Parenting

Report
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Chapter 8
Emotional and Social
Development in Early Childhood
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Erikson’s Theory:
Initiative versus Guilt
Initiative
Guilt
 New sense of
 Overly strict superego,
purposefulness
or conscience,
causing too much guilt
 Eagerness to try new
tasks, join activities
 Related to parental
 threats
 Play permits trying
 criticism
out new skills
 punishment
 Strides in conscience
development
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Self-Understanding
 Emerging language
skills enable children
to discuss inner
mental states
 Self-awareness
supports development
of self-concept
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Self-Concept
 Consists largely of
 observable characteristics
(appearance, possessions,
behavior)
 typical emotions
and attitudes (“I like/
don’t like …”)
 Does not yet reference
personality traits (“I’m
shy”)
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Self-Esteem
 Self-judgments and associated feelings
 Influences:
 Emotional
experiences
 Future behavior
 Long-term
psychological
adjustment
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Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Gains in Emotional
Competence
 Improvements in
 emotional understanding
 emotional self-regulation
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 Increase in self-conscious
emotions (shame, guilt)
and empathy
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Emotional Understanding
 Preschoolers correctly judge
 causes of emotions
 consequences of emotions
 behavioral signs of emotions
 Parents, siblings, peers, and
make-believe play contribute
to understanding
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Emotional Self-Regulation
 By age 3–4, aware
of strategies for
adjusting emotional
arousal
 Affected by
 temperament:
effortful control
 warm parents who use verbal guidance
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Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Self-Conscious Emotions
 Examples:




Shame
Embarrassment
Guilt
Pride
 Depend on adult
feedback
 Vary across cultures
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Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Empathy and Sympathy
Empathy
Feeling same or
similar emotions
as another person
Sympathy
Feeling concern
or sorrow for
another’s plight
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Individual Differences
in Empathy
Factors that encourage empathy, sympathy,
and prosocial behavior:
 Temperament:
 sociable
 assertive
 good at emotional self-regulation
 Parenting: warm, sensitive parents who
 show empathic concern
 encourage emotional expressiveness
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Peer Sociability in Play
 Unoccupied, onlooker behavior
Nonsocial activity  Solitary play
Parallel play
 Plays near other children with
similar materials
 Does not try to influence them
Associative play
 Engages in separate activities
 Exchanges toys and comments
Cooperative play
 Orients with peers toward a
common play goal
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Cognitive Play
Categories
Functional play
(0–2 years)
 Simple, repetitive motor
movements, with or without
objects
Constructive play
(3–6 years)
 Creating or constructing
something
Make-believe play
(2–6 years)
 Acting out everyday and
imaginative roles
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Early Childhood Friendships
 Someone who “likes
you,” plays with you,
shares toys
 Friendships change
frequently
 Benefits of friendships:
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 social support: cooperation and emotional
expressiveness
 favorable school adjustment
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Parental Influences on
Early Peer Relations
Direct
Indirect
 Arranging informal
peer activities
 Guidance on how
to act toward
others
 Secure attachment
 Emotionally expressive,
sensitive communication
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Perspectives on
Moral Development
Psychoanalytic
 Freud: superego and guilt
 New evidence: induction,
empathy-based guilt
Social learning
 Modeling moral behavior
 Punishment
Cognitivedevelopmental
 Children as active thinkers
about social rules
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Punishment in
Early Childhood
Frequent harsh punishment
has negative side effects.
Alternatives to
harsh punishment
 Time out
 Withdrawing privileges
 Positive discipline
Parents can increase  Consistency
effectiveness of
 Warm parent–child
punishment
relationship
 Explanations
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Prevalence of Corporal
Punishment by Children’s Age
Figure 8.1
(From M. A. Straus & J. H. Stewart, 1999, “Corporal Punishment by American Parents: National
Data on Prevalence, Chronicity, Severity, and Duration, in Relation to Child and Family
Characteristics,” Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 2, p. 59. Adapted with kind
permission from Springer Science+Business Media and Murray A. Straus.)
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Positive Discipline
 Use transgressions as opportunities to
teach.
 Reduce opportunities for misbehavior.
 Provide reasons for rules.
 Have children participate in family duties
and routines.
 Try compromising and problem solving.
 Encourage mature behavior.
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Moral Imperatives,
Social Conventions,
and Personal Choice
 Actions that protect people’s
Moral imperatives
rights and welfare
Social
conventions
Matters of
personal choice
 Customs determined solely
by social consensus
 Do not violate rights
 Up to the individual
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Types of Aggression
 Proactive (instrumental):
 meant to help the child
get something he or she
wants
 self-initiated
 Reactive (hostile):
 meant to hurt someone
 defensive response to
provocation
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Types of Hostile Aggression
Type
Physical
Verbal
Relational
How the Harm
Is Caused
 Physical injury
 Threats of physical
aggression
 Name-calling
 Teasing
 Social exclusion
 Malicious gossip
 Friendship manipulation
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Sources of Aggression
 Individual differences:
 gender
 temperament
 Family:
 harsh, inconsistent discipline
 cycles of such discipline, whining/giving in
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Risks of Media Violence
 Increases
 hostile thoughts
and emotions
 aggressive behavior
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 Creates short-term
and long-term
behavior problems
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Helping Children
Control Aggression
 Improving parenting: Incredible Years
approach
 Encouraging children to attend to nonhostile social cues
 Promoting perspective taking
 Teaching conflict-resolution skills
 Limiting exposure to media violence and
home stressors
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Gender Stereotypes
 Strengthen and operate as blanket rules
in early childhood
 Preschoolers associate toys, clothing,
household items, occupations, behavior,
and more with gender
 Young children’s rigid gender
stereotypes are a joint product of
 gender stereotyping in the environment
 cognitive limitations
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Influences on Gender Typing
 Genetic:
 evolutionary adaptiveness
 hormones
 Environmental:
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



family
teachers
peers
broader social environment
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Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Theories of Gender Identity
Social learning
Gender-typed behavior leads
to gender identity
Cognitivedevelopmental
Self-perceptions (gender
constancy) precede
gender-typed behavior
Gender schema
Combines social learning and
cognitive-developmental features
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Outcomes of
Child-Rearing Styles
Authoritative
 self-control, moral maturity, high self-esteem
Authoritarian
 anxiety, unhappiness, low self-esteem, anger,
defiance
Permissive
 impulsivity, poor school achievement
Uninvolved
 depression, anger, poor school achievement
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Characteristics of Child-Rearing Styles
Acceptance
Involvement
Control
Autonomy
Authoritative
high
high
adaptive
appropriate
Authoritarian
low
low
high
low
Permissive
high
too low or
too high
low
high
Uninvolved
low
low
low
indifferent
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Child Maltreatment
Physical
abuse
 Assaults resulting in physical
injury
 Fondling, intercourse,
Sexual abuse
pornography, and other
forms
 Failing to meet children’s
Neglect
basic needs
Emotional
abuse
 Social isolation,
unreasonable demands,
humiliation, intimidation, and
other forms
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Factors Related to
Child Maltreatment





Parent characteristics
Child characteristics
Family characteristics
Community
Culture
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Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Consequences of
Child Maltreatment
 Emotional:
 poor emotional self-regulation
 impaired empathy/sympathy
 depression
 Adjustment:
 substance abuse
 violent crime
 Learning:
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 impaired working memory and executive function
 low academic motivation
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Preventing
Child Maltreatment
 Intervening with
high-risk parents
 Social supports for
families:
 Parents Anonymous
 home visitation—
Healthy Families
America
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