Impact Rated Fiberglass Doors for Severe Weather Events

Report
Impact-Rated Fiberglass Doors for
Severe Weather Events
This Online Learning Seminar is
available through a professional
courtesy provided by:
Plastpro, Inc.
5200 W. Century Blvd 9F
Los Angeles, CA 90045
Toll-Free: 800.779.0558
Fax: 310.693.8620
Email: [email protected]
Web: www.plastproinc.com
©2012 Plastpro, Inc. The material contained in this course was researched, assembled, and produced by Plastpro, Inc. and remains
its property. “LEED®” and related logo is a trademark owned by the U.S. Green Building Council and is used with permission.
IMPACT-RATED FIBERGLASS DOORS
FOR SEVERE WEATHER EVENTS
Presented By:
Plastpro, Inc.
5200 W. Century Blvd 9F
Los Angeles, CA 90045
Description:
This course reviews damages of past hurricanes, advances in Florida Building Code, and
how impact-rated fiberglass doors can protect a home.
Provider No: K518
The American Institute of Architects · Course No. HVHZ101A
This program qualifies for: 1 LU/HSW Hour
Plastpro is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems
(AIA/CES). Credit(s) earned on completion of this program will be reported to AIA/CES for AIA members.
Certificates of Completion for both AIA members and non-AIA members are available upon request. This
program is registered with AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include
content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of
construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product.
Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this
presentation.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Upon completing this course, you will be able to:

Discuss how hurricanes have brought about changes in Florida building codes.

Explain new wind zone changes to the Florida code.

Describe how weather-related wind and impacts affect doors.

List factors of a high-velocity hurricane zone (HVHZ)-rated door that meet new
impact code requirements.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Hurricanes Change Florida Building Codes
12

How Hurricanes Damage Homes
21

What’s Inside HVHZ – Rated Fiberglass Doors
34

Putting Fiberglass Impact – Rated Doors to the
Test
45
56

Summary
IMPACT-RATED FIBERGLASS DOORS
FOR SEVERE WEATHER EVENTS
Introduction
When the new Florida Building Code became law in early 2012, door
manufacturers had already started beefing up their impact-rated models. Their
goal: to create, test and certify doors to meet the most stringent wind and
impact code requirements in the nation.
While some parts of the Florida peninsula actually saw reduced building
envelope requirements for wind and impact resistance — based on a change in
how wind speeds are calculated, from theoretical speeds to actual speeds —
some regions saw their requirements for protection increased.
IMPACT-RATED FIBERGLASS DOORS
FOR SEVERE WEATHER EVENTS
Introduction: HVHZ
The most heavily affected region is
referred to as the High Velocity
Hurricane Zone, or HVHZ. The
HVHZ encompasses some of the most
picturesque, southernmost settings of
the continental United States —
Miami/Dade and Broward counties,
which together are home to more than
11 million people.
IMPACT-RATED FIBERGLASS DOORS
FOR SEVERE WEATHER EVENTS
Introduction: Areas Most at Risk
More hurricanes have hit Florida than any other state in the Union, and the
southernmost part of the state -- jutting out into the Atlantic on one side and the
Gulf of Mexico on the other -- has suffered most of the onslaught.
On the list of U.S. areas most at risk from hurricanes, “Florida dominates the
list with four out of 10 most vulnerable areas,” say researchers from the
International Hurricane Research Center at Florida International University in
Miami.
IMPACT-RATED FIBERGLASS DOORS
FOR SEVERE WEATHER EVENTS
Introduction: 10 Most Hurricane Vulnerable Areas
1. New Orleans, Louisiana
2. Lake Okeechobee, Florida
3. Florida Keys
4. Coastal Mississippi
5. Miami/Ft. Lauderdale, Florida
6. Galveston/Houston, Texas
7. Cape Hatteras, North Carolina
8. Eastern Long Island, New York
9. Wilmington, North Carolina
10. Tampa/St. Petersburg, Florida.
IMPACT-RATED FIBERGLASS DOORS
FOR SEVERE WEATHER EVENTS
Introduction: Critical Envelope Components
In vulnerable areas, exterior impact-rated doors serve as critical envelope
components that help keep a home safe during violent wind events. Exterior
doors either protect the people inside a house during serious storms, or put
them in grave danger if those doors were to fail, allowing water intrusion and
pressure that could possibly cause the roof to detach.
IMPACT-RATED FIBERGLASS DOORS
FOR SEVERE WEATHER EVENTS
Introduction: Florida Codes
With the country and world suffering through wildly intense weather events,
the rest of the country may look more and more to Florida codes as a way to
protect homes, save lives, and lessen the tremendous financial burden of
rebuilding devastated communities.
IMPACT-RATED FIBERGLASS DOORS
FOR SEVERE WEATHER EVENTS
Introduction: Let’s Begin
This presentation focuses on the technology and importance of HVHZ-rated
fiberglass doors in storm events, in light of the new codes, and answers these
questions:

