Bioenergy Platforms and Technologies

Report
Bioenergy Platforms and Technologies
By
Prof. Thomson Sinkala
[email protected]
CHAIRMAN, Biofuels Association of Zambia
Presented at the Regional Workshop on
MAINSTREAMING AFRICA BIOENERGY POLICY FRAMEWORK AND GUIDELINES
Organised by
African Union and United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
16 – 18 September, Nairobi, KENYA
A powerful
bioenergy
feedstock
from our body
FROM: http://www.sswm.info
FROM: http://designtaxi.com
CONTENTS
• Bioenergy production technologies
• Research, development, demonstration and
deployment
• Institutional and technical capacity development
• Conclusions
BIOENERGY PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES
3
GENERAL ORGANISATION OF TECHNOLOGIES
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Fuel wood
Charcoal
Agricultural waste
Wood pellets
Biogas
Bioethanol (equivalent of gasoline)
Biodiesel (equivalent of diesel), and
Bioelectricity
Examples of Firewood Production Technologies and Use
Easy to harvest
Strenuous to harvest
Easy to transport
A lot in store, few trips
A burden to carry
Little in store, many trips
Clean cooking stove
Unhealthy cooking
Examples of Charcoal Fuel Technologies and Use
Example of Agricultural Waste for Cooking
Litter
Drying
Heaping
Cooking
Examples of Wood Pellet Processing
Economics between charcoal and wood pellets
Cost structure of charcoal Blantyre
and Lilongwe
FROM: Kambewa P. etal. 2007. Charcoal: the reality - A study of charcoal
consumption, trade and production in Malawi. pubs.iied.org/pubs/pdfs/13544IIED.pdf.
Energy efficiency of selected cooking fuels
Based on the Malawi study, charcoal costs
 6.0 to 10 US$/40 Kg bag (Malawi), or US$2,700/Ha for 15 tons of wood
cleared.
Pellets from wood shavings cost about
 3.0 to 5 US$/40 Kg bag (Zambia, personal communications with Dr. Per
Lofberg of Vagga till Vagga AB of Sweden)
Example of Biogas Production
(FROM: http://www.google.co.zm/imgres?imgurl=)
Agro/Bioenergy Production Synergies
(FROM: biogas.ifas.ufl.edu)
Electricity Production from Biogas
(FROM: http://www.google.co.zm/imgres?imgurl=)
Biogas Market
Biogas cookstove
Biogas generator
(Alibaba)
Biogas fridge
Biogas car
(oneighturbo.com)
BIOGAS
(One Stop Gas)
Biogas train
Biogas lamp
Biogas truck
(www.metaefficient.com)
Biogas bus
(Sweden)
Biogas motorbike
(www.inforse.org)
13
Examples of Bioethanol Feedstocks
+ Grass and Wood
Bioethanol Feedstock Characteristics (Costs are for Zambia)
ITEM
Feedstock unit cost
Yield, (Metric Tons/Ha)
Yield, (Litres/Metric Ton), fresh
roots.
Yield, (Litres/Ha/Harvest)
Water Requirement, (mm/crop)
Fertiliser Requirement, (Kg/Ha)
Gestation Period, (months)
SUGARCANE
SWEET SORGHUM
CASSAVA
AGAVE Americana
SUGAR BEET
0.381
110
0.384
20 - 100
0.15 – 0.47
12 - 40
0.512
80
80
45
170
125
0.15 to 0.29
60 to 80
110
8,800
900 – 4,500
2,000 - 6,000
3,600 - 12,000
1500 - 2500
450 to 700
N 75-150
P 30-60,
K 60-120.
4 – 4.3
400 - 750
500
NPK N20:P10:K10, 9 (50 kg) bags
(if necessary)
150 – 350 Kg Urea
(if necessary)
12 - 16
60 - 72
300 basal & 250
kg urea
12 - 14
Maize, sorghum, vegetables,
legumes, rubber, oil palm, tropical
sugarbeet (Gokhale, 2010).
Rotation Crops
Examples of Immediate Revenue
Diversification
Remarks
Food, Feed, Fiber, Food, Feed, Fiber,
Biogas, Electricity, Biogas, Electricity,
Fertilizer
Fertilizer
Can be stored as
molasses.
Food, Feeds, Fiber, Biogas, Starch,
Electricity,
4,800 – 10,000
600
5-6
Corn, sorghum,
vegetables, cassava
(Gokhale, 2010)
Food, Feed, Fiber,
Biogas, Electricity,
Fertilizer
Harvested and
Extensive experience
10,000 – 15,000 plants per hectare,
processed s within
in Mexico, but also
80cm – 100cm spacing and rows. Can
a month. Stored as
Australia and USA
be processed from fresh roots or dry.
molasses.
recently.
