning context and content to be delivered based on geographical relevance and using sensor data from the
mobile device. Augmentation of reality simply refers to overlaying data in the form of video, pictures or text over the live real-time image captured
by the device's camera sensors.
• Learning support
• Where the mobile device can help facilitate learning happening while using other tools or content. For example, using a calculator while reading
solving numerical problems in a book. Or looking up a technical glossary when referring to a user manual for a product. There are several other
types of mLearning, not limited to mobile games, applications that use phone sensors, etc.
Future learning paradigms
Paradigm shifts?
knowledge
adoption
knowledge
production
information
gathering
information
generation
constructivism
social
constructivism
teaching
learning
facilitation
Beyond constructivism?
Exploring and anticipating learning paradigms beyond constructivism
Past
Present
Knowledge Adoption
Knowledge Production
learn = study
learn = research
rote learning
active and productive learning
behaviourism
constructivism
?
?
Future
Knowledge Navigation
learn = evaluate / navigate
navigating, evaulating, integrating
problem solving and communicatin
navigationism / evaluationism
social
constructivism
teaching / instruction
learning facilitation
mentoring and coaching
guided research
/ supported
inquiry
The teacher is the primary source
of knowledge [source of
the WHAT]
The teacher is one of the sources of
knowledge [source of the WHAT and
assisting with the HOW]
Knowledge creation is for some elites
and knowledge is already in place
Knowledge creation is the central
issue
The focus of learning is on gaining
knowledge
The focus of learning is on creating
knowledge
The teacher is the source of skills an
competencies required to navigate
[source of the HOW]
Knowledge creation is a side/implied
issue. The central issue is to be abl
to navigate within the enormous
knowledge explosion
The focus of learning is on navigatin
in the ocean of available knowledge
Beyond constructivism?
Exploring and anticipating learning paradigms beyond constructivism
Past
Present
Future
Knowledge Adoption
Knowledge Production
Knowledge Navigation
learn = study
learn = research
learn = evaluate / navigate
rote learning
active and productive learning
navigating, evaulating, integrating,
problem solving and communicating
behaviourism
constructivism
navigationism / evaluationism
social
constructivism
teaching / instruction
learning facilitation
mentoring and coaching
guided research
/ supported
inquiry
The teacher is the primary source
of knowledge [source of
the WHAT]
The teacher is one of the sources of
knowledge [source of the WHAT and
assisting with the HOW]
Knowledge creation is for some elites
and knowledge is already in place
Knowledge creation is the central
issue
The focus of learning is on gaining
knowledge
The focus of learning is on creating
knowledge
The teacher is the source of skills and
competencies required to navigate
[source of the HOW]
Knowledge creation is a side/implied
issue. The central issue is to be able
to navigate within the enormous
knowledge explosion
The focus of learning is on navigating
in the ocean of available knowledge
Paradigm shifts in education
Past
Present
Future
 knowledge adoption
 knowledge production
 knowledge navigation
 behaviourism
 objectivism
 cognitivism
 constructivism
 navigationism
 instruction
 learning facilitation
 coaching and mentoring
 information gathering
 information generation
 information navigation
 knowledge provision
 knowledge management
 knowledge facilitation
Paradigm shifts in education
Past
Present
Future
 knowledge adoption
 knowledge production
 knowledge navigation
 behaviourism
 objectivism
 cognitivism
 constructivism
 navigationism
 instruction
 learning facilitation
 coaching and mentoring
 information gathering
 information generation
 information navigation
 knowledge provision
 knowledge management
 knowledge facilitation
Paradigm shifts in education
Past
Present
Future
 knowledge adoption
 knowledge production
 knowledge navigation
 behaviourism
 objectivism
 cognitivism
 constructivism
 navigationism
 instruction
 learning facilitation
 coaching and mentoring
 information gathering
 information generation
 information navigation
 knowledge provision
 knowledge management
 knowledge facilitation
Role Changes in education
Role Player
Past
Present
Future
Knowledge
Adoption Era
Knowledge
Production Era
Knowledge
Navigation Era
Learner
 knowledge
adoption
 knowledge
production
 knowledge
navigation
Teacher
 instruction
 learning facilitation
 coaching and
mentoring
 design of learning
facilitation and
learning activities
 re-/configuration of
knowledge
 design of coaching
and navigation
activities
 configuration of
navigation tools
 information
configuration
 knowledge
management
 information
facilitation
 knowledge
facilitation
 design of
Instructional
instruction
Designer
 reduction of
content
Information
Specialist
 information
gathering and
provision
 knowledge
provision
Role Changes in education
Role Player
Past
Present
Future
Knowledge
Adoption Era
Knowledge
Production Era
Knowledge
Navigation Era
Learner
 knowledge
adoption
 knowledge
production
 knowledge
navigation
Teacher
 instruction
 learning facilitation
 coaching and
mentoring
 design of learning
facilitation and
learning activities
 re-/configuration of
knowledge
