Impact-Rated Fiberglass Doors for Severe Weather Events This Online Learning Seminar is available through a professional courtesy provided by: Plastpro, Inc. 5200 W. Century Blvd 9F Los Angeles, CA 90045 Toll-Free: 800.779.0558 Fax: 310.693.8620 Email: [email protected] Web: www.plastproinc.com ©2012 Plastpro, Inc. The material contained in this course was researched, assembled, and produced by Plastpro, Inc. and remains its property. “LEED®” and related logo is a trademark owned by the U.S. Green Building Council and is used with permission. IMPACT-RATED FIBERGLASS DOORS FOR SEVERE WEATHER EVENTS Presented By: Plastpro, Inc. 5200 W. Century Blvd 9F Los Angeles, CA 90045 Description: This course reviews damages of past hurricanes, advances in Florida Building Code, and how impact-rated fiberglass doors can protect a home. Provider No: K518 The American Institute of Architects · Course No. HVHZ101A This program qualifies for: 1 LU/HSW Hour Plastpro is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems (AIA/CES). Credit(s) earned on completion of this program will be reported to AIA/CES for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for both AIA members and non-AIA members are available upon request. This program is registered with AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation. LEARNING OBJECTIVES Upon completing this course, you will be able to: Discuss how hurricanes have brought about changes in Florida building codes. Explain new wind zone changes to the Florida code. Describe how weather-related wind and impacts affect doors. List factors of a high-velocity hurricane zone (HVHZ)-rated door that meet new impact code requirements. TABLE OF CONTENTS Hurricanes Change Florida Building Codes 12 How Hurricanes Damage Homes 21 What’s Inside HVHZ – Rated Fiberglass Doors 34 Putting Fiberglass Impact – Rated Doors to the Test 45 56 Summary IMPACT-RATED FIBERGLASS DOORS FOR SEVERE WEATHER EVENTS Introduction When the new Florida Building Code became law in early 2012, door manufacturers had already started beefing up their impact-rated models. Their goal: to create, test and certify doors to meet the most stringent wind and impact code requirements in the nation. While some parts of the Florida peninsula actually saw reduced building envelope requirements for wind and impact resistance — based on a change in how wind speeds are calculated, from theoretical speeds to actual speeds — some regions saw their requirements for protection increased. IMPACT-RATED FIBERGLASS DOORS FOR SEVERE WEATHER EVENTS Introduction: HVHZ The most heavily affected region is referred to as the High Velocity Hurricane Zone, or HVHZ. The HVHZ encompasses some of the most picturesque, southernmost settings of the continental United States — Miami/Dade and Broward counties, which together are home to more than 11 million people. IMPACT-RATED FIBERGLASS DOORS FOR SEVERE WEATHER EVENTS Introduction: Areas Most at Risk More hurricanes have hit Florida than any other state in the Union, and the southernmost part of the state -- jutting out into the Atlantic on one side and the Gulf of Mexico on the other -- has suffered most of the onslaught. On the list of U.S. areas most at risk from hurricanes, “Florida dominates the list with four out of 10 most vulnerable areas,” say researchers from the International Hurricane Research Center at Florida International University in Miami. IMPACT-RATED FIBERGLASS DOORS FOR SEVERE WEATHER EVENTS Introduction: 10 Most Hurricane Vulnerable Areas 1. New Orleans, Louisiana 2. Lake Okeechobee, Florida 3. Florida Keys 4. Coastal Mississippi 5. Miami/Ft. Lauderdale, Florida 6. Galveston/Houston, Texas 7. Cape Hatteras, North Carolina 8. Eastern Long Island, New York 9. Wilmington, North Carolina 10. Tampa/St. Petersburg, Florida. IMPACT-RATED FIBERGLASS DOORS FOR SEVERE WEATHER EVENTS Introduction: Critical Envelope Components In vulnerable areas, exterior impact-rated doors serve as critical envelope components that help keep a home safe during violent wind events. Exterior doors either protect the people inside a house during serious storms, or put them in grave danger if those doors were to fail, allowing water intrusion and pressure that could possibly cause the roof to detach. IMPACT-RATED FIBERGLASS DOORS FOR SEVERE WEATHER EVENTS Introduction: Florida Codes With the country and world suffering through wildly intense weather events, the rest of the country may look more and more to Florida codes as a way to protect homes, save lives, and lessen the tremendous financial burden of rebuilding devastated communities. IMPACT-RATED FIBERGLASS DOORS FOR SEVERE WEATHER EVENTS Introduction: Let’s Begin This presentation focuses on the technology and importance of HVHZ-rated fiberglass doors in storm events, in light of the new codes, and answers these questions: What makes up the skin of a fiberglass door? What’s