What makes up the skin of a fiberglass door?

What’s under the skin?

How do these tough, yet eye-catching doors survive nearly unscathed when
impacted by an 8-ft long 2-by-4 fired from a cannon-like device in a test lab?
This presentation is also about damages brought by nature, and about how the
codes requiring this extraordinary, state-of-the- art level of building protection
came into existence.
Hurricanes Change Florida
Building Codes
HURRICANES CHANGE FLORIDA
BUILDING CODES
A History of Florida Hurricanes
While the carnage brought by Hurricane Andrew in 1992 was a game changer
for Florida codes, the state was a target of tropical depressions, tropical storms
and hurricanes long before that.
Florida has been hit by nearly 500 hurricanes (also called tropical cyclones)
since these destructive forces have been recorded beginning in 1851. Since
1891, only 18 hurricane seasons have passed without Florida getting walloped
by a hurricane. Collectively, some 10,272 deaths in the region have been
attributed to hurricanes. And the impact from those storms is estimated at more
than $150 billion (2008 USD).
HURRICANES CHANGE FLORIDA
BUILDING CODES
A History of Florida Hurricanes: The Great Miami Hurricane
The 1926 Miami Hurricane (also called the Great Miami Hurricane) was a
Category 4 hurricane that devastated Miami in September of that year. Miami
was in the midst of a land boom at the time, and the carnage left by the storm
gave the city a head start into the Great Depression. With little warning to
inhabitants, the city saw a storm surge of 15 feet. The storm seriously damaged
more than 3,500 buildings, leaving up to 50,000 people homeless. Nearly 400
were reported dead, but just as many were missing.
HURRICANES CHANGE FLORIDA
BUILDING CODES
A History of Florida Hurricanes: First Building Code
In response to the widespread destruction of buildings in Miami Beach, the
first building code in the country was initiated by John J. Farrey, who was
appointed the Chief Building, Plumbing and Electrical Inspector. In the 1950s,
the city adopted the South Florida Building Code.
HURRICANES CHANGE FLORIDA
BUILDING CODES
A History of Florida Hurricanes: Worst South Florida Hurricanes
(Source: South Florida Sun-Sentinel)
HURRICANES CHANGE FLORIDA
BUILDING CODES
A History of Florida Hurricanes: Hurricane Andrew
After several decades’ rest for the
state from major hurricanes, the
infamous Hurricane Andrew
slammed into Florida in 1992. It was
the first named storm of the year,
and hit the Bahamas as a Category 5,
destroying 800 homes, and then
made land fall on Florida’s Elliot
Key and later in Homestead, just
south of Miami.
HURRICANES CHANGE FLORIDA
BUILDING CODES
A History of Florida Hurricanes:
Hurricane Andrew
A wind gust of 177 MPH was recorded in
Southern Florida. In Miami-Dade County,
more than 100,000 homes were either
seriously damaged or completely destroyed,
including 90% of the mobile homes. Another
23,000 homes were destroyed in Louisiana.
Thanks to improved tracking and
communications systems, many evacuated
and the storm killed less than 70 people, yet
caused around $40 billion in damages (USD
2008), making it the third costliest hurricane
in history, behind Katrina in 2005 and Ike in
2008.
An aerial view of Dade Country, Florida on
August 24, 1992, showing damage from
Hurricane Andrew. This storm was one of
the most destructive in U.S. history. Source:
FEMA
HURRICANES CHANGE FLORIDA
BUILDING CODES
A History of Florida Hurricanes: Building Codes and
Enforcement Problems
After the storm passed, with scores of homes destroyed, attention turned to the
building codes and enforcement problems. While there was a robust building code
in place in Southeast Florida when Andrew made landfall it was not well enforced.
Studies showed that if the code had been enforced, losses would have been halved.
After Hurricane Andrew, Broward and Dade counties passed tough new building
codes (then known as the South Florida Building Code), which became effective on
Sept. 1, 1994. Among other things, requirements for the new building code included
thicker plywood, impact resistant glass or hurricane shutters, and truss tie-downs
with minimum uplift force of 700 pounds.
HURRICANES CHANGE FLORIDA
BUILDING CODES
A History of Florida Hurricanes: Newer Homes Suffered Less
Damage
According to report for the Florida Catastrophic Storm Rick Management
Center at Florida State University: “Research shows that newer homes built
under tougher building codes perform better in hurricanes. A 2007 study by the
Tampa-based Institute for Business and Home Safety, in conjunction with
researchers at the University of Florida and the FEMA Mitigation Assessment
Team, examined the damage caused by Hurricane Charley and showed that
newer homes suffered less damage than older homes, and their owners filed
fewer insurance claims. Homes built before 1996 suffered an average loss of
$24 per square foot whereas houses built between 1996 and 2004 suffered an
average loss of $14 per square foot.”
How Hurricanes
Damage Homes
HOW HURRICANES DAMAGE HOMES
Separate but Related Forces
Two separate but related forces conspire to destroy homes during a hurricane


