Ruhr Crisis and Dawes Plan 2014

DO NOW ~ Take out Paper 1 & Review Correct
Your next exam will be a Paper I not a Paper II
Question 1A
According to Source A which are
Clemenceau’s points of view about justice
towards the Germans?
◦ Can not be unreasonable towards Germans in
fear of provoking the rise of nationalism
◦ Save the world from German aggression
◦ Justice must be served by the Germans
Question 1B
What message is conveyed by Source E
◦ The Big Three have punished the Germans so
much that the Treaty of Versailles will continue
to effect the Germans for years to come
Question 2
Compare and contrast the views expressed about
the Paris Peace Conference in sources C and D
◦ Similarities
 Both source C & D blame the leaders of the Paris Peace
Conference of just worrying about their capitalist interests
 Treaties were forced on the people and not just
 Treaties created at Paris Peace Conference were a failure
◦ Differences
 Source D does agree to certain restrictions against Germany
as long as Germany could recover economically
 Communist viewpoint did not support the idea of self –
government or self – determination
Question 3
With reference to their origin and purpose,
assess the value of limitations for historians
studying the Paris Peace Conference of
Source B & D
◦ Source B
 Origin – Hitler, Mein Kampf 1925
 Purpose – Show resentment of Germany being forced
to sign Treaty of Versailles
 Value – Hitler would go onto to be the leader of
Germany in WWII and would use the Paris Peace
Conference as a way to persuade the people to believe
in his views
 Limitations – Does not show other leaders goals, beliefs,
aims, etc. at the Paris Peace Conf.
Question 3
With reference to their origin and purpose,
assess the value of limitations for historians
studying the Paris Peace Conference of Source B
◦ Source D
 Origin – British delegate H. Nicolson at the Paris Peace
Conference…book written ‘Peacemaking 1919’
 Purpose – To report about the successes and failures at the
Paris Peace Conference
 Value – H. Nicolson is a primary source because he attended
the Paris Peace Conference and discusses the aims and goals
when they arrived in Paris
 Limitation – Does not address the goals of other leaders
especially the French who wanted to severely punish Germany
Question 4
“The Paris Peace Conference was guilty of
disguising an imperialist peace under the
surface of Wilsonism.” To what extend do
you agree with Nicolson’s point of view.
◦ Agree
 Wilson & his 14 Points
 League of Nations
 Germans were held responsible for WWI (reparations,
disarmament, etc.)
 Mandate System
 Britain wanted to protect its colonial empire
 Open Door Policy
DO NOW ~ Answer the following
questions in your notebook
◦ Why were the Washington Naval Agreements
successful? What did they accomplish (4
Power, 5 Power, & 9 Power)?
◦ Describe two other attempts at disarmament
and how they were unsuccessful?
The German Problem
Historian A. J. P. Taylor stated the treaties
following WWI failed to solve the
‘German Problem’
◦ Kaiser had fled
◦ Weimar Republic on the verge of revolution
 Germany recovery was inevitable = particular
concern for France
 German people felt wronged by Treaty of Versailles
and little support for democratic gov’t existed
 Return to Weltpolitik ~ ‘world policy’ as German dominance
Why was Germany still strong?
Weak successor states
 France in decline
 Britain concerned with overseas empire
 USA policy of isolationism
Problem how to contain German
Treaty of Rapallo 1922
Treaty of Versailles made Germany &
Russia an outcast from Europe
 Russia & Germany form alliance for
mutual benefit
◦ Included clauses for military co-operation &
as well as building weapons
Germany hoped to go around the military
 Long Civil War = no longer wanted to
spread communism worldwide
The Anglo-American Guarantee
Security was very important to France, was very
afraid of another attack from Germany once
Germany regained its strength
 France wanted the Rhineland area of Germany to
be an independent state to protect itself. This
state could either be neutral or under French
influence.Wilson and George did not agree with
this however they new that France would not
give up unless it got a firm guarantee of military
support from the United States and Britain.
 The Anglo-French agreement was signed on the
28 of June 1919
The Anglo-American Guarantee
Wilson campaigned vigorously in the United
States between 1919 and 1920 to win support for
the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles and for
the United States to join the League of Nations
 However the Anglo-American Guarantee was not
accepted by the US Senate and so never took
 When the United States did not accept the
Guarantee, Britain withdrew from the agreement
as well
 France no longer had a guaranteed military
support from the United States and Britain
Ruhr Crisis
The Ruhr Crisis
France was afraid for its security after the AngloAmerican Guarantee was denied and disagreed
with Britain about how to deal with Germany. Britain
wanted Germany to be able to rebuild its economy
so that it could benefit from the trade.
France's goal was to weaken the German economy
has much as possible through reparations
France also needed these reparations to pay its debts
to the USA
When Germany missed a delivery of timber as part
of her reparations, France and Belgium invaded the
Ruhr region
Britain was strongly against this
The Ruhr Crisis
The goal of France was to collect the missed
payment from the Germans by taking the goods
from the mines and factories and shipping them
to France
 The German workers did not co-operate with
the French, instead they protested by destroying
the goods, the mines and the factories
 The event broke out into a violent conflict and
resulted in inflation
 The Weimar Government which already had a
serious inflation problem made things worse by
printing more money to help support the
workers which resulted in disastrous inflation
Ruhr Crisis Results
German Gains
German Effects
French Effects
French Losses
Increased German
Resulted in
France could not
uphold Treaty of
French prime
minster Raymond
Poincare would
election in 1924
(leader of Ruhr
Passive resistance - Workers evicted
would not be
from Ruhr
enough to break
Treaty of Versailles
Occupation of
Ruhr hurts
France’s economy
In order to get
reparations France
would have to cooperate w/
Won sympathy
from other
nations (Britain)
- 1000s jailed =
need to maintain
No support from
-Compensate for
lack of industry
-Continue paying
France sets up
agreements with
Little Entente & L.
of N.
Dawes Plan 1924
Ruhr invasion showed the fact that issue
of reparations needed to be reviewed
 Drawn up by US banker Charles Dawes
 Plan involved the issue of reparations and
removal of French troops from the Ruhr
 Placed German rail & industry under
international control to ensure reparation
Dawes Plan
Dawes Plan Implications
Shown that even though the USA had not signed
the Treaty of Versailles or joined the League of
Nations the country could not remain totally
 Flow of money into Germany created illusion of
prosperity but economic recovery depended on
US $
 If US stopped paying loans to Germany they
would be unable to pay reparations
 French saw the Dawes Plan as a greater way for
Germany to recover
◦ French tried to establish security through Geneva

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