under the skin? How do these tough, yet eye-catching doors survive nearly unscathed when impacted by an 8-ft long 2-by-4 fired from a cannon-like device in a test lab? This presentation is also about damages brought by nature, and about how the codes requiring this extraordinary, state-of-the- art level of building protection came into existence. Hurricanes Change Florida Building Codes HURRICANES CHANGE FLORIDA BUILDING CODES A History of Florida Hurricanes While the carnage brought by Hurricane Andrew in 1992 was a game changer for Florida codes, the state was a target of tropical depressions, tropical storms and hurricanes long before that. Florida has been hit by nearly 500 hurricanes (also called tropical cyclones) since these destructive forces have been recorded beginning in 1851. Since 1891, only 18 hurricane seasons have passed without Florida getting walloped by a hurricane. Collectively, some 10,272 deaths in the region have been attributed to hurricanes. And the impact from those storms is estimated at more than $150 billion (2008 USD). HURRICANES CHANGE FLORIDA BUILDING CODES A History of Florida Hurricanes: The Great Miami Hurricane The 1926 Miami Hurricane (also called the Great Miami Hurricane) was a Category 4 hurricane that devastated Miami in September of that year. Miami was in the midst of a land boom at the time, and the carnage left by the storm gave the city a head start into the Great Depression. With little warning to inhabitants, the city saw a storm surge of 15 feet. The storm seriously damaged more than 3,500 buildings, leaving up to 50,000 people homeless. Nearly 400 were reported dead, but just as many were missing. HURRICANES CHANGE FLORIDA BUILDING CODES A History of Florida Hurricanes: First Building Code In response to the widespread destruction of buildings in Miami Beach, the first building code in the country was initiated by John J. Farrey, who was appointed the Chief Building, Plumbing and Electrical Inspector. In the 1950s, the city adopted the South Florida Building Code. HURRICANES CHANGE FLORIDA BUILDING CODES A History of Florida Hurricanes: Worst South Florida Hurricanes (Source: South Florida Sun-Sentinel) HURRICANES CHANGE FLORIDA BUILDING CODES A History of Florida Hurricanes: Hurricane Andrew After several decades’ rest for the state from major hurricanes, the infamous Hurricane Andrew slammed into Florida in 1992. It was the first named storm of the year, and hit the Bahamas as a Category 5, destroying 800 homes, and then made land fall on Florida’s Elliot Key and later in Homestead, just south of Miami. HURRICANES CHANGE FLORIDA BUILDING CODES A History of Florida Hurricanes: Hurricane Andrew A wind gust of 177 MPH was recorded in Southern Florida. In Miami-Dade County, more than 100,000 homes were either seriously damaged or completely destroyed, including 90% of the mobile homes. Another 23,000 homes were destroyed in Louisiana. Thanks to improved tracking and communications systems, many evacuated and the storm killed less than 70 people, yet caused around $40 billion in damages (USD 2008), making it the third costliest hurricane in history, behind Katrina in 2005 and Ike in 2008. An aerial view of Dade Country, Florida on August 24, 1992, showing damage from Hurricane Andrew. This storm was one of the most destructive in U.S. history. Source: FEMA HURRICANES CHANGE FLORIDA BUILDING CODES A History of Florida Hurricanes: Building Codes and Enforcement Problems After the storm passed, with scores of homes destroyed, attention turned to the building codes and enforcement problems. While there was a robust building code in place in Southeast Florida when Andrew made landfall it was not well enforced. Studies showed that if the code had been enforced, losses would have been halved. After Hurricane Andrew, Broward and Dade counties passed tough new building codes (then known as the South Florida Building Code), which became effective on Sept. 1, 1994. Among other things, requirements for the new building code included thicker plywood, impact resistant glass or hurricane shutters, and truss tie-downs with minimum uplift force of 700 pounds. HURRICANES CHANGE FLORIDA BUILDING CODES A History of Florida Hurricanes: Newer Homes Suffered Less Damage According to report for the Florida Catastrophic Storm Rick Management Center at Florida State University: “Research shows that newer homes built under tougher building codes perform better in hurricanes. A 2007 study by the Tampa-based Institute for Business and Home Safety, in conjunction with researchers at the University of Florida and the FEMA Mitigation Assessment Team, examined the damage caused by Hurricane Charley and showed that newer homes suffered less damage than older homes, and their owners filed fewer insurance claims. Homes built before 1996 suffered an average loss of $24 per square foot whereas houses built between 1996 