Pressure
Suction
Homes built in areas prone to hurricanes, tornadoes or other severe weather events
need to be designed to resist severe wind, wind-induced pressures on the windward
sides of the structure and suctions on the leeward sides.
Massive damage to homes includes sliding off foundations, racking, overturning,
roof failure and damage from wind-borne debris.
HOW HURRICANES DAMAGE HOMES
The Protection of Openings is Perhaps the Greatest Single Loss
Mitigation Strategy for a Building
The suction effect of wind flowing over a roof creates uplift forces that can strip
the roof coverings, sheathing and even the whole assembly. These forces
increase dramatically when doors or windows fail, allowing wind to blow into
the house and increase pressure. The combination of increased interior pressure
and the suction effect of the wind across the roof spells doom for many homes
without proper protection.
HOW HURRICANES DAMAGE HOMES
Separate but Related Forces
It’s not just air slamming into a building during a hurricane that does damage;
it’s what the wind has picked up on its journey.
In areas of Florida designated as “Wind-borne Debris Regions,” the basic
assumption is that windows, door and garage doors will be penetrated and
broken by flying debris during a hurricane unless they are either impact
resistant or protected by some sort of impact-resistant shutter.
Impact-resistant doors are generally considered a better option to shuttering, as
they are a passive means of protection, requiring no action on the part of the
homeowner as a storm approaches. The opening is simply protected.
HOW HURRICANES DAMAGE HOMES
 On the left is the 2012 wind zone
impact requirement map. Note that the
inland counties of the southern half of the
peninsula are required to have impact
resistant assemblies for wind speeds up to
150 mph.
HOW HURRICANES DAMAGE HOMES
Saffir – Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale
The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale characterizes hurricanes on a scale of
1 to 5 based on the maximum sustained surface wind speed. In general,
damages rise by about a factor of 4 for each category increase. However, this
does not address the potential for such other hurricane-related impacts, such as
storm surge, rainfall-induced foods, and tornadoes. When these additional
factors are considered the rate of increase in damage is much higher.
HOW HURRICANES DAMAGE HOMES
Codes Created and Improved
Insurance companies promoted the first codes, with a focus on fire protection,
and later structural and plumbing issues. In 1905, the National Board of
Underwriters developed and published the first model building code in the U.S.
— the National Building Code.
In 1999, the ASTM introduced a standard (E 1996) and test (E 1986) for debris
impact. These standards include requirements for both wind pressure and debris
impact.
Today, Florida has the most stringent building codes and enforcement among
the 18 hurricane region states, ranks highest among 18 hurricane-region states.
HOW HURRICANES DAMAGE HOMES
The National Windstorm Impact Reduction Act of 2004
The National Windstorm Impact Reduction Act of 2004 was created to help
reduce damage from windstorms, including tornadoes and thunderstorm, as well
as hurricanes. One or more of these weather events pose threats to all 50 states,
causing high levels of injuries, deaths, business interruptions and property
damage.
A primary purpose of the act is coordination among separate agencies whose
programs touch on but don’t fully embrace the impacts of windstorms.
HOW HURRICANES DAMAGE HOMES
The National Windstorm Impact Reduction Act of 2004
Among the research goals of the Act is to evaluate the impact on the built
environment and critical infrastructure from wind events by investigating:
1.
2.
3.
4.
How they react to wind
How those impacts affect the load path
The ultimate capacity of the built environment to handle wind
The performance during these events of the building envelope, as well as
developing and encouraging the implementation of cost-effective mitigation
measures.
A bill to reauthorize the act through 2014 is pending congressional approval.
HOW HURRICANES DAMAGE HOMES
Risk Category 1
Risk Category 2
Risk Category 3 and 4
The three wind maps were developed in 2010 to more accurately reflect historical wind data. The map for Risk Category 1 is to
