Formation Damage – Any Time, Any Place, Any Where Michael Byrne Senergy AFES AGM Meeting 3rd October, 2012 www.senergyworld.com Definition of Damage • Formation Damage can be defined as any reduction in near wellbore permeability which is the result of “any stuff we do” • ……….such as drilling, completion, production, injection, attempted stimulation or any other well intervention What is the impact of damage? • Shell has estimated that at oil price of less than $20 / barrel the cost of damage on Shell operated assets was $1 billion / year. • Shell, at that time, was producing roughly 3.3 % of total world production. • $100 / barrel and global perspective means current best estimate for cost of damage due to deferred production and dealing with damage is $140,000,000,000 / year When does damage occur? • Drilling • Completion • Attempted Stimulation • Production • Well Intervention • Injection Damage Risk Assessment Operation % of total damage Impact / removable?(1-5) Importance Drilling 25 2 50 Completion 25 3 75 Attempted Stimulation 15 4 60 Production 15 3 45 Well Intervention 10 4 40 Injection 10 2 20 When is Formation Damage Important? • Exploration wells • Appraisal wells • Development wells Exploration and appraisal wells • Undeveloped Discoveries – What if all exploration well test data is tainted by damage? • Greater Damage in Exploration and Appraisal wells • Well objectives • Design of fluids • Prospect Evaluation often ignores damage • Damage / Productivity potential is the critical factor in many reservoir types from tight gas to friable heavy oil • Reference SPE 107557, 115690 (Breagh Field) Filtrate Retention – Gas Reservoir RETAINED MUD FILTRATE LOSSES BEFORE TEST AFTER TEST Fluid has been retained in the micropores between the chlorite platelets 90% reduction in permeability Solution was to treat with solvent, reduce interfacial tension and release most of the retained fluid – very successful in a laboratory and in the well (Photographs courtesy of Corex UK Ltd) Fines Migration - Myth or Reality? • What are fines? • Clay? • <44 micron? • <45 micron? Fines Migration - Reality • Fines are……. • “Any part of a rock that can move through or within the pores of the rock” • Fines migration is very common, very complex and deserves our care, understanding and attention! • Solutions to this problem can include reducing near wellbore flow rates, using less damaging fluids or even stabilising fines – see SPE112455 Example of Fines Migration From SPE 107758 (courtesy of StatoilHydro) Pre-test Post-test Carbonate Reservoirs • 60% of current proven conventional reserves are located in carbonate reservoirs • Formation Damage exists in carbonate reservoirs but is different from that in clastic reservoirs • Consideration needs to be given to design of the wellbore / reservoir conduits interface. This is where damage and stimulation matter most and for carbonates can be difficult to model accurately Example of whole mud losses to a fracture system (2mm apertures) Challenges with laboratory data • Test procedure • Must represent well conditions • Interpretation of results • Can be difficult to be conclusive • Upscaling • Must try to put laboratory test results in perspective…… • What does 50% return permeability mean??? • 3D numerical modelling captures complexity of damage and impact on well and reservoir scale (in my opinion!) Modelling formation damage Reservoir zone Damage Zone Mud cake zone Well Formation Damage Any Time RETAINED MUD FILTRATE LOSSES • • • • • • Drilling Completion Production Injection Well Intervention Stimulation AFTER TEST BEFORE TEST (Photographs courtesy of Corex UK Ltd) Any Place • Exploration Wells • Appraisal Wells • Production Wells • Injection Wells • Well Re-entry, Re-completion Any Where • Damage at completion • Mud cake • Near Wellbore • A bit deeper! • Deep damage SPE 68969 (Photograph courtesy of Corex UK Ltd) Conclusions • Formation damage is everywhere • Understanding impact and mechanisms are the key • We can minimise most formation damage through understanding Thank You! • Formation Damage – Any Time, Any Place, Any where • Any………… • Questions??