Solarnet & SPRING Markus Roth

Report
Solarnet
&
SPRING
SPRING:
A new ground-based network for
synoptic solar observations
Markus Roth
HELAS VI Conference
Göttingen
September 1, 2014
EU-Project: High-Resolution Solar Physics Network –
SOLARNET
Solarnet is an Integrated Activity (IA) funded by the European Unions’s
FP7Capacities Programme under Framework Programme 7:
Work Programme includes:
• Networking Activities (NAs)
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Transnational Access and Services (TAS)
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Workshops & Annual Conferences
Mobility Programme
Common Time Allocation Committee
Definition of Standards for Data Pipelines
Coordination among infrastructures
Infrastructures in Tenerife, ROSA, IBIS
E-Infrastructures Data Bases of Hinode, IRIS, SDO-AIA, SDO-HMI
Joint Research Activities
Coordinator:
Project Duration:
Manolo Collados (IAC)
April 2013 – March 2017
Solarnet
&
SPRING
Joint Research Activities under SOLARNET
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Tools for innovative data handling:
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Advanced instrumentation development:
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Large diameter FPIs (100 to 300mm)
Image slicer for 2D spectroscopy
Microlens-fed spectrograph
Fast imaging polarimeter
Wavefront control: turbulence characterization and correction
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Develop data-reduction pipelines for the most important European ground-based high
resolution solar instruments
Enhancement of observational procedures for increased productivity and easier co-observing
and combination of data.
Set up a prototype for a SVO archive
Characterization of the daytime atmospheric turbulence at the Canary Islands
Characterization of the air turbulence produced at the telescopes environment
Implement an optimized heat rejecter prototype at GREGOR telescope
Development of numerical simulations to optimize the performance of the adaptive optics
systems implement an adaptive optics system prototype at THEMIS telescope
Solar Physics Research Integrated Network Group (SPRING)
Solarnet
&
SPRING
Synoptic observations:
Solar Physics Research Integrated Network Group
(SPRING)
Solarnet
&
SPRING
Objective: Development of instrumentation for large field-of-view observations of a
network of small aperture solar telescopes in support of observations with existing
high-resolution solar telescopes (either isolated or in a coordinated way).
Technical Requirements / Future synoptic telescopes should provide
• Full-disk Doppler velocity images
• Full-disk vector magnetic field images
• Full-disk intensity images
• Measurments of quantities relevant for space weather
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Provide the above data products in a variety of wavelengths
Provide the above data products at a high cadence (≤ 60 seconds)
Provide the above data products at a spatial resolution of 1” (0.5” pixels)
Provide the above data products at least 90% of the time
Provide the above data products for at least 25 years
Complement space missions
Participants:
KIS, IAC, INAF, MPS, QUB, AISAS, AIASCR, IGAM, UoB, NSO, HAO
Synoptic observations:
Solar Physics Research Integrated Network Group
(SPRING)
Participants at the SPRING development
• Operating even a small network (BISON, GONG) is a big effort for a
national community
• Designing, deploying and operating a distributed, comprehensive,
ground based network requires a new level of international
collaboration
– SOLARNET - SPRING
• Opportunity to involve and sustain smaller research groups in solar
physics
Solarnet
&
SPRING
SPRING Activity – Three Working Phases
1.
Science requirement study
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describe the supporting data required by high-resolution observing programs
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the scientific objectives to be achieved by high-quality synoptic observations
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study of the relation with other existing ground-based solar observation
networks
To be studied:
• List of small aperture telescopes and other ground-based solar observations
networks available
• Develop a strawman document discussing the goals and preliminary support
instrumental concepts
• Write a Science Requirement Document (SRD) which shall be consistent, tangible
and in accordance with other plans for the next 25 years (commissioning of largeaperture telescopes, space missions, etc.).
Solarnet
&
SPRING
SPRING Activity – Three Working Phases
2. Feasibility study
2.1 Instrument design concepts
Definition of technical requirements for the instrument, based on scientific goals
Definition of alternatives of instruments concepts
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To be studied:
Adaptive optics or other image stabilizing/enhancement technology
Observations in at least the following spectral lines: Ni I 6768, Fe I 6301/2, Na D, H-α, Ca K, Ca
H, He10830,Fe I 6173 and Fe I 1.5 micron.