set a baseline for engineers to design buildings that are essentially unoccupied, such as sheds, warehouses and outbuildings.
The wind levels are low relative to the other two maps.
The map for Risk Category 2 aids engineers in designing most occupied buildings, such as single-family homes, apartments
and office buildings.
The third map is for Risk Categories 3 and 4 combined. This map has the highest winds and largest Wind Borne Debris Zone.
This map would design “hardened” buildings that could withstand exceptionally strong storms. Such buildings include
designated storm shelters, school gymnasiums as well as those for essential services like police and fire stations and hospitals.
HOW HURRICANES DAMAGE HOMES
Strengthening Homes Against Hurricanes
In 2006, Florida spent $250 million to create the My Safe Florida Home
program, designed to help Floridians identify and make improvements to
strengthen their homes against hurricanes.
According to Rick Dixon, executive director of the Florida Building
Commission, while codes to prevent catastrophic failures of homes during
hurricanes were improved after Hurricane Andrew, the four storms in 2004
revealed weaknesses in blocking wind and water intrusion.
While we can’t control the weather, we can lessen its impacts. Among the most
important factors in a home’s survival are strong and resilient doors.
HOW HURRICANES DAMAGE HOMES
The Research is Ongoing
The International Hurricane Research Center (IHRC) at Florida International University in Miami has
developed four research institutes: Laboratory of Coastal Research, Laboratory of Social Science Research,
Laboratory for Insurance Finance & Economic Research, Laboratory of Wind Engineering Research.
Their work includes:
o Wall of Wind — The first-of-its-kind full scale, destructive testing of houses to understand how buildings fail
and to change the public perception of building safety, just as crash testing of cars led to seat belts and air bags.
Loss Model —The IHRC recently completed the first Public Hurricane Loss Projection (Catastrophe)
Model that is being used by the State of Florida in its insurance rate making evaluations and policies.
oPublic
Surge Modeling — The new high-resolution surge model developed by IHRC researchers correctly
predicted the 30-foot surge at Waveland, Miss., more than 24 hours before Hurricane Katrina made landfall.
The surge drowned hundreds of people who did not believe that the surge could go this high.
oStorm
Chasing – The deployment of meteorological towers and surge instrumentation at hurricane landfalls to
provide information for post-storm assessments.
oStorm
HOW HURRICANES DAMAGE HOMES
Stronger and Safer Homes
So what are the results of all these hurricanes, tragedies, losses and subsequent
research?
The goal is stronger and safer homes that will protect people and reduce
property damage, which creates a more resilient community. While we can’t
control the weather, we can lessen its impacts. Among the most important
factors in a home’s survival are strong and resilient doors.
What’s Inside HVHZ – Rated
Fiberglass Doors?
WHAT’S INSIDE HVHZ – RATED
FIBERGLASS DOORS?
Fiberglass Entry Doors
Fiberglass entry doors were introduced as a solution to steel doors in the 1980s,
when homeowners wanted the insulating values of a steel door, with the look of
real wood but without the weaknesses of real wood.
In the past 30 years, fiberglass door manufacturers have improved their product
offerings to include better safety and durability features, as well as improved
aesthetics. Today’s fiberglass doors can be machined to include many panel and
lite configurations. Some of the most popular impact-rated doors are both solid
and glazed.
WHAT’S INSIDE HVHZ – RATED
FIBERGLASS DOORS?
Components of
Fiberglass Doors
A fiberglass door consists of a
door skin made of fiberglass
over a polyurethane core, with
engineered composite top and
bottom rails and composite
stiles.
HOW HURRICANES DAMAGE HOMES
Fiberglass Skin
The strong skin of fiberglass doors may be made of sheet molding compound,
also known as SMC, a thermo-set molding plastic sheet material made of glass
fibers, resins, catalyst, fillers and pigments. The product could be referred to as
a “fiber and paste sandwich,” in which cut strands of fiberglass are deposited
between layers of resin and filler paste, then run on a carrier tape through rollers
on a compacting machine that applies heat and pressure.
