Delegated Design - Ted Garrison`s Construction 3.0 Strategies

Delegated Design
By: Ted Garrison
New Construction Strategies
[email protected]
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(c) 2103 New Construction Strategies
Learning Objectives
At the end of this course, participants will be able to:
Identify the risks associated with delegated design
and how to avoid them
Explore the desired outcome of delegated design
Implement the advantages of delegated design and
how to exploit them
Move forward to integrate delegated design into your
(c) 2103 New Construction Strategies
Definition of Design Delegation
Design delegation refers to the determination of which
professional or party to a construction project will
have the ultimate responsibility for the design of
components of the project that are designed by a
supplier or subcontractor.
Design-build is reserved for the overall
project delivery method.
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A Brief History
 The Master Builder
 As late as the mid 19th century – Sir Christopher Wren
 Designers wanted to avoid risk of construction & believed
separate contracts was more professional & protected clients
 Major changes occurred as result of Industrial Revolution
• Growth of cities – many new types of buildings
• Frederick Taylor – Scientific Management
 Post WWII changes
• Increased complexity – designers need to collaborate with contractors
• Edwards Deming demonstrated sub optimization doesn’t work
• Introduction of Construction Management (CMAA – 1982)
• Introduction of Design-Build (DBIA – 1993)
• Introduction of Integrated Project Delivery (IPDC – trademark 2005)
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What Are Risks of Design Delegation?
What’s the Risks of Not Using
Design Delegation?
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What’s the Desired Outcome of Delegated Design?
 Improved design &
performance of the final
product –
better results!
 Bring greater expertise
& depth of knowledge to
the design element
 A more efficient design
 Standardized design
 Lower construction costs
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How to Manage Risks of Delegation Design
 Legal
• Professional needs to be licensed in the state of project
• AIA documents require design delegation to be spelled out in the
contract documents
• It’s required as part of contractor’s means & methods
• Contractor includes design work in his bid
• Subject to state & local laws
• Liability focuses on scope – review of shop drawings - contract
 Qualifications of the delegatee – need to establish
• Credentials
• Experience & knowledge of specific situation
• Past performance
• Contractor/vendor has appropriate insurance
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How to Manage Risks of Delegation Design
 Assurance that client’s desires are met
• Delegator should not abdicate design responsibility – must check
to insure conforms to overall design criteria
• Delegator must specify in writing to the delegatee all parameters
which the design must satisfy
• Delegator must provide sufficient information so that delegatee
understands scope and nature of the work & it’s connection to
the general design
• Delegatee must provide all necessary technical data, loads, and
other requirements consistent with good design practices
 Other risks?
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Best Way to Implement Design Delegation
Assign the design risk to the person or
entity that can best manage that risk
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Avoid Making Subjective Decisions
Initial conditions
Event - Project Final conditions
• The more info we have before the event, the
easier it is to predict the final outcome
• The less info we have before the event, the
harder it is to predict the final outcome
• However, the lack of info will never change
the final outcome
• Probability occurs when people don’t
• Must think proactively – not reactively
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What Does It Take to Avoid Decisions?
 Perception – the ability to understand existing conditions
and apply available resources in the best possible way
 What’s required for perception?
• Knowledge
• Experience
• Wisdom
 If you don’t know the answer – what can you do?
• Find someone who knows the answer
• Do more research
• Experiment – for example, test the window wall system
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What Are Our Options?
 Original Approach
• Primary design professional designs everything
 Design Delegation
• Primary design professional does most of the design, but
delegates certain aspects (curtain wall, sprinkler system, stairs,
elevators, etc)
• Primary design professional still responsible for design intent
and for reviewing shop drawing for compliance with intent
(depends on actual contract)
 Design-build/Integrated Project Delivery
• Contractor/design team is totally responsible & liable for the
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How to Move Forward with Design Delegation?
 Assign the best qualified
person to design the item
 Create a collaborative
 Focus on results instead
of how
 Focus on value instead of
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Research Indicates More Collaboration Needed
 1995 USA Construction and Building Sub-committee
 1995 OASIG UK Study
 1997 KPMC Canada Study
 1999 Singapore Construction 21 Report
 2001 Australian Build and Construction Industries
Supply Chain Project
 2002 Canadian Construction Research Board Report
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Select Team Members Based on Performance – Not Price
 Identify sources with
sufficient past experience
• Not just major subject but in a
similar type project
 Require a risk analysis of the
project on their area of
expertise – this identifies
knowledge & wisdom
 Interview key project people
 Review final design!
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Performance Based Studies Research Group
 Selecting team based on performance instead of just
price has had the following results:
• Over billion dollars worth of work on hundreds of projects
• High customer satisfaction
• 98% of projects finish on time, on budget, high quality, and no
contractor generated change orders
1% of projects finished late because contractor didn’t want to
sacrifice quality
The 1% where problems occurred the client selected the low
bidder and ignored performance
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So What Should Be the Primary Designer’s Role?
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What Are Your Thoughts or Questions?
 Identify the risks associated
with delegated design and
how to avoid them
 Explore the desired outcome
of delegated design
 Implement the advantage of
delegated design and how to
exploit them
 Move forward to integrate
delegated design into your
(c) 2103 New Construction Strategies
Final Thoughts
 It’s about picking sides – it’s about how to deliver the
best product for the client
 What’s needed is a collaborative process that engages
people and groups outside of their formal control and
inspires them to work toward common goals – despite
differences in convictions, cultural values, and
operational norms
(c) 2103 New Construction Strategies

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