and 2004 suffered an average loss of $14 per square foot.” How Hurricanes Damage Homes HOW HURRICANES DAMAGE HOMES Separate but Related Forces Two separate but related forces conspire to destroy homes during a hurricane Pressure Suction Homes built in areas prone to hurricanes, tornadoes or other severe weather events need to be designed to resist severe wind, wind-induced pressures on the windward sides of the structure and suctions on the leeward sides. Massive damage to homes includes sliding off foundations, racking, overturning, roof failure and damage from wind-borne debris. HOW HURRICANES DAMAGE HOMES The Protection of Openings is Perhaps the Greatest Single Loss Mitigation Strategy for a Building The suction effect of wind flowing over a roof creates uplift forces that can strip the roof coverings, sheathing and even the whole assembly. These forces increase dramatically when doors or windows fail, allowing wind to blow into the house and increase pressure. The combination of increased interior pressure and the suction effect of the wind across the roof spells doom for many homes without proper protection. HOW HURRICANES DAMAGE HOMES Separate but Related Forces It’s not just air slamming into a building during a hurricane that does damage; it’s what the wind has picked up on its journey. In areas of Florida designated as “Wind-borne Debris Regions,” the basic assumption is that windows, door and garage doors will be penetrated and broken by flying debris during a hurricane unless they are either impact resistant or protected by some sort of impact-resistant shutter. Impact-resistant doors are generally considered a better option to shuttering, as they are a passive means of protection, requiring no action on the part of the homeowner as a storm approaches. The opening is simply protected. HOW HURRICANES DAMAGE HOMES On the left is the 2012 wind zone impact requirement map. Note that the inland counties of the southern half of the peninsula are required to have impact resistant assemblies for wind speeds up to 150 mph. HOW HURRICANES DAMAGE HOMES Saffir – Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale characterizes hurricanes on a scale of 1 to 5 based on the maximum sustained surface wind speed. In general, damages rise by about a factor of 4 for each category increase. However, this does not address the potential for such other hurricane-related impacts, such as storm surge, rainfall-induced foods, and tornadoes. When these additional factors are considered the rate of increase in damage is much higher. HOW HURRICANES DAMAGE HOMES Codes Created and Improved Insurance companies promoted the first codes, with a focus on fire protection, and later structural and plumbing issues. In 1905, the National Board of Underwriters developed and published the first model building code in the U.S. — the National Building Code. In 1999, the ASTM introduced a standard (E 1996) and test (E 1986) for debris impact. These standards include requirements for both wind pressure and debris impact. Today, Florida has the most stringent building codes and enforcement among the 18 hurricane region states, ranks highest among 18 hurricane-region states. HOW HURRICANES DAMAGE HOMES The National Windstorm Impact Reduction Act of 2004 The National Windstorm Impact Reduction Act of 2004 was created to help reduce damage from windstorms, including tornadoes and thunderstorm, as well as hurricanes. One or more of these weather events pose threats to all 50 states, causing high levels of injuries, deaths, business interruptions and property damage. A primary purpose of the act is coordination among separate agencies whose programs touch on but don’t fully embrace the impacts of windstorms. HOW HURRICANES DAMAGE HOMES The National Windstorm Impact Reduction Act of 2004 Among the research goals of the Act is to evaluate the impact on the built environment and critical infrastructure from wind events by investigating: 1. 2. 3. 4. How they react to wind How those impacts affect the load path The ultimate capacity of the built environment to handle wind The performance during these events of the building envelope, as well as developing and encouraging the implementation of cost-effective mitigation measures. A bill to reauthorize the act through 2014 is pending congressional approval. HOW HURRICANES DAMAGE HOMES Risk Category 1 Risk Category 2 Risk Category 3 and 4 The three wind maps were developed in 2010 to more accurately reflect historical wind data. The map for Risk Category 1 is to set a baseline for engineers to design buildings that are essentially unoccupied, such as sheds, warehouses and outbuildings. The wind levels are low relative to the other two maps. The map for Risk Category 2 aids engineers in designing most occupied buildings, such as single-family homes, apartments and office buildings. The third map is for Risk Categories 3 and 