VUW_PD_-_Cultural_Responsiveness

Report
Culturally Responsive Pedagogy
Engaging Māori Students
Bi-cultural Professional Development
in an Early Childhood Service.
Implications to the Tertiary Sector?
Na Dr Craig Rofe
Karakia …
Whakataka te hau ki te uru
Cease the winds from the west
Whakataka te hau ki te tonga Cease the winds from the south
Kia mākinakina ki uta
Let the breeze blow over the land
Kia mātaratara ki tai
Let the breeze blow over the ocean
E hī ake ana te atākura
Let the red-tipped dawn come with a sharpened air
He tio, he huka, he hau hū
A touch of frost, a promise of glorious day
Tihei Mauriora
2
Ko Anahera Karanga Scott taku
tamāhine.
Anahera Karanga Scott is my daughter.
3
Ko Karanga te Wharepuni
Karanga is the meeting house.
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Culturally Responsive Pedagogy (Geneva Gay)
Key Elements for Success for Teachers to Implement Culturally Responsive
Pedagogy:
1. Developing a Cultural Diversity Knowledge Base – “which ethnic groups give
priority to communal living and cooperative problem solving …?” …. “how
different ethnic groups’ protocols of appropriate ways for children to interact
with adults ….” Teachers’ perceptions of multicultural education is superficial
and distorted information …..
2. Designing Culturally Relevant Curricula – formal plans (standards) that avoid
hegemony, emphasizing factual knowledge while ignoring attitudes, feelings,
experiences. Symbolic Curriculum – images, symbols, icons …. Ensure
represent wide variety ethnicities, genders, cultural diversity. Societal
Curriculum – knowledge, ideas and impressions from TV, movies etc.
3. Demonstrating Cultural Caring and Building a Learning Community.
4. Cross Cultural Communications
5. Cultural Congruity in Classroom Instruction
6. Introduction to Culturally Relevant Pedagogy - Geneva Gay
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Culturally Responsiveness and Cultural Competence
1. Cultural competency is closely related to cultural responsiveness. In the
teaching context, cultural competence is about affirming and validating the
culture of each learner (Hates, Johnston, King, 2009).
2. The New Zealand Teachers’ Council (2014) argues that culturally competent
teachers understand how they can use the learners’ culture(s) as building
blocks to teach and learn and are able to build relationships with the
learners.
3. Perso (2012) in his literature review of cultural responsive and school
education clarifies:
‘cultural responsiveness’ it the delivered outcome of the cultural
competence (capacity) of an individual or an organization; Cultural
responsiveness is the response planned for and delivered that derives
from having cultural competence. To be more specific, Cultural
Responsiveness is enacted Cultural Competence (p.22) (Emphasis is
original)
4. Fitzgerald (2000) describes culturally competent people as individuals able
to identify and challenge their own assumptions, values and beliefs. They are
able to empathise and see the world through the eyes of another or at least
recognise that others may have a different cultural lens to view the world.
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Ngā Tātaiako – Cultural
Competencies (NZTC, 2012)
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ECE Centre – Case Study
• Centre has 23 staff members, 136 tamariki.
• 12 month duration for action research project.
• One hour professional workshops conducted every two months
(5 total). Usual workshops late at night 7 pm!!!!
• 17 staff members involved in research side of project.
• Content of workshops consisted of Tataiako framework, Tataiako
implementation into practice, Te Reo Māori, Tikanga Māori.
• Noho Marae (Marae overnight stay) - pōwhiri process
[manuhiri/tangata whenua], marae roles and duties as tangata
whenua.
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ECE Centre – Case Study
9
10
Diagnostic –
BEGINNER TEACHERS
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`Whanungatanga’–
Relationships, (students, school wide,
community) with high expectations.
Number of People
1
2
3
4
5
1/ Understands the impact of their own identity, language and culture (cultural locatedness) on relationships.
5/ Has the tools and strategies to develop successful relationships with Māori learners, whanau, hapū, iwi and communities.
12
Wānanga – Communication,
Problem Solving, Innovation.
Number of People
1
2
3
4
5
(1 = poor competence, 5 = excellent competence)
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`Ako’– practise in the classroom
and beyond.
Number of People
1
2
3
4
5
14
Wananga
Whanaungatanga
Manaakitanga
Tangata Whenuatanga
Ako
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Diagnostic Summary/Reflection
• Teachers have an overall confidence with the
importance and acknowledgement of relationships
with Māori learners/whanau/iwi.