 design of coaching
and navigation
activities
 configuration of
navigation tools
 information
configuration
 knowledge
management
 information
facilitation
 knowledge
facilitation
 design of
Instructional
instruction
Designer
 reduction of
content
Information
Specialist
 information
gathering and
provision
 knowledge
provision
Role Changes in education
Role Player
Past
Present
Future
Knowledge
Adoption Era
Knowledge
Production Era
Knowledge
Navigation Era
Learner
 knowledge
adoption
 knowledge
production
 knowledge
navigation
Teacher
 instruction
 learning facilitation
 coaching and
mentoring
 design of learning
facilitation and
learning activities
 re-/configuration of
knowledge
 design of coaching
and navigation
activities
 configuration of
navigation tools
 information
configuration
 knowledge
management
 information
facilitation
 knowledge
facilitation
 design of
Instructional
instruction
Designer
 reduction of
content
Information
Specialist
 information
gathering and
provision
 knowledge
provision
Current approaches to m-learning
Approaches to
the use of m-learning
technologies
Content
approach
Communication
approach
Pedagogical Perspectives of Mobile Learning
Behaviourist – Stimulus and Response
Multiple Choice
Questions with
Feedback
General Practice
Quizzes and Tests
Language learning
Pedagogical Perspectives of Mobile Learning
Constructivist – Construct new ideas based on previous experience
Games and Simulations
Mobile tools have facilitated
the collection of data that can
be analyzed and shared
Pedagogical Perspectives of Mobile Learning
Situated Learning – Immersion in a situation, where experts and
apprentices work together
Use devices to take photos,
write notes, upload, and
share data with others
Example: WildLab
Features include:
1.) A map, with both user and eBird hotspots.
2.) A quick entry view to enter birds you already know; from
this page you can enter any of 2055 species of birds.
3.) Facebook Connect to share sightings with others through
your social network.
4.) Twitter integration, creating a real-time database of
sightings tagged with #wildlab.
5.) Built-in email functionality to share your sightings with
birding groups and listserves.
6.) The ability to create Events and have others join them for
collaborative birding.
7.) A sightings list, so if there is loss of service, users can
upload the sighting later.
Pedagogical Perspectives of Mobile Learning
Problem-Based Learning – Provide an ill-defined problem and allow
students to explore.
Case Studies in medical
education, business training,
nursing, Army training, etc
Pedagogical Perspectives of Mobile Learning
Others….
• Context Awareness Learning – multimedia in
museums and galleries
• Social-Cultural Theory of Learning – learning takes
place in social context
• Collaborative Learning – sharing of information in
group settings
•Conversational Learning – conversations with others
and interactions with systems
• Activity Learning – Activity, subject, and tools used
Some Examples
Virtual School Apps
Virtual Coaches
Functionalities
•GPS Technology
• Heart Rate
• Multiple Displays of
Information
• Custom and “Best
Practices Training
• Compare results to
others
Applications to
Education?
•Knows where you are
• Can set personal goals
• Customizable
Information
• Communicate with the
larger group
• Can set training based
on a personal or group
need
Virtual Adventures
Functionalities
• Mission is to solve
mysteries
• Students work
together using
clues from mobile
devices
• Enter data from
field and
information gets
processed for next
clues
• Students control
next move
Applications to
Education?
• Students are
given various
missions based
on location and
skill level
•
Students find,
calculate, and
process data
•
Students in
control of
learning
Nugget Supporters
WEB
• Anagram for “Look”, UK-based
organization
• Provide Access to Every Object
in Every Venue
• Allows for uploading content
from various sources (museums,
zoos, gardens, historical sites)
• Share and create presentations
and stories
• Works with schools and school
partners
• iPhone and other smart phones,
More than 1,100 schools are already enjoying the benefits!
25 Essential Apps For Mobile Learning
• A List of Great Free Educational Android Apps for Teachers
WEB
How Do I Get Started?
How Do I Get Started?
Five Recommendations
1. Play
Try A Few
2. Study
Learn from Others
3. Connect
Meet Others Who Share
Your Interests
4. Give Options
For each traditional activity, give
a mobile option
5. Start
Whatever level, just begin
20 Ideas in 20 Seconds
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Set homework alarms and study alarms
Text reminders for quizzes, things to return
Writing notes
Use to record fieldwork (camera, audio, video)
work on speaking and writing skills
Review questions with a classmate, teacher, friend
Make a podcast (using GarageBand or Audacity)
Review/watch a lecture or experiment video
Create a portfolio album
Create a survey and send
Use GoogleMaps and MapQuest for direction
Raise spatial awareness and positioning
Play an educational game
Use the calculator or graphing tool
Look up directions
Compare sources of information
Perform basic and advanced research
Compare temperature and weather conditions
Convert metric to English system
Learn a new language
Check your calendar and time
Talk to someone
Discussion
• How could social media be used in classes?
• In addition to social networking, how could mLearning be used in
some classes?