4 combined. This map has the highest winds and largest Wind Borne Debris Zone. This map would design “hardened” buildings that could withstand exceptionally strong storms. Such buildings include designated storm shelters, school gymnasiums as well as those for essential services like police and fire stations and hospitals. HOW HURRICANES DAMAGE HOMES Strengthening Homes Against Hurricanes In 2006, Florida spent $250 million to create the My Safe Florida Home program, designed to help Floridians identify and make improvements to strengthen their homes against hurricanes. According to Rick Dixon, executive director of the Florida Building Commission, while codes to prevent catastrophic failures of homes during hurricanes were improved after Hurricane Andrew, the four storms in 2004 revealed weaknesses in blocking wind and water intrusion. While we can’t control the weather, we can lessen its impacts. Among the most important factors in a home’s survival are strong and resilient doors. HOW HURRICANES DAMAGE HOMES The Research is Ongoing The International Hurricane Research Center (IHRC) at Florida International University in Miami has developed four research institutes: Laboratory of Coastal Research, Laboratory of Social Science Research, Laboratory for Insurance Finance & Economic Research, Laboratory of Wind Engineering Research. Their work includes: o Wall of Wind — The first-of-its-kind full scale, destructive testing of houses to understand how buildings fail and to change the public perception of building safety, just as crash testing of cars led to seat belts and air bags. Loss Model —The IHRC recently completed the first Public Hurricane Loss Projection (Catastrophe) Model that is being used by the State of Florida in its insurance rate making evaluations and policies. oPublic Surge Modeling — The new high-resolution surge model developed by IHRC researchers correctly predicted the 30-foot surge at Waveland, Miss., more than 24 hours before Hurricane Katrina made landfall. The surge drowned hundreds of people who did not believe that the surge could go this high. oStorm Chasing – The deployment of meteorological towers and surge instrumentation at hurricane landfalls to provide information for post-storm assessments. oStorm HOW HURRICANES DAMAGE HOMES Stronger and Safer Homes So what are the results of all these hurricanes, tragedies, losses and subsequent research? The goal is stronger and safer homes that will protect people and reduce property damage, which creates a more resilient community. While we can’t control the weather, we can lessen its impacts. Among the most important factors in a home’s survival are strong and resilient doors. What’s Inside HVHZ – Rated Fiberglass Doors? WHAT’S INSIDE HVHZ – RATED FIBERGLASS DOORS? Fiberglass Entry Doors Fiberglass entry doors were introduced as a solution to steel doors in the 1980s, when homeowners wanted the insulating values of a steel door, with the look of real wood but without the weaknesses of real wood. In the past 30 years, fiberglass door manufacturers have improved their product offerings to include better safety and durability features, as well as improved aesthetics. Today’s fiberglass doors can be machined to include many panel and lite configurations. Some of the most popular impact-rated doors are both solid and glazed. WHAT’S INSIDE HVHZ – RATED FIBERGLASS DOORS? Components of Fiberglass Doors A fiberglass door consists of a door skin made of fiberglass over a polyurethane core, with engineered composite top and bottom rails and composite stiles. HOW HURRICANES DAMAGE HOMES Fiberglass Skin The strong skin of fiberglass doors may be made of sheet molding compound, also known as SMC, a thermo-set molding plastic sheet material made of glass fibers, resins, catalyst, fillers and pigments. The product could be referred to as a “fiber and paste sandwich,” in which cut strands of fiberglass are deposited between layers of resin and filler paste, then run on a carrier tape through rollers on a compacting machine that applies heat and pressure. The end result is a skin of extraordinary strength and versatility. Besides doors, SMC is used for automobile panels, personal watercraft and HVAC systems. When used in an impact-resistant assembly, it prevents water penetration, but will not splinter, dent, warp, rot or rust. That means the door will not degrade over time, retaining its protective value for when the next hurricane strikes. WHAT’S INSIDE HVHZ – RATED FIBERGLASS DOORS? Fiberglass Skin Of course, an impact-rated door loses useful value unless it’s handsome. Fir Mahogany After all, what designer will specify a mousy door? Here is where fiberglass Rustic skins display their versatility. SMCtype doors can mirror the fine-grained detail of a wood door and can be White Oak painted or stained to resemble a number of species of wood, such as Woodgrain mahogany, fir