hands c. 15000 BCE. Individual horses over 5

Chapter One - Prehistoric Art
Prehistoric Europe.
What does the term “pre-history” refer
Prehistory is a term that refers to all of
human history that precedes the invention
of writing systems, ca 3,100BC, and the
keeping of written records, and it is an
immensely long period of time, some ten
million years according to current
From the Greek meaning:
“paleo” = old
“liithic” = stone
Paleolithic Hand-Axe. 60,000 years ago. Height 10”.
Archaeologists at Stonehenge, 2008.
Culture may be defined as the ways of living built up by
a group and passed on from one generation to
another. It may include behavior, material things, ideas,
institutions, and religious truth.
Culture is
Learned behavior, not genetic or biological;
includes languages, customs, beliefs, technology
Shared by a group – more than one person
to constitute a culture
Is a primary means of adaptation to our
environment; often a survival mechanism
A system of interrelated parts (eg. economy
related to politics, related to industry)
Woman from Willendorf. c. 24,000 BCE. Height 4 3/8”.
Woman from Willendorf. c. 24,000 BCE. Height 4 3/8”.
Woman from Dolní Vestonice. 23,000 BCE. 4 1/4  1 7/10”.
Woman from Brassempouy. Probably c. 30,000 BCE . Height 1 1/4”.
The Characteristics of the Paleolithic Era (2,000,000 to 10/9,000 BCE):
1) Name comes from the type of primitive stone tools used by early men and women;
2) Homo sapiens appeared about 400,000 year ago; modern homo sapiens appear as early
as 120,000
3) their migration out of Africa to Australia and the Americas (100,000-35,000 BCE) was
made possible by an Ice Age, which created land bridges;
4) Paleolithic lifestyle was a result of their relationship to nature. They were nomadic
hunters, gatherers, and fishers; they did not produce their own food and they lived
precariously as peoples completely dependent on their environment.
5) Discoveries include the use of fire for light, heat, and cooking; The invention of stone
weapons and tools such as daggers, spear points, axes, choppers, and scrapers; The use
of spoken language for communication and the preservation of culture; and religious rituals;
and probably the invention of primitive social, political, and economic institutions.
6) Shelters and clothing were made from animal skins and plants. Works of art ranged from
decorated tools and weapons to small (fertility?) figures like the Woman of Willendorf to
large-scale animal paintings on the walls of the Lascaux Caves (c. 14,000-13,500BC) in
southwestern France and the Altamira Cave (c. 14,000-9,500BC) in Spain.
Reconstruction Drawing of Mammoth-Bone Houses. c. 16,000–10,000 BCE.
Lion-Human. c. 30,000–26,000 BCE. Height 11 5/8”.
Spotted Horses and Human Hands. Peche-Merle Cave, France. Horses
25,000–24,000 BCE;
hands c. 15,000 BCE. Individual horses over 5’ in length.
Prehistoric Wall Painting (Line Drawing).
Hall of Bulls. Lascaux Caves, France. c. 15,000 BCE. Length of largest auroch
(bull) 18’.
Bison. Altamira Cave, Santander, Spain. c. 12,500 BCE. Length approx. 8'3".
Bison. c. 13,000 BCE. Length 25” and 24”.
Wall Painting With Horses, Rhinoceroses, and Aurochs. Chauvet Cave,
c. 32,000–30,000 BCE.
Çatalhöyük, Turkey. 7400–6200 BCE.
Çatalhöyük, Turkey. 7400–6200 BCE.
Sesklo Stone Foundation House, Greece, 6500 BCE
Early Construction Methods
“Wattle and Daub.” Neolithic Building Methods. 6000 BCE.
Definition: woven lattice of wooden strips called wattle is daubed with a sticky
material usually made of some combination of wet soil, clay, sand, animal dung
and straw.
Stonehenge. c. 2900–1500 BCE.
Plan of Stonehenge and Its Surrounding Settlements.
Reconstruction Drawing of Durrington Walls. 2600 BCE.
Rock Art: Boat and Sea Battle, Sweden, Bronze Age c. 1500-500 BCE

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