High-speed image post-processing / High-speed real-time data access
Location of telescopes for setting up a network mode
Possible instruments concepts:
Filtergraph, Spectrograph and Interferometer, each one with different options
2.2 Operational concepts
Develop operational ideas (remote operations, data pipelining, delivery of real-time data to
operating telescopes)
Develop high-speed image post-processing routines
Solarnet
&
SPRING
SPRING Activity – Three Working Phases
3. Development and operation study
3.1 Trade-off analysis
Combination of instruments and cameras
Camera set-up and development, particularly in large format and high cadence
Select less than 3 instrument concepts to be detailed and cost estimated
3.2 Network operation and data delivery to high-resolution telescopes
Network operation and performance and on-line data access
Deepening on the studies on data processing and merging, including automated control, data
pipelines processing on clusters of CPUs or possible use of Graphical Processing Units and
data delivery
Solarnet
&
SPRING
Science Requirement Document
• Motiviation for first workshops in Boulder and Titisee in
spring and fall 2013, resp.:
– Collect input for the science requirement document
• The main purpose of this document is:
– Define science-driven requirements for
data products to be delivered by
a new network of synoptic telescopes
– Driver for the feasibility study
Solarnet
&
SPRING
Ongoing Discussions for the
Scientific Requirement Document
Discussing possible plans for a future full-disk telescope and a platform to carry multiple instruments
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Physics
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Requirements
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Ability to handle archives that exist
Strategy
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Science Community
User Community
Data Management
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Several instruments at one telescope vs. several telescopes at one observatory
Need for a network
Joint ground and space observations
Communities
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Spatial resolution
Temporal resolution
Selection of wavelengths -> how to observe them with one setup
Instrumentation
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Big questions -> what are the physical quantities to be measured
Multiple-wavelength observations -> what can be learned from them
How to convince funding agencies to fund a synoptic network
Operation
https://www2.hao.ucar.edu/docs/2013-synoptic-network
Solarnet
&
SPRING
Synoptic observations:
Science Drivers
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Solarnet
&
SPRING
How is the solar magnetic field generated, maintained and dissipated?
– Discriminate solar dynamo models
– Determine the characteristics of angular momentum transport inside the Sun
– Observe, identify and characterize magnetic reconnection
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How are the solar corona and the solar wind maintained and what
determines their properties?
– Observe, identify and characterize acoustic and magneto-acoustic waves in the
upper atmosphere
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What triggers transient energetic events?
– Determine the role of the interaction of interior flow and magnetic fields
– Establish reliable space weather prediction
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How does solar magnetism influence the internal structure and the
luminosity of the Sun?
– Compare the Sun with stars with differ in magnetic activity through
asteroseismology
– Determine impact on exoplanet detection and characterization
(From Oskar v.d. Lühe)
Existing Similar Instruments
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ROSA
IBIS
HELLRIDE
SOLIS
BiSON
GONG
HMI
KSO
PSPT
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PHI
ChroTel
ChroMag
MOTH
GOLF
VIRGO
LOFAR
COSMO
Solarnet
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SPRING
Instruments
• Vector Magnetograph
• Broad band imager
• Disk-integrated spectrograph (high
spectral resolution)
• Multi-lambda-helioseismic-Dopplerimager-and-magnetic-field
• Multi-lambda-vector-magnetometer
• Irradiance device (resolved)
Solarnet
&
SPRING
Solarnet
&
SPRING
Group photo, SPRING workshop in Tititsee, November 2013
Targets
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Sunspots (problems with cool atmospheres)
Waves (solar interior)
Active regions
Transient events
Prominences
MHD waves (magnetoseismology)
Synoptic Hanle Observations
Quiet Sun magnetism
TSI / SSI
Space Weather
Flow of energy through the solar atmosphere
Velocity field inside and on the Sun
Solarnet
&
SPRING
Million-$ Questions
– What is the origin of the solar activity cycle?