The end result is a skin of extraordinary strength and versatility. Besides doors,
SMC is used for automobile panels, personal watercraft and HVAC systems.
When used in an impact-resistant assembly, it prevents water penetration, but
will not splinter, dent, warp, rot or rust. That means the door will not degrade
over time, retaining its protective value for when the next hurricane strikes.
WHAT’S INSIDE HVHZ – RATED
FIBERGLASS DOORS?
Fiberglass Skin
Of course, an impact-rated door loses
useful value unless it’s handsome.
Fir
Mahogany
After all, what designer will specify a
mousy door? Here is where fiberglass
Rustic
skins display their versatility. SMCtype doors can mirror the fine-grained
detail of a wood door and can be
White Oak
painted or stained to resemble a
number of species of wood, such as
Woodgrain
mahogany, fir and white oak.
Smooth Skin
WHAT’S INSIDE HVHZ – RATED
FIBERGLASS DOORS?
Stiles and Rails
These make up the outer edge of the door. Stiles are
the vertical pieces of the door that run the full height
and compose its left and right edges. The hinges are
attached to one side (called the “hanging stile”) and
such hardware as the handle, lock and bolt are
mounted on the other side (called the “latch stile”).
Rails are the horizontal pieces of the door, including
the top and bottom rails (sometimes called the “kick
rail”), They connect to the two vertical stiles closing
the rectangle.
WHAT’S INSIDE HVHZ – RATED
FIBERGLASS DOORS?
Stiles and Rails
Composite Stiles
While the main body of a fiberglass door is made of
fiberglass and polyurethane core, the stiles and rails may be
made of steel, wood or composite material. In hurricane-
prone and humid or coastal areas, metal stiles are subject to
rust, denting, scratching and other problems. Wood stiles are
subject to water intrusion and degradation. The composite
choice — which is cellular PVC, a mixture of PVC and wood
flour — provides maximum durability and moisture
protection. Cellular PVC can be cut and trimmed just like
wood, but without all the shortcomings associated with
wood.
Composite Rails
WHAT’S INSIDE HVHZ – RATED
FIBERGLASS DOORS?
Stiles and Rails
Ideally, a fiberglass door features full-length composite stiles and rails, rather
than a combination of wood and composite. This provides continuous nonporous protection that prevents water from leaking into the door and eliminates
potential for mold. As discovered following many destructive hurricanes, the
mold that follows the storm is almost as destructive as the initial impacts.
According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, “Extensive water damage
after major hurricanes and floods increases the likelihood of mold
contamination in buildings.” To prevent such an occurrence, the CDC suggests
the use of “materials that are not easily biodegradable or which offer a poor
substrate for mold growth.”
WHAT’S INSIDE HVHZ – RATED
FIBERGLASS DOORS?
Polyurethane Core
Once the skin has been assembled with the rails and stiles, the door is filled
with polyurethane foam. This core provides strength, insulation and soundproof
capabilities that surpass those of steel and wood. In fact, a quality fiberglass
door provides six times more insulation value than a wood door.
WHAT’S INSIDE HVHZ – RATED
FIBERGLASS DOORS?
Frames
Traditionally, doors are hung in wood or steel
frames, but recent trends indicate increased interest
in frames that are made of composite materials.
What are the reasons for this growing popularity?
Wood frames can warp, rot and crack, while steel
frames can rust and dent. Conversely, composite
frames made with closed-cell technology can
withstand the damaging effects of harsh weather
conditions. This material will not absorb moisture
and prevents warping, rotting and splitting.
WHAT’S INSIDE HVHZ – RATED
FIBERGLASS DOORS?
When compared to
wood and steel doors
for hurricane regions,
fiberglass doors stand
out as an obvious
choice; they are
resistant to denting
and scratching, and
will not rot, rust or
deteriorate.
Regular Maintenance required
Putting Fiberglass Impact-Rated
Doors to the Test
PUTTING FIBERGLASS IMPACT-RATED
DOORS TO THE TEST
Testing
Exterior doors undergo many tests through the American Society for Testing
and Materials (ASTM) for air tightness, acoustic performance, and so on.
To satisfy requirements in the High Velocity Hurricane Zone, doors must pass
stringent requirements.