and white oak. Smooth Skin WHAT’S INSIDE HVHZ – RATED FIBERGLASS DOORS? Stiles and Rails These make up the outer edge of the door. Stiles are the vertical pieces of the door that run the full height and compose its left and right edges. The hinges are attached to one side (called the “hanging stile”) and such hardware as the handle, lock and bolt are mounted on the other side (called the “latch stile”). Rails are the horizontal pieces of the door, including the top and bottom rails (sometimes called the “kick rail”), They connect to the two vertical stiles closing the rectangle. WHAT’S INSIDE HVHZ – RATED FIBERGLASS DOORS? Stiles and Rails Composite Stiles While the main body of a fiberglass door is made of fiberglass and polyurethane core, the stiles and rails may be made of steel, wood or composite material. In hurricane- prone and humid or coastal areas, metal stiles are subject to rust, denting, scratching and other problems. Wood stiles are subject to water intrusion and degradation. The composite choice — which is cellular PVC, a mixture of PVC and wood flour — provides maximum durability and moisture protection. Cellular PVC can be cut and trimmed just like wood, but without all the shortcomings associated with wood. Composite Rails WHAT’S INSIDE HVHZ – RATED FIBERGLASS DOORS? Stiles and Rails Ideally, a fiberglass door features full-length composite stiles and rails, rather than a combination of wood and composite. This provides continuous nonporous protection that prevents water from leaking into the door and eliminates potential for mold. As discovered following many destructive hurricanes, the mold that follows the storm is almost as destructive as the initial impacts. According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, “Extensive water damage after major hurricanes and floods increases the likelihood of mold contamination in buildings.” To prevent such an occurrence, the CDC suggests the use of “materials that are not easily biodegradable or which offer a poor substrate for mold growth.” WHAT’S INSIDE HVHZ – RATED FIBERGLASS DOORS? Polyurethane Core Once the skin has been assembled with the rails and stiles, the door is filled with polyurethane foam. This core provides strength, insulation and soundproof capabilities that surpass those of steel and wood. In fact, a quality fiberglass door provides six times more insulation value than a wood door. WHAT’S INSIDE HVHZ – RATED FIBERGLASS DOORS? Frames Traditionally, doors are hung in wood or steel frames, but recent trends indicate increased interest in frames that are made of composite materials. What are the reasons for this growing popularity? Wood frames can warp, rot and crack, while steel frames can rust and dent. Conversely, composite frames made with closed-cell technology can withstand the damaging effects of harsh weather conditions. This material will not absorb moisture and prevents warping, rotting and splitting. WHAT’S INSIDE HVHZ – RATED FIBERGLASS DOORS? When compared to wood and steel doors for hurricane regions, fiberglass doors stand out as an obvious choice; they are resistant to denting and scratching, and will not rot, rust or deteriorate. Regular Maintenance required Putting Fiberglass Impact-Rated Doors to the Test PUTTING FIBERGLASS IMPACT-RATED DOORS TO THE TEST Testing Exterior doors undergo many tests through the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) for air tightness, acoustic performance, and so on. To satisfy requirements in the High Velocity Hurricane Zone, doors must pass stringent requirements. PUTTING FIBERGLASS IMPACT-RATED DOORS TO THE TEST ASTM E 1996 - 09 The standard known as ASTM E 1996 – 09, according to the society, “covers exterior windows, glazed curtain walls, doors and impact protective systems used in buildings located in geographic regions that are prone to hurricanes. The test specimens shall be fenestration assemblies, and impact protective systems; which shall be tested using the large missile test, and small missile test. The air pressure cycling, missiles, and impact location are also detailed.” PUTTING FIBERGLASS IMPACT-RATED DOORS TO THE TEST Impact Testing The Miami-Dade Building Code requires that every exterior opening residential or commercial - be provided with protection against wind-borne debris caused by hurricanes. Such protection could either be shutters or impactresistant products. There are two types of impact-resistant products: largemissile resistant and small- missile resistant PUTTING FIBERGLASS IMPACT-RATED DOORS TO THE TEST Large-Missile Test To be tested as large-missile resistant, a product is exposed to various impacts with a piece of lumber weighing approximately 9 pounds, measuring 2" x 4" x 9’, and traveling at a speed of 50 feet per second (34 mph). Then, the product is subjected to “hurricane loading” of 9,000 wind cycles, positive and negative. PUTTING FIBERGLASS