Biogas, Electricity
Must process fresh
roots
Bioethanol, bioelectricity and fertiliser
(FROM: http://www.sseassociation.org/Publications/feasibilitystudyofsweetsorghum.pdf)
Modular Biorefineries and their Importance
•
•
•
•
•
Can be commissioned within 5 - 8 months.
No need for large start-up capital.
Can process multiple feedstocks.
Minimum 500,000 L/year (1,670 L/day) bioethanol.
Minimum 360,000 L/year (1,000 L/day) biodiesel.
E.g. Mansego Modular Bioethanol Refinery
Fermentation module
Distillation module
Dehydration module
Liquefaction module
17
Bioethanol Market
Flexi fuel generator
Bioethanol cookstove
Bioethanol fridge
Flexi fuel car
Eg. BIOETHANOL
A One-Stop Fuel
Flexi fuel plane
Bioethanol lantern
Bioethanol truck
Bioethanol bus
Flexi fuel motorbike
18
Examples of Biodiesel Feedstocks
+
Animal Fat, Waste
Cooking Oil, Algae
and Wood
Biodiesel Feedstock Characteristics (Costs are for Zambia)
ITEM
Feedstock unit cost, US$/Litre
Yield, (Metric Tons /Ha)
Yield, (Litres/Metric Ton)
Yield, (Litres/Ha)
Water Requirement, mm
Fertilizers Requirement, (Per Ha)
Gestation Period, (months)
SOY
PALM
JATROPHA
MORINGA
CASTOR
SUN FLOWER
0.429
3.5
196
686
0.426
15.8
230
4,803
3 – 5mm per day during
hot-dry season
0.459
6.0
300
1,800
0.290
3.0
400
1,200
0.562
1.0
489
489
0.698
2.0
398
796
500 - 600
250 – 3000
500-600
600 -1000
450 - 700
250 Basal, 100
Urea
N170-230, P70-90, K220310 per Year
4.5 to 5
24 – 30
Examples of Immediate Revenue
Diversification
Food, Feed
Food, Electricity, Fodder,
Building, Furniture
Remarks
Currently
experiencing
high prices in
the
food
market.
When
efficient,
ONE
worker can harvest 10hectare (Fact Foundation,
2010)
2.5 t Manure
24 - 36
Feed,
Biogas,
Electricity,
Fertilizer
There
is
presently
no
“Cook Book” to
give
definite
yields. Yields are
currently
location specific.
Appropriate amount
of manure, when and N40,P40, K20
if necessary
12 - 24
4-6
Food, Feed, Biogas,
Fertilizer,
Electricity, Fertilizer,
Biogas
Etc
A
very
important oil
Among the world’s
in high-tech
most useful plants.
industry as a
lubricant.
200 Basal, 150
Urea.
4.2 to 4.5
Food,
Biogas
Feed,
Biodiesel Processing
Biomass for Electricity Generation in Biodiesel Processing
(SOURCE: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_bCNdcYdqloQ/S9jg4-iNsFI/AAAAAAAAAMA/E7jJT3RVEfQ/s1600/palmtree-biomass.jpg)
Electricity Generation from Biomass
(SOURCE: http://www.mpoweruk.com/biofuels.htm)
Range in recent levelized cost of energy for selected
commercially available renewable-energy technologies
FROM: www.unep.org/greeneconomy
24
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, DEMONSTRATION AND DEPLOYMENT
25
Bioenergy Value Chain
1.
PRELIMINARY
ACTIVITIES
2.
PRODUCTION
INFRASTRUCTURE
3.
FEEDSTOCK
PRODUCTION and
TRADE
4.
BIOFUELS
PROCESSING
5.
BIOFUELS TECHNICAL SERVICE
ACTIVITIES
Business Plans
Sourcing funds
Land acquisitions /
lease contracts
Impact assessments
Obtaining permits
and licences
Securing markets
Setting-up
of
bioenergy industry
governance
Technology
assessments
Etc
Drilling boreholes
Building dams and
canals
Assessing soils
Building
access
roads and bridges
Building houses and
offices
Building processing
plants
Etc,.
Land clearance
Land preparations
Nurseries
Plantation
development
Plantation
management
Weed and pest
control
Feedstock
harvesting
Feedstock trading
Etc.
