Youth Discussion 2013 (ISB) - Right To Education Pakistan

Report
RIGHT TO FREE AND COMPULSORY
EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN
A Struggle to Enforce Article25 A
Pakistan – Facts –Shifts..
Population:
185 + million
Provinces:
5 & 3 areas (FATA, ICT & AJK)
Poverty & Vulnerability: 22% + 22% - volatile
Emergencies:
2005 -2013 & ongoing
Maternal Mortality:
87 per 1000
Infant Mortality:
61 per 1000
Education Provision: Public: 63% Private: 37%
ECE (3-5 yrs):
50% (rural 37%)Incl. Private Sector
NER Primary (6-10yrs): 80%
OOSC –(5-16yrs) :
23%
Article 25- A; Right To Education 2010 for 5-16 years
RTE Laws/Bills :
Passed in 3 areas 2012/13
GDP to Education
1.5-2.0%(Parties promised 4-7%)
Democratic Deepening: -Elections 2013:65%+ Participation – Women/Men & ALL AGES
ENTITLEMENT CHALLENGES!!!
Approx. 60-65% of
the population of
settled areas can
be reached
through surveys.
ARTICLE 25- A
(5-16 Years)
“RIGHT TO FREE &
COMPULSORY
EDUCATION IN
PAKISTAN”
23% CHILDREN ARE OUT
OF SCHOOL
(ASER 2012)
30-35% are the
invisible yet
economically active
population groups –
date & rag pickers,
mohannas-boat
people, nomads,
displaced etc.
Citizens’ Movement for Quality
Education (CMQE)
RTE
Right to Education
A
S
E
R
Learning 4 Access
Chalo Parho Barho
(CPB)
Childrens’ Literature
Festival
Annual Status of Education Report
Citizens’ Movement For Quality Education (CMQE)
Nationwide scalable campaigns triggered by evidence on quality and access
Two Million Signatures completed since March
2012 – partners and youth led
1st Million led to passing legislation on Nov. 13
2012 - For Right to Education Article 25 A in
Pakistan
2nd Million signatures by Out of School Children
to push for legislation, rules and Implementation
– with tracking by ASER
Endorsed by Gordon Brown
Media literacy workshops on ASER /RTE
Political parties dialogues on RTE 25 A
Background & Introduction
• Education is considered a fundamental right – many countries have
included Right to Education in their constitution and enforce it by law e.g.
India, Sri Lanka
• The government of Pakistan has also included Right to Education (RTE) in
its constitution through Article 25A of the 18th amendment
• Importance of education:
– According to Amartya Sen -> Education leads to capability expansion
– UNESCO -> literacy helps eradicate poverty, reducing child mortality,
curbing population growth, achieving gender equality and ensuring
sustainable development, peace and democracy
Hence, there is a need to implement RTE in Pakistan
Before 18th amendment – Article 37B of the constitution stated: “the
state shall remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory secondary
education within minimal possible time”.
According to a Public Interest Litigation filed by Centre for Peace and Development
Initiatives (CPDI):
“Article 37… was a part of the Principles of Policy in the Constitution, whose
implementation was an obligation of the State but subject to the availability
of resources. But, since the insertion of Article 25-A in the Chapter on
Fundamental Rights, the State is duty bound to provide free and
compulsory education to all children of the age of 5 to 16 years without
offering any excuses about lack of resources.”
How a bill is passed into Law
Draft Bill
Bill passed
Implementing
the Law
• Bill passes through different stages in parliament
• Writing of the bill is the responsibility of the
ministers/lawyers/parliamentary or legislative council after consultations
• 3 readings and review committee revises the bill
• Bill introduced in the Senate and passed to become an “Act of
Parliament”
• Act is implemented and becomes “Law of the Land”
18th Amendment 2010
Article 25A included in constitution on April 19, 2012.
– Education devolved
– RTE a Fundamental Right
– Earlier Article 37B (principles of policy)
The statement of Article 25 A of the 18th amendment is as follows:
“The State shall provide free and compulsory
education to all children of the age of 5 to 16
years in such manner as may be determined by
law”.
RTE Pakistan: Timeline for Implementation
18th amendment April 2010; devolution of power
Inclusion of Article 25A; 19 April 2010
Draft Legislation proposed for RTE by Punjab & KPK
Passing of RTE Bill by Senate for Islamabad Capital Territory; July 19, 2012
Passing of RTE Bill by National Assembly for ICT; 13 November 2012
ICT Bill to be signed by the President to become an Act
Rules of Business to be finalized
Implementation
Province
Status of Legislation Nature of Legislation
ICT/Islamabad)
Passed in the Parliament on
December 19th, 2012
Right to Free and Compulsory
Education Act, 2012
Sindh
Passed in Province on March
6th, 2013
Right of Children to Free and
Compulsory Education Act,
2013
Baluchistan
Passed in Province on March
15th, 2013
Baluchistan Compulsory and
Free Ordinance, 2013
Khyber Pakhtunkua (KPK)
Working on Draft legislation
Draft Bill
Punjab
First draft legislation prepared
by PML-Q in 2012
Not available
Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK)
Not available
Not available
Gilgit Baltistan (GB)
Not available
Not available
Right to Education Campaign;
A Multi-level Mobilization
Political Parties
Media & RTE
Ambassadors
Civil Society
Youth
Education First
/Article 25A
Importance of Youth
• Youth is defined as “ the population that falls within the age
bracket of 15 – 29 years” according to the Ministry of Affairs
of Pakistan
• Labor Force Survey estimates 27.63% of population of
Pakistan to consist of Youth
• Between 2006-07 and 2008-09 there was an increase in the
youth population by 1.8 million (Source: UNDP)
Responsibility of Youth according to Law
• According to Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act,
2013
• Article 22, subsection 1
Functions of Youth
• Understanding the debate on RTE at a national and regional
level
• Ownership and accountability of laws, committees and debate
on RTE
• Access to all relevant forums and resources in the public and
private sector
• Creation of a youth pressure group to direct policy makers to
make education a priority sector
• Methods of implementation to distinguish from other pressure
groups
What is “YOUR” opinion?
1. What do you think of the current status of
education?
2. How can you improve the status of education?
3. Would any of you be willing to become an
ambassador of education?
4. Should “distance teaching” be made compulsory for
graduation?
THANK YOU
Website: ww.rtepakistan.org
Twitter: @RTE25A
Facebook: rtepakistan

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