1952

Report
Pilot Training Issues in Canada
Kevin Psutka
President and CEO
Some Definitions
General Aviation – everything other
than airline or military.
Personal Aviation – that sector of
General Aviation where aircraft are
flown for personal transportation and
recreation.
When COPA was formed in 1952
 There were less than 7,000
pilots in Canada:
→Private – 4,560
→Commercial – 2,025
 Commercial outnumbered
private aircraft:
→Private - 966
→Commercial - 1,294
When COPA was formed in 1952
Most recreational flying was in rented
certified aircraft
There were some homebuilt aircraft and
all of these were built from scratch
(there were no kits).
Technology, regulation and cost
are driving the changes
Technology, regulation and cost
are driving the changes
Personal Aviation as a form of
transportation
Personal Aviation as a form of
transportation
1967 Cessna 182
2014 Cessna 182
Personal Aviation as a form of
transportation
Base Retail Price ($Cdnx1000)
230
Type Design Introductions
4-Seat Entry-Level Airplanes
180
Diamond Star – 2013
Base price $415,000
135
90
Cessna 172 - 1956
$8,200
Grumman Tiger – 1975
$22,500
Diamond Star – 2000
$169,800
45
0
1940 1950
1960
Aircraft Bluebook Price Digest Fall 2009 Vol. 08-03
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
Some conclusions
 Private aircraft are by far the largest portion to
the Canadian fleet, are increasing both in
numbers and as a percentage of the fleet,
and have become more sophisticated.
 Non-certified aircraft are an increasing
percentage of the fleet, mostly due to the
escalating price and maintenance costs for
certified aircraft.
Private Pilot Licences Issued
1981 - 2011
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
1981
1991
2001
2011
Commercial Pilot Licences Issued
1981 - 2012
2500
2250
2000
1750
1500
1250
1000
750
500
250
0
1981
1991
2001
2011
Commercial Pilot Licences Issued
2006
2012
Foreign
Canadian
Foreign
Canadian
Commercial Pilot Licences Issued
2500
All
2250
2000
Canadian
1750
1500
1250
1000
750
500
250
0
1981
1991
2001
2011
Comparison with 1952
1952
2013
Non-com aircraft
1,000
Commercial aircraft 1,300
29,000
7,000
Non-com pilots
Commercial pilots
35,700
24,400
4,500
2,000
Some conclusions
 The majority of pilots are non-commercial.
 The number of non-commercial pilots is
decreasing.
 Commercial pilot statistics look relatively
good only because of foreign pilot training.
→The number of Canadians being trained as
commercial pilots is declining.
Demand is growing
From Statistics Canada report “Air Carrier Traffic at Canadian Airports”
Demand is growing
Where will pilots come from to
fill the demand ??
 The traditional source was the military but
that has dried up.
 With a shrinking number of commercial
licences being issued each year, the need is
greater than ever to attract new people into
aviation.
Pilot training issues
No flight training policy
There is a policy vacuum.
 Politicians do not have to care.
 Transport Canada has distanced itself from
the largest sector of aviation in Canada.
 Deep cuts continue at Transport Canada.
 Canada neither knows how many flight
schools it needs nor how many pilots it
would like to generate for our airlines.
No government promotion of
aviation as a career
Encouraging
our youth
-COPA’s efforts
Security
Airport restrictions drive people away
from experiencing aviation for the spark
that it provides to some.
COPA’s efforts to expose
people to aviation
COPA Flights
 Insurance for running events such as
aviation awareness days.
Aviation events calendar (On The
Horizon)
Defending the right to establish private
aerodromes, where security is lower.
Kevin Psutka
613-236-4901 (ext 102)
[email protected]
www.copanational.org
GA has no direction
There is a policy vacuum regarding GA.
 Politicians do not have to care.
Transport Canada has distanced itself
from the largest sector of aviation in
Canada.
 Deep cuts continue at Transport Canada.
COPA is forced to do the government’s
work in promoting and defending GA.
Example: Airport Infrastructure
Prior to 1994, Transport Canada had
some central control over our system of
airports
 Life was simple - COPA dealt with one
agency.
 Larger airports financially supported
smaller airports.
But...
1994
The National Airports Policy (NAP)
created the framework for divesting
(offloading) of 128 airports across
Canada.
Fed’s goal was to get out of ownership
and operation of airports.
With no GA policy, the NAP set the
stage for abandoning GA.
Quotes from the NAP
“National Airports Policy provides a
framework that clearly defines the
federal government's role with airports.”
“Much of the Canadian transportation
system is overbuilt:
 94 per cent of all air passengers and cargo
use only 26 of 726 airports” – This is a very
important statement – nothing else seems
to matter !
20 years later...
 120 airports have been transferred
 8 have various impediments to transfer:
→Penticton BC, Port Hardy BC, Havre Saint Pierre QC,
Natashquan QC, Sept Iles QC, St Anthony NL, Wabush
NL, Bonnechere ON
 Many regional airports have introduced
landing and other fees on top of the fuel
concession fee that remains in place.
 Some airport managers are trying to drive GA
away to make “excess lands” available for
other uses, including non-aviation.
20 years later...
 Local Airport Authorities have abandoned
their satellite airports (except Calgary
Springbank)
 The NAP has succeeded in its original goal
but with significant negative consequences
for GA.
20 years later...
In response to COPA pressure to
review the NAP, successive Transport
Ministers stand behind this statement:
 “Local communities are the best placed to
assess the importance of (airport) services
and to seek support, starting locally, for
their continuation.”