– What is the structure, dynamics, and
energetics of the solar atmosphere?
– How does the Sun drive space weather?
– What are the signatures of solar activity?
Detailed questions for a synoptic network
• What is the magnetic field in the chromosphere
and photosphere?
Solarnet
&
SPRING
Working Groups
Group 1 Synoptic magnetic fields
– Sunspots (problems with cool
atmospheres)
– Active regions
– Quiet Sun magnetism
– Synoptic Hanle Observations
Pevtsov, Socas-Navarro,
Schlichenmaier, Ermolli, Gosain,
Sobotka, Borrero, Hasan, Schmidt
Group 2 Solar seismology
– Waves (solar interior)
– MHD waves (magnetoseismology)
– Velocity field inside and on the Sun
Jain, Leibacher, Del Moro, Erdelyi,
Schou, Roth, Thompson, Hill, Hasan,
Finsterle, Keys, Zaatri
Solarnet
&
SPRING
Group 3 Transient events
– Flow of energy through the solar
atmosphere (3,2)
– Transient events
(flares, prominences, CMEs)
Kucera, Gömöry, Jain, Gosain, Keys,
Sobotka, Polanec, (Zuccarello),
Del Moro
Group 4 Solar Awareness
– TSI / SSI
– Space Weather (4,3)
– Space Climate
– Sun-as-a-star
Pevtsov, Toufik, Del Moro, Scuderi,
Ermolli, Davies, Finsterle, Hill,
Thompson, Berrilli
Further questions to be answered in
working groups
• Current observations <-> future observations
– What needs to be done differently/better?
– Magnetic field measurements in the umbra needs improvement
compared to HMI -> How?
• Many lines at moderate spectral resolution <-> a few lines in
high spectral resolution
• Unbalanced <-> balanced vector magnetograph
– What needs to be done to answer this question
• Requirements from other communities (e.g. Space Weather)
– Existing definitions already made
Solarnet
&
SPRING
Science Requirements
• Wavelength ranges
– Optical
– Infrared
– Radio
• Measurements of vector
magnetic field
– Saturation effect
• Doppler measurements
• Full-Disk observations
• Disk integrated
– Irradiance
– Solar-stellar comparisons
• Long time series (25
years)
• Cadence dependence on
measurement
– v < 60 s;
– transient events: 1s (only
partially)
– B
• Multiple heights
• Off-limb observations
– Prominences
– Stray light
Solarnet
&
SPRING
Science Requirements
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Coronographic capability
• Data products
High-duty cycle
• Help-desk for users
Uniformity of data
Stability over time; durability
Spatial resolution 1 arcsec
Sub-pixel image alignment
Polarimetric reference frame
Reliable operation
High level of automatisation
Accessible and repairable
Upgradeable
Open data policy
Science-ready data
Solarnet
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SPRING
Priorities =
Minimum Requirements
• Full-disk vector magnetograph
– Minimum set of lines: deep & medium
photosphere, chromosphere (Ca II)
– Doppler
• H®
– Doppler
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Cadence: 30s (part-time 1s)
Continuum (white light)
1 arcsec resolution
Image stabilization
Solarnet
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SPRING
Working Group Status
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Group 1: First draft
Group 2: Discussions still ongoing
Group 3: Transient events – finished
Group 4: Discussions not started
Solarnet
&
SPRING
Personnel
– Sanjay Gosain to work at KIS and NSO since
May 1, 2014
– Strong collaboration with National Solar
Observatory, Tucson
Solarnet
&
SPRING
Future Planning
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Outreaching:
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Exposition on SPRING
Including / Contacting / Joining teams and possible operator sites worldwide
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Using Newsletters to inform about SPRING
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Register for the
2nd Solarnet/SPRING workshop in 2014 in Tatranska Lomnica
– to finalize the SRD
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Technical Study to be completed in March 2016
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3rd/4th workshop to work and discuss the technical study in 2015
Final proposed instrument concepts and operation plan to be completed in
March 2017
Afterwards:
Possible start to work on proto-types → Funding (Solarnet II)
Solarnet
&
SPRING

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