PUTTING FIBERGLASS IMPACT-RATED
DOORS TO THE TEST
ASTM E 1996 - 09
The standard known as ASTM E 1996 – 09, according to the society, “covers
exterior windows, glazed curtain walls, doors and impact protective systems
used in buildings located in geographic regions that are prone to hurricanes. The
test specimens shall be fenestration assemblies, and impact protective systems;
which shall be tested using the large missile test, and small missile test. The air
pressure cycling, missiles, and impact location are also detailed.”
PUTTING FIBERGLASS IMPACT-RATED
DOORS TO THE TEST
Impact Testing
The Miami-Dade Building Code requires that every exterior opening residential or commercial - be provided with protection against wind-borne
debris caused by hurricanes. Such protection could either be shutters or impactresistant products. There are two types of impact-resistant products: largemissile resistant and small- missile resistant
PUTTING FIBERGLASS IMPACT-RATED
DOORS TO THE TEST
Large-Missile Test
To be tested as large-missile resistant, a product is exposed to various impacts
with a piece of lumber weighing approximately 9 pounds, measuring 2" x 4" x
9’, and traveling at a speed of 50 feet per second (34 mph). Then, the product is
subjected to “hurricane loading” of 9,000 wind cycles, positive and negative.
PUTTING FIBERGLASS IMPACT-RATED
DOORS TO THE TEST
Small-Missile Testing
For testing as small-missile resistant, the product is then exposed to various
impacts with 10 ball bearings traveling at a speed of 80 feet per second (50
mph). The product is then subjected to wind loads for 9,000 cycles. If the doors
and windows are more than 30 feet from the ground, they must be either large
or small missile compliant.
PUTTING FIBERGLASS IMPACT-RATED
DOORS TO THE TEST
Impact Testing
This standard leads to ASTM E 1886 – 09 test, whose formal title is: “Standard
Test Method for Performance of Exterior Windows, Curtain Walls, Doors, and
Impact Protective Systems Impacted by Missile(s) and Exposed to Cyclic
Pressure Differentials.”
ASTM E 1886 tests the impact resistance of exterior fenestration products. It
identifies products that can withstand impact of large and small objects that
would be similar to wind-borne debris during severe weather. This test shows to
what degree a door can remain unbreached during a windstorm.
PUTTING FIBERGLASS IMPACT-RATED
DOORS TO THE TEST
Installed as Tested: Inspectors Increase Enforcement
To meet code in an HVHZ region, doors and their components must be installed
as tested. That means that if a glazed door is tested with a certain brand of glass,
or a door is tested with certain type of hardware, those exact components must
also be installed for the code requirements to be achieved.
According to Scott Johnson, director of research and development for HVHZrated fiberglass door manufacturer Plastpro Inc., inspectors are increasingly
enforcing the “installed as tested” part of the code.
PUTTING FIBERGLASS IMPACT-RATED
DOORS TO THE TEST
Installed as Tested: Inspectors Increase Enforcement
For architects and builders, they should seek out HVHZ-rated doors that have
been tested and certified with a variety of different components — such as
hardware, glazing and thresholds — to provide the most flexibility for design
and competitive pricing. Those certified testing results can be found on
manufacturer’s websites, usually under tabs titled “Resources” or “Testing,” or
“Product Approvals.” Or, HVHZ product approvals can be searched on the
website of the Florida Dept. of Business and Professional Regulation
(www.floridabuilding.org).
PUTTING FIBERGLASS IMPACT-RATED
DOORS TO THE TEST
Installed as Tested: Inspectors Increase Enforcement
While the introduction of new or amended codes can be frustrating
and confusing for the building trades, the constant evolution of codes
— especially those designed to protect vulnerable openings during
hurricanes — is sure to save lives and cut down on building failure.
PUTTING FIBERGLASS IMPACT-RATED
DOORS TO THE TEST
Installed as Tested: Inspectors Increase Enforcement
Even without codes dictating HVHZ-rated doors, homeowners in
other parts of the country will surely be attracted to strong and
protective doors that meet the most stringent building codes in the
land. The terms “Florida rated” and “Miami-Dade County Approved”
are quickly becoming shorthand for “the best protection available.”
Summary
SUMMARY