Cassava
peeling,
chipping
and
drying
Seed cleaning and
packaging
Oil extraction
Molasses
production
Processing
and
refining of biofuels
Byproducts
production.
Biofuels transportation
Byproduct transportation
Biofuels blending
Biofuels transportation
Engine conversion
Importation of biofuels compliant
vehicles and appliances
Manufacturing of inputs and processing
plants for the biofuels value chain
Biofuels R&D
Training in biofuels industry
Biofuels quality control assessments
Biofuels plant repair
Development of appropriate cookstoves
Etc.
OTHER
SERVICES
Education
Health
Recreation
Etc
Activities include identifying and addressing the challenges for sustainable bioenergy production
through good industry governance, field trials, applied research, capacity building, modeling and
26
analysis.
Feedstock for Wood, Charcoal and Pellets
EXAMPLES OF RESEARCH AREAS
•
•
•
•
Fast-growing and water-efficient forest plants
Sustainable wood harvest
Efficient/cost-effective forest management
Incorruptible forestry governance and licensing
Cookstoves
(FROM: http://apps1.eere.energy.gov)
General Research, Development, Demonstration and Deployment
FEEDSTOCK SUPPLY
 Identify sustainable, highquality feedstock supply and
quantify risk
 Baseline sustainable regional
feedstock productivity
 Develop commercial-scale
supply systems
CONVERSION
 Reduce costs/improve quality of
intermediates
 Reduce enzyme costs
 Develop fermentation organisms
 Enable high performance
separations technologies
 Improve catalyst performance–
cleanup/ conditioning and fuel
synthesis
 Maximize carbon utilization
 Optimize reactor performance
DEMONSTRATION & DEPLOYMENT
 Validate biorefinery operations
 Establish pioneer plants
 Support advanced biofuels compatibility
testing
 Support biopower demonstration and
deployment
Cross-cutting areas
SUSTAINABILITY
 Assess effects across full supply
chain
 Establish baselines and targets
for improving sustainability
 Develop best practices
STRATEGIC ANALYSIS
 Define and validate technology
performance targets
 Guide program planning
 Assess progress
STRATEGIC COMMUNICATIONS
 Increase awareness of accomplishments
 Communicate new technology strategies
 Educate stakeholders on environmental
and oil-displacement benefits
(FROM: http://apps1.eere.energy.gov)
Feedstock Supply and Logistics
Feedstock constitutes about 70% of final bioenergy product.
Providing biomass for conversion into biofuels represents an
economic opportunity for communities across Africa.
This requires developing the technologies and systems needed
to sustainably and economically deliver a broad range of
biomass in formats that enable efficient use in biorefineries.
Feedstock Supply and Logistics (continued)
The diverse biomass transformed by these technologies and systems must be
consistent, quality-controlled commodity products that can be efficiently
handled, stored, and transported to biorefineries for processing.
This work requires a complementary focus on feedstock supply interfaces and
logistics, as follows (http://apps1.eere.energy.gov).
• Interfaces: To develop compatibility at interfaces with commercial-scale
handling equipment and conversion processes, R&D should explore biomass
specifications and characteristics, the effects of various handling techniques, and
the resulting impacts on conversion performance.
• Logistics: R&D is required for systems for harvesting, collecting, preprocessing,
storing, and transporting diverse forms of biomass more efficiently.
 Therefore it is important to also research and develop equipment and
systems to improve biomass quality, reduce costs, and increase
productivity.
INSTITUTIONAL AND TECHNICAL CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT
32
INSTITUTIONAL AND TECHNICAL CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT
Government
 Policies, regulations and standards
 Governance
 Information on value for investment (e.g.
balance sheet approach)
 Etc
Industry
 Feedstocks
 Technologies
 Production efficiencies
 Etc
Public / consumers
 Consumer information
 Value chain information
 Products
 Standards
 Etc
Universities / Educational Institutions
 Mainstreaming bioenergy in curricula
 Research, development and demonstration
 Etc
NGOs
 Community needs and information
 Bioenergy industry participatory methods
 Community resource management
 Land rights
 Gender issues
 Etc
RECs
 Identifying and providing info on best
practices in bioenergy development
 Capacity building in cross-border bioenergy
issues
 Etc
CONCLUSIONS
36
 Africa has resources (material and human), but lacks
productive action.
 Available technologies can be used to establish a
vibrant bioenergy industry in Africa.
 Bioenergy is (probably) the only industry that can
benefit all on sustainable basis.
 Economic empowerment from bioenergy industry, if
well organised, can reduce conflicts and save the
environment.
37
Thank you for your attention

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