Authoring Systems for mLearning
Software
Ease of learning
Strength
Cost
MobiSiteGalore
Easy
Texting, free hosting
Free
***Hot Lava
Moderate
Audio, skins for most
popular phones, includes
LMS, categories
$1000
ToolBook
Moderate
Also used for eLearning
$2795
Adobe Flash
Difficult
Testing site for different
phones, but most phones
lack flash player
$700
mLearning Samples
• C-Shock: Culture game
• ProChef: Cooking podcasts
• Mayo Clinic InTouch: info for medical professionals
• mynutrition.com: info for nutrition professionals
• BonesInMotion: tracks fitness activities, tracks routes with Google
Maps
Allied Applications
• Iflipr – makes flash cards for iphone
• Mob – iForge – central site for development of mobile content (all
phones)
• Qik: share live video from your mobile phone\
• Twitter
Development: A)Native applications
• Can access device hardware – cameras, accelerometer,
proximity sensor, etc. or
• software platform features – address book data,
networking, video, voice, messaging
• features, etc.
• Ability to use native UI components, platform specific
features (ex. – touch gestures) can provide better user
experience and usability.
• Native applications will only work on a targeted platform
and devices.
• Takes time and money to develop; any sort of changes to
the application requires technical expertise.
Development: B) WEB applications
• Platform independence, but still browser dependent – can
reach a wide range of devices with browsers and data
connectivity.
• No application delivery, installation and configuration are
required. Access through a browser means it is almost
instantaneously available to all.
• Performance is relatively lower than native apps, and is
dependent on the browser implementation on platform devices
and type of network connectivity available.
• Quicker development, easier to modify (relative to native apps),
but typically requires some sort of delivery framework.
• HTML5 and CSS3’s eventual emergence as a choice web-app
platform will include multimedia integration (the type currently
offered by native platforms).
Development: C) Hybrid application
• Build interfaces and functions as a native app;
data interfaces through web.
• Relatively cheaper to develop than native
apps, but comparable to the cost of
developing web-apps.
• Delivery can be easy, but requires some
installation and configuration on the part of
the user.
Challenges for Mobile Learning
Noteable EU-funded projects
• MOBIlearn
(context awareness, adaptive human interfaces,
mLCMS, mobile media delivery, collaborative
learning, etc)
• M-Learning Project
(platforms & systems, learning materials for small
screens [various devices], collaborative tools, etc)
• Ericsson Leonardo Da Vinci project
(mLCMS, courses and courseware, tools, etc)
Latest and future developments
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Moblogging (mobile blogging)
Instant messaging (IM)
Wireless Google
Collapse-to-Zoom and Popouts
Ambient technology and intelligence
Personalised learning with dynamic adaptation of
learning resources to individual preferences
Text to speech & speech recognition for mobile
devices
Multi-user applications and resources
Multi-technology interaction
Podcasting (broadcasting of audio to iPods)
WEB
The Major Research Issues and Challenges for Mobile Learning Technologies
• realize the dialectic relationship between personal technology and everyday learning
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provide critical reflects the diversity of learners
promote strong interdisciplinary research agendas
develop the multicultural standards of accreditation for mobile learning technologies
provide learners with novel opportunities for synchronous online communications
support a range of knowledge based activities coupled with the increasing use of mobile
technologies
• evaluate the usability of mobile applications
• develop individual technologies that support a person through a lifetime of learning
The Major Research Issues and Challenges for Mobile Learning Technologies
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adopt appropriate mixed research methodologies
increasing access to learning opportunities in diverse societies
promote a lifelong learning increasing the skills of the global workforces
provide learners with all the knowledge they need to flourish throughout a lifetime
provide learners with best practices for utilizing mobile learning technologies
offers new possibilities for interactive online communications
support learning outside formal educational settings over a learner’s lifetime
access to a wireless network change the dynamics of learning-in and out of the classroom
manage the social, societal and cultural impacts of research in mobile learning
technologies
WEB
WEB
The Major Research Issues and Challenges for Mobile Learning Technologies
• support learning communities including new forms of improved critical thinking
skills
• cope with various network conditions which must be taken into consideration
• forecast the exact situations of the mobile application use
• focus on limited bandwidth and unreliability of wireless networks
• investigate the rationale for implementing mobile learning technologies
• develop models of diverse learners which embrace the widely varying timescale
• improve a sustainable economy for mobile learning technologies
• develop the effective use of new mobile technologies
• improve gradually educational excellence
• provide location-based services for educational networks
Resources
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University Leaders: ACU, CTU, Open University,
International Academy of Design and Technology
Experts: Judy Brown & David Metcalf (UCF)
Organizations:
 LearningTown (mobile learning group) http://www.learningtown.com/
 The eLearning Guild http://www.elearningguild.com/
 International Association of Mobile Learning

mLearning Conferences: http://www.mlearning-conf.org/
 http://mlearnopedia.com/
 http://www.elearningguild.com/mLearning conference

Blog: handheldlearning
Books & Journals
• Instructional Design for M-Learning – David Metcalf
• Mobile Learning: A Handbook for Educators and Trainers – Kukulska &
Traxler
• Mobile Learning: Transforming the Delivery of Education and Training
(eBook of studies from AU Press) – Editor: Mohamed Ally
• Mobile Learning: on-line journal
• Norbert Pachler: Mobile learning: towards a research agenda

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