Climate Change: The Implications for Carbon Accounting and Management in the Tourism Sector Paul Hooper & Rachel Dunk Centre for Aviation, Transport and the Environment Manchester Metropolitan University 8th International Conference on Responsible Tourism MMU 4th April 2014 Outline • Mandate of action • Guidance and options for footprinting and accounting procedures • The ‘tourism system’ • Implications for carbon accounts and emissions mitigation Tourism & Climate Change Creates Tourism Impacts Affect Tourism Growth Erxleben and Sallwey (2007) UNWTO (2011) Global Tourism and Climate Change • Tourism (including day-trips) is responsible for 4.95% of global CO2 emissions – Up to 14% if measured as radiative forcing (The warming caused by CO2 and other GHGs). • If tourism was a country it would be the 5th biggest polluter worldwide (similar to Japan). • Global tourism emissions projected to grow by 152% by 2035. Sources: Peeters and Dubois (2010); UNWTO-UNEP-WMO (2008) Breakdown of tourism emissions Other activities 4% Accommodation 21% Other transport 3% Car 32% Air transport 40% Radiative forcing Accommodation 9% Other activities 2% Other transport 2% Car 15% Air transport 72% Implications for Tourism • Growing CC emissions from tourism in the context of policy commitments to radical cuts in GHG emissions • Need to take efficient and effective actions • Important to demonstrate carbon responsibility • Case for growth is getting more difficult – credibility crucial Carbon account…… Activity data to carbon account Determining carbon emissions requires data on: – The activity generating the carbon emissions (quantity, type, organisation) – The carbon output per unit activity. This is usually expressed as an emissions/conversion factor Units of activity x EF = total CO2 generated So what should be included in a carbon account? Scope Options – GHG Protocol • Define three scopes (or boundaries) for GHG/carbon emissions accounting 1. Direct GHG emissions from all sources owned by the company (stationary and mobile combustion) 2. Plus indirect GHG emissions from purchase of electricity 3. Optional step – indirect emissions from company’s upstream and downstream activities (provides an ‘opportunity to be innovative in GHG management’) How far is far enough? • Carbon Reduction Commitment – mandates reporting for larger organisations (>6000MWh) – Focuses on fuels and electricity consumed (i.e. Scope 1 & 2 emissions) • However DEFRA Guidance: – Sets no minimum size threshold – Covers wider range of emissions – Does not specify a minimum level of reporting (emphasises completeness) So what should be done about Scope 3 Emissions • Challenging given the variety of organisations in the tourism sector • Best to start with an appreciation of the ‘tourism system’ for completeness • ICARB identified a range of system carbon emission sources from: – Inputs – Outputs – Outsourcing • Inputs – – – – Scope 3 Emissions for Tourism Food & drink Cleaning materials Visitor travel Water supply • Outputs – Water discharge/treatment – Solid waste: • Green waste • Recyclates • Landfill • Outsourcing – Laundry – Accounting – Maintenance/grou nds keeping – Cleaners – Catering – Entertainment But this is too difficult, isn’t it? So why take on Level 3? • ACI International (2009) have something to offer: Guidance Manual: Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions Management References • ACI (International) (2009) Guidance Manual: Airport GHG Emissions Management, ACI World Environment Standing Committee • DEFRA (2013) Environmental Reporting Guidelines: including mandatory GHG emissions reporting guidance. • DEFRA GHG Conversion Factor Repository available at www.ukconversionfactorscarbonsmart.co.uk/ • Erxleben, T. and Sallwey, L. (2007) The impact of current developments on the baggage flow at airports and derived trends in airport logistics. Elektroniczne czasopismo naukowe z dziedziny logistyki, 3 (1), No. 5. • Peeters, P. And Dubois, G. (2010) Tourism travel under climate change mitigation constraints. Journal of Transport Geography, 18 (3),447-457. • UNWTO (2011) Tourism Highlights 2009 Edition. http://unwto.org • UNWTO-UNEP-WMO (2008) Climate Change and Tourism: Responding to Global Challenges. UNWTO, Madrid. • WBCSD and WRI (2004) The Greenhouse Gas Protocol.