PPTX - shine

Identifying Coronal Holes
in Solar Disk Images
(and how to compare to models)
Working Group Report
Nick Arge  Rachel Hock  Carl Henney
(from our invited speakers)
Coronal holes: observable used as a proxy for open field regions
– Dark regions in the EUV/X-ray (bright in He I 1083) which
correspond to regions of reduced density and temperature
– Predominately unipolar
– Sources of high speed solar wind (While true, perhaps not
the best observational criteria.)
Open field regions: regions of magnetic field that extend far into
the solar wind
One of Many Motivations
• How can we validate solar wind models?
• Coronal holes/open field regions are
heavily influenced by non-potential fields.
• We know that the magnetic fields in/near
filaments and active regions are nonpotential.
• Can we use observations of coronal holes
to constraint/validate solar wind models?
Session 1: Observations and Methods
• Invited talk by Larisza Krista
– Overview of coronal hole observations
– Range of historic/current detection methods
• Consensus: EUV images especially with AIA/STEREO +
magnetograms (or ADAPT for farside??) give nice coronal hole
• But there are MANY techniques. We need VALIDATION and
estimates of the UNCERTAINTIES.
– Not all dark regions are coronal holes (i.e. filaments)
– Line-of-sight issues make some coronal holes less dark than others
Session 1: Validation
• Legitimate resistance to hand-drawn maps as "ground truth" as
they are subjective
– Maybe maps shouldn't be binary (confidence levels)?
• Many observers/many times  “fuzzy” coronal hole maps
– Still subject to human error but does provide something to
quantitatively compare methods to
• If not hand-drawn maps, then what? USE OTHER DATA that is less
Doppler maps
White light/limb synoptic maps (Nishu Karna)
Spectroscopic observations (Michael Hahn)
He I (less issues with the limb)
H-alpha for filaments
• Improving/validating the techniques for space weather and
modeling may, at the same time, might lead to new understanding
of coronal hole physics
Session 2: Modeling and Theory
• Invited talk by Jon Linker
– Coronal holes and open magnetic field
– Deficiencies in the observations that impact models
– Lack of polar field observations
– Magnetograph calibration issues
– No far side data ... can have flux imbalance when AR comes over
east limb
– Total open magnetic flux: models that match coronal hole boundary
underestimate the flux; models that overestimate the coronal holes
get the flux right!
– In models, closed magnetic fields near open flux regions can be dark!
– Is this an artifact of evolving the model to a steady state?
Session 2: Modeling and Theory
• Spiro Antiochos started the discussion on the dynamics of the
boundaries of open field regions
– It is not an either (open) ... or (closed)!
– How does this relate to the boundary of coronal holes?
– What are the time- and length- scales?
– Larisza: from SOHO, observationally coronal holes boundaries
vary: few hours/~30 Mm
– AIA observations are perfect for this!
– Should spectroscopic observations be used as emissivity in the
EUV might not be enough?
– Dynamics of boundaries should be observable both in coronal and
solar wind observations
– Streamer stalk/HCS: currently observed in solar wind data
– Plumes/jets/rays: observed in coronal images
– Plasma sheet/pseudostreamers
EUV images (AIA & STEREO) + magnetograms
are great for routine automated detection of
coronal holes.
Other observations need to be used to improve
our understanding of how EUV coronal holes
relate to open magnetic field regions  improve
the utility of using EUV coronal holes in
validating models
Coronal holes and open magnetic field regions
are dynamic and their boundaries may not be
the same!
What does this mean for static/steady state
solar wind models?
There is a lot of work still to be done!
A workshop to identify coronal holes &
how best to compare them with models
1) Review and discussing the latest techniques for
identifying coronal holes in solar disk data
2) Ascertaining how modelers and other users can best
make use of coronal hole identifications.
Where: New Mexico State University (NMSU)
Las Cruces, New Mexico
When (if funded): January 2014
If interested, please sendemailto: [email protected]
Organizing Committee: James McAteer, Rachel Hock, Nick Arge, & Carl Henney

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