Is this assumption correct?
“Communities are best
placed...”
Some of the busiest airports in Canada
are under stress:
 Buttonville is closing (6th busiest of all
airports in Canada) with insufficient
capacity elsewhere to absorb this activity.
 Toronto Billy Bishop has chased GA away.
 Oshawa City Council voted down a runway
extension.
“Communities are best
placed...”
 Edmonton City Centre closed in November
2013
→in 2010 4160 patients were transported to
Edmonton hospitals via this airport.
 St Hubert airport has a class action suit
against it for noise
→its commitment to remain an airport ceases in
2014.
 Mascouche airport keeps coming up as a
political football.
Doing the government’s work:
Federal Jurisdiction
COPA has over a period of decades
spent $600,000, thanks to the memberfunded Freedom to Fly Fund, defending
the right to establish an aerodrome
without local interference.
We finally won at the Supreme Court of
Canada in 2010.
Federal Jurisdiction
“The location of an airport comes within
Parliament’s core of exclusive federal
jurisdiction.”
“The transportation needs of the country
cannot be allowed to be hobbled by
local interests.”
What we won
Quebec government appeals of 2 cases
(Laferriere, Lacombe) were dismissed
and COPA’s arguments accepted.
2 contradicting cases (St. Louis, Van
Gool) were overturned.
It will be more difficult for our foes to
create a case because of these
decisions.
HOWEVER, the fight is not over...
Aeronautics
All of Aeronautics
Core of Aeronautics
(Exclusive Federal Power –
Cannot be impaired by
provincial or local law)
Non-Core Aspects
(Federal Jurisdiction – but
some aspects may be
affected by provincial or local
law)
Examples of Core
Location of
aerodrome (as long
as it is not in a builtup area), runways,
hangars, fuel, support
facilities
Examples of Non-Core Aspects
shorelines, provincial
parks, wind farms,
taxation
Municipalities are
pushing hard for
jurisdiction: zoning
bylaws, site alteration
permits, etc etc.
Continuing challenges
Explaining the wins to those who
continue to challenge us.
Making sure Transport Canada retains
its duty to uphold federal jurisdiction.
Wind energy is one example of these
challenges.
The push for green energy
The push for green energy
A popular political bandwagon to be on.
Legislation is in place (example: Green
Energy Act in Ontario) to pave the way
for green energy projects.
Aviation safety issues are brushed
aside because there is no federal or
provincial legislation to protect our
interests.
The push for green energy
There is no protection.
 COPA investigated government position
and legal avenues.
Transport Canada:
 Marking and lighting.
 Protection for relatively few airports under
federal zoning regulations.
 Restrictions on or prohibition of aviation
activity.
The push for green energy
Nav Canada:
 Examines the impact on IFR operations
(minimum enroute and IFR approach
procedures).
 Makes observations on the impact on IFR
operations.
 If turbines are located within affected
areas, Nav Canada will raise minimum
altitudes or remove the approach(es).
Wind Turbine Risk
Assessment
COPA employed our Freedom to Fly
Fund to investigate the safety issues.
We brought industry experts together to
examine risks and how to mitigate them.
Wind Turbine Risk
Assessment findings
“Steps are necessary to mitigate the
risks faced by pilots flying GA aircraft. In
particular, the subject matter experts
determined that the risks to light and
ultra-light aircraft operating in very close
proximity to wind turbines during takeoff and landings are significant.”
A sample of other challenges
COPA is working on
Avgas
Canada is a follower of the US situation:
 EPA has committed to a solution by 2017.
 Date for elimination of 100LL is unknown.
Canada only has one refinery of 100LL
(Edmonton)
 Most of eastern Canada fuel comes from
the US.
Avgas
COPA is a member of the Avgas
Coalition along with AOPA and others to
encourage a solution and educate
everyone on the issues and realities.
There have been 305 alternatives
developed but there are no drop-in
replacements for 100LL
94UL
Works well with low compression
engines
 70% of the fleet can use 94UL but they
only burn 30% of the avgas consumed.
Developing more than one solution is
not profitable for the fuel companies.
Near term threats are environmental
groups with deep pockets and one
remaining lead supplier.
COPA’s International efforts
Regulation is Canada frequently gets its
start at the international level
 The International Civil Aviation
Organization (ICAO) sets the standard for
aviation in the world.
→Primarily aimed at airline travel
GA is frequently forgotten or
unnecessarily caught in regulation.
IAOPA
Formed in 1962 to gain recognition for
the unique needs of general aviation
operations among States in their
regulation of the international civil
aviation community.
 Developing ICAO standards and
recommend practices it must
accommodate general aviation’s operating
profiles and capabilities.
IAOPA Priorities
 Develop uniform standards for establishment and
use of airspace classes.
 Ensure that emerging communications,
navigation and surveillance (CNS) equipment
requirements are appropriate and financially
feasible for GA.
 Reduce language proficiency requirements for
pilots operating VFR outside Class A, B and C
airspace.
 Accept aeroplanes not holding State certified
type certificates, with a MGTOM of less than 750
kg., for international use.
COPA and IAOPA
I am VP for North America.
Director Frank Hofmann is IAOPA rep at
ICAO.
Is there a need for COPA?
Quote from Director General Civil
Aviation from speech at COPA’s 2012
Fly-in AGM:
 “I firmly believe that without your
organization aviation in Canada would be
without one of its most powerful voices.”
Kevin Psutka
613-236-4901 (ext 102)
[email protected]
www.copanational.org

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