IMPACT-RATED DOORS TO THE TEST Small-Missile Testing For testing as small-missile resistant, the product is then exposed to various impacts with 10 ball bearings traveling at a speed of 80 feet per second (50 mph). The product is then subjected to wind loads for 9,000 cycles. If the doors and windows are more than 30 feet from the ground, they must be either large or small missile compliant. PUTTING FIBERGLASS IMPACT-RATED DOORS TO THE TEST Impact Testing This standard leads to ASTM E 1886 – 09 test, whose formal title is: “Standard Test Method for Performance of Exterior Windows, Curtain Walls, Doors, and Impact Protective Systems Impacted by Missile(s) and Exposed to Cyclic Pressure Differentials.” ASTM E 1886 tests the impact resistance of exterior fenestration products. It identifies products that can withstand impact of large and small objects that would be similar to wind-borne debris during severe weather. This test shows to what degree a door can remain unbreached during a windstorm. PUTTING FIBERGLASS IMPACT-RATED DOORS TO THE TEST Installed as Tested: Inspectors Increase Enforcement To meet code in an HVHZ region, doors and their components must be installed as tested. That means that if a glazed door is tested with a certain brand of glass, or a door is tested with certain type of hardware, those exact components must also be installed for the code requirements to be achieved. According to Scott Johnson, director of research and development for HVHZrated fiberglass door manufacturer Plastpro Inc., inspectors are increasingly enforcing the “installed as tested” part of the code. PUTTING FIBERGLASS IMPACT-RATED DOORS TO THE TEST Installed as Tested: Inspectors Increase Enforcement For architects and builders, they should seek out HVHZ-rated doors that have been tested and certified with a variety of different components — such as hardware, glazing and thresholds — to provide the most flexibility for design and competitive pricing. Those certified testing results can be found on manufacturer’s websites, usually under tabs titled “Resources” or “Testing,” or “Product Approvals.” Or, HVHZ product approvals can be searched on the website of the Florida Dept. of Business and Professional Regulation (www.floridabuilding.org). PUTTING FIBERGLASS IMPACT-RATED DOORS TO THE TEST Installed as Tested: Inspectors Increase Enforcement While the introduction of new or amended codes can be frustrating and confusing for the building trades, the constant evolution of codes — especially those designed to protect vulnerable openings during hurricanes — is sure to save lives and cut down on building failure. PUTTING FIBERGLASS IMPACT-RATED DOORS TO THE TEST Installed as Tested: Inspectors Increase Enforcement Even without codes dictating HVHZ-rated doors, homeowners in other parts of the country will surely be attracted to strong and protective doors that meet the most stringent building codes in the land. The terms “Florida rated” and “Miami-Dade County Approved” are quickly becoming shorthand for “the best protection available.” Summary SUMMARY All regions in Florida saw increased building envelope requirements for impact and wind resistance in the 2012 update of the Florida Building Code The first building code in the country was introduced by John J. Farrey in response to the destruction of buildings in Miami Beach following the 1926 Great Miami Hurricane. Studies show that if building codes had been enforced, losses from Hurricane Andrew would have been halved. Two separate but related forces conspire to destroy homes during a hurricane — pressure and suction In areas of Florida designated as “Wind-borne Debris Regions,” the basic assumption is that windows, door and garage doors will be penetrated and broken by flying debris during a hurricane unless they are either impact resistant or protected by some sort of impact-resistant shutter. SUMMARY The International Hurricane Research Center (IHRC) at Florida International University in Miami has developed four research institutes. Their research has shown that strong and resilient doors are among the most important factor in a home’s survival. The strong skin of fiberglass door will not splinter, dent, warp, rot or rust When doors have steel or wood components (such as stiles, rails and frames) they are susceptible to warp, rot, rust and impact damage. To satisfy requirements in the High Velocity Hurricane Zone, doors must pass stringent requirements such as the ASTM E 1996-09 test and the ASTM E 1886 09 test. To meet code in an HVHZ region, doors and their components must be installed as tested. That means that if a glazed door is tested with a certain brand of glass, or a door is tested with certain type of hardware, those exact components must also be installed for the code requirements to be achieved. Inspectors are increasingly enforcing the “installed as tested” part of the code.