All regions in Florida saw increased building envelope requirements for
impact and wind resistance in the 2012 update of the Florida Building Code

The first building code in the country was introduced by John J. Farrey in
response to the destruction of buildings in Miami Beach following the 1926
Great Miami Hurricane.

Studies show that if building codes had been enforced, losses from Hurricane
Andrew would have been halved.

Two separate but related forces conspire to destroy homes during a hurricane
— pressure and suction

In areas of Florida designated as “Wind-borne Debris Regions,” the basic
assumption is that windows, door and garage doors will be penetrated and
broken by flying debris during a hurricane unless they are either impact
resistant or protected by some sort of impact-resistant shutter.
SUMMARY

The International Hurricane Research Center (IHRC) at Florida International
University in Miami has developed four research institutes. Their research has
shown that strong and resilient doors are among the most important factor in a
home’s survival.

The strong skin of fiberglass door will not splinter, dent, warp, rot or rust

When doors have steel or wood components (such as stiles, rails and frames) they
are susceptible to warp, rot, rust and impact damage.

To satisfy requirements in the High Velocity Hurricane Zone, doors must pass
stringent requirements such as the ASTM E 1996-09 test and the ASTM E 1886
09 test.

To meet code in an HVHZ region, doors and their components must be installed
as tested. That means that if a glazed door is tested with a certain brand of glass,
or a door is tested with certain type of hardware, those exact components must
also be installed for the code requirements to be achieved. Inspectors are
increasingly enforcing the “installed as tested” part of the code.

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