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Perspective Projection
Perspective Projection
 During the Renaissance artists became interested in making twodimensional artwork look three-dimensional.
 Renaissance- (1450-1600): The Renaissance began in Italy and spread
through Northern Europe. Art, Science, and Literature grew during this
time.
Perspective Projection
Many of the earlier works
artists created showed little
depth.
Perspective Projection
Artists used mathematics and close observation to invent linear perspective.
Linear perspective allows artists to trick the eye into seeing depth on a flat surface.
The Illusion of Perspective
The Illusion of Perspective
The Illusion of Perspective
Which man is the largest??
Perspective
► A perspective drawing closely resembles what the eye
can actually see. It is an accurate 3D drawing.
► Objects that are the same size
appear smaller in the distance
almost like an optical illusion.
(Father Ted)
► Examples are the fence posts in the distance. They
appear smaller in the distance although the are the
same size.
Height of
Spectator 1
Spectators
Height of
Spectator 2
Line of Vision
Line of Vision
Spectator
Cone of
Vision
Line of Vision
Cone of
Vision
The horizon line is a line on the picture plane at the eye level of the spectator.
Horizon line
Horizon line below the object.
Horizon line
Horizon line
Horizon line above the object.
Terms Used In Perspective Drawing
Picture Plane
Spectator’s View
Centre line of vison
Spectator
Elevation
Centre line
of vison
Plan
Picture Plane
The Cone Of Vision
• If you look straight ahead you
will see things in focus but
objects over to one side will not
be clear unless you turn your
head.
• Similarly in perspective this area
exists which is 30° to the centre
line of vision.
The Cone Of Vision
Distorted
Vison in focus
30°
Spectator
Centre line of vison
30°
Distorted
Ground line
Distorted
Vison in focus
Spectator
30°
30°
Distorted
Centre line of vison
The Picture Plane
The Picture Plane
As with all projection systems the image is projected onto a plane.
The picture plane can be positioned in three areas;
• Between the spectator and the object.
• Passing through the object.
• Behind the object.
Spectator
The Picture Plane is positioned between the spectator and the object
Spectator
The Picture Plane is positioned between the spectator and the object
Spectator
The Picture Plane is positioned between the spectator and the object
Spectator
The Picture Plane is positioned between the spectator and the object
Spectator
The Picture Plane is positioned between the spectator and the object
Spectator
The Picture Plane is passing through the object
Spectator
The Picture Plane is passing through the object
Spectator
The Picture Plane is passing through the object
Spectator
The Picture Plane is passing through the object
Spectator
The Picture Plane is passing through the object
Spectator
The Picture Plane is passing through the object
Spectator
Spectator
The Picture Plane is behind the object
Spectator
The Picture Plane is behind the object
Spectator
The Picture Plane is behind the object
Spectator
The Picture Plane is behind the object
Spectator
The Picture Plane is behind the object
Spectator
One Point Perspective
One Point Perspective
Horizontal lines remain Horizontal.
Vertical lines remain Vertical.
The Orthogonal lines formed from the corners diverge to the
vanishing point.
One Point Perspective
One Point Perspective
CAT
Vanishing Point
Horizon Line
Orthaganol Lines
Horizon Line
One Point Perspective
Ground Line
Picture Plane
Spectator
One Point Perspective
One Point Perspective
One Point Perspective
One Point Perspective
Two Point Perspective
Horizon Line
VP 1
VP 2
Two Point Perspective
Horizon Line
VP 1
Ground
VP 2
Spectator
Picture Plane
Two Point Perspective
Two Point Perspective
VP1
Horizon Line
VP2
VP1
Horizon Line
VP2
VP1
Horizon Line
VP2
VP1
Horizon Line
VP2
VP1
Horizon Line
VP2
VP1
Horizon Line
VP2
VP1
Horizon Line
VP2
VP1
Horizon Line
VP2
VP1
Horizon Line
VP2
VP1
Horizon Line
VP2
VP1
Horizon Line
VP2
VP1
Horizon Line
VP2
VP 1
VP 2
Spectator
Inclined Lines In Perspective
Vanishing Points of Inclined Lines
VP 3
VP 1
VP 4
VP 2
Horizon
Line
Ground
Line
Picture
Plane
Spectator
Auxiliary Vanishing Points
Picture Plane
VP 3
Horizon Line
VP 1
Ground
Spectator
VP 2
Finding Auxiliary Vanishing Points
Elevation
Plan
Picture Plane
VP 3
Spectator
Horizon Line
Ground Line
VP 1
VP 2
Finding Auxiliary Vanishing Points
True Angle
True Angle
Ø
x
Ø
y
Finding Auxiliary Vanishing Points
Picture Plane
Insert True Angle
AVP
Insert True Angle
Spectator
AVP
Horizon Line
Ground Line
VP 1
VP 2
Height 2
Finding Auxiliary
Vanishing Points
Aux VP 1
Picture Plane
VP 2
VP 1
A
B
VP 1
Height 1
S
H.L
A
B
VP 2
Height 2
Aux VP 2
Ground Line
Curves & Circles in Perspective
When circles and curves are drawn in plan, you may use a compass to
ensure accuracy.
When drawn in perspective views, you must approximate circles and curved
forms using reference points based on straight lines and from angles that
can be measured accurately.
Circles are the basis for a variety of more complex forms such as
cones, cylinders and spheres.
Being able to see these circles within these various forms as an
indispensible aid to reproducing them.
VP 1
CVP
Irregular Ellipse
Horizon Line
VP 2
Curves & Circles
In Perspective
30°
Picture Plane
VP 1
S
VP 1
Horizon Line
Ground Line
Elevation
VP 2
VP 2
Worksheets
Questions and Solutions
Past Questions
Leaving Certificate

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