• Above average competence with
value/acceptance of Maori values, beliefs,
language and culture.
• Teacher have an agreement of lack of skills to
implement or explain most facets of elements of
Tataiako.
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PD Developments/Details
• ‘Classroom practice intervention’ (described later) provided a formative
assessment of research project. Details confirmed that one hour workshops
did not provide a sufficient authentic context to explore Maori concepts
within a holistic regime (mind, body & soul).
•Noho marae event became an imperative platform to enable teachers to
connect to a Māori worldview and provide connection to Tataiako elements
(Wānanga, Whanaungatanga …….. etc).
• Unique environment of marae (Tapu te Ranga, Island Bay) provided
opportunity of staff to take roles of ‘tangata whenua’ (local people).
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Hypothetical Classroom Practice…
• The
following template was provided during
PD to provide scaffolding to implement
elements of Tataiako into teacher practice.
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Practise Intervention
Task 1 - External - Choice
Please choose a "behavioural indicator" from one of the competencies in the
Tataiako document ( within your level of experience) to engage with.
Example: Whanaungatanga / Beginning teacher / Demonstrates a willingness to
engage with Iwi and Maori communities.
Copy your choice in the box below and outline the reasons for your choice
Task 2 - External - Action
Describe what action you took and how you engaged with the indicator.
Example - Made contact with the local iwi to enquire about educational
programmes for Maori learners
Your reflection could respond to key questions such as
What did the action look like?/sound like?/ feel like?
What impact did it have on your learners?/ you ?/ your colleagues?/ your
learning centre?/ your friends and whanau?
How might it influence your future practice?
What difficulties / barriers did you encounter?
What are potential areas for development / improvement?
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Noho Marae
Tapu te Ranga – ‘Family marae of Bruce
Stewart and whanau provides full
autonomy when visiting.
Arrive as Manuhiri (visitors)
Provide Wānaga environment to
complete profficency in tangata
whenua roles (Kaikaranga,
hakapowhiri, kaiwhaikorero)
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Kaikaranga with support from Maori staff.
Connecting staff to
parents/whānau of
centre and people from
community.
Hakapowhiri from ‘tangata whenua’
provided authentic context for Te
Reo me Tikanga Māori.
21
Kaiwhaikorero with support from Māori
staff.
Waiata Tautoko
Tikanga Māori
opportunities in context.
22
Hangi preparation – non traditional roles.
Children of centre
participate in hangi prep.
Manaakitanga for staff.
Hakari (feast) provide
opportunity for
whakawhanaungatanga/l
ifting of tapu/tikanga.
23
24
Teachers’ Narratives
• “........
it was different going through the
powhiri on the other side ......I wasn’t a
spectator “
• “....it was kind of deeper having us at the
marae with a purpose ....”
• “.....I felt connected to the place we were
at.....the powhiri connected me as tangata
whenua...”
25
Experienced Teachers
Before PD
After PD
Wananga
Whanaungatanga
Manaakitanga
Tangata Whenuatanga
Ako
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‘Hayley’
Wananga
Whanaungatanga
Manaakitanga
Tangata Whenuatanga
Ako
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Conclusions ……..
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References…
Fitzgerald,
M.
H.
(2000).
Establishing
cultural
competency
professionals. Anthropological approaches to psychological medicine, 184-201.
for
mental
health
Hayes, D., Johnston, K., King, A. (2009) 'Creating enabling classroom practices in high poverty contexts:
The disruptive possibilities of looking in classrooms' Pedagogy, Culture&Society17(3), 251-264.
Perso, T.F. (2012) Cultural Responsiveness and School Education: With particular focus on
Australia’s First Peoples; A Review & Synthesis of the Literature. Menzies School of Health
The New Zealand Teachers Council: Graduating Teachers Standards. Retrieved on 23 March 2014 from
http://www.teacherscouncil.govt.nz/content/graduating-teacher-standards-english-rtf-38kb
The New Zealand Teachers Council: Tātaiako - Cultural Competencies for Teachers of Māori Learners: A
resource for use with the Graduating Teacher Standards and Registered Teacher Criteria.Retrieved 21
March2014
http://www.teacherscouncil.govt.nz/content/t%C4%81taiako-cultural-competenciesteachers-m%C4%81ori-learners-resource-use-graduating-teacher
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