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What were the
characteristics of
America’s earliest
Chapter 3
Arch. Dig
Paleo Indians
Plains Village
Plains Indians**
Set this up on a sheet of
paper….this should be
in Cornell format.
Chapter 3
Plains Village
Plains Indians**
What elements of
culture were exhibited
by the Indians during
first contact with
First Contact
At the end of the notes you will put a 3 sentence
summary of the notes.
Section 1: The Earliest
were the characteristics of
Oklahoma’s earliest people?
Section 1: The Earliest
First prehistoric
people (those who
lived before recorded
history) reached the
Americas millions of
years after the
dinosaurs became
First people in
America here some
12,000 to 25,000
years ago
How we found them
Artifacts include people-used
items such as – pottery, tools,
bone, jewelry, & paintings
Petroglyphs: pictures or
symbols conveying an idea
Searching for Clues
• Archaeological “dig”:
excavation of a site where
people lived or worked
• Archaeologists: study and
document any fragment of an
artifact discovered
• Piece together artifacts to
help tell more about past
Prehistoric Cultures
Earliest people to America
from Asia
Bering Strait & “land bridge”
Over 16,000 prehistoric &
early American Indian sites in
Paleo Indians
1961: scientists discover
evidence of Paleo Indian hunters
in Oklahoma
Columbian mammoth: bones
found at the Cooperton site in
Kiowa County
Soil deposits: date to about
30,000 years ago at Burnham site
Mammoth Bones
Clovis People
Clovis People: named after the
New Mexico site of first artifacts
Known for their spears (spear
point usually 3-4 inches long)
Important Clovis site near Stecker
in Caddo County
First hunted mammoths & then
switched to bison
Clovis points used to kill wooly
Folsom People
Dalton people: lived some 9,00010,000 years ago
Skilled in clothing, containers,
tools, & covers for shelters
Archaic Culture Foragers
Hunters and harvesters
Made flour & stored it in baskets
Pieces of bone & antler: became
spear points, needles, awls,
punches, and atlatl hooks
Ate a variety of wild animals
Knew how to start a fire with a
wood drill
Woodland Culture
About 2,000 years ago, Woodland
culture emerged
Planted, cultivated, & harvested
Bow and arrow came in about this
time and made hunting easier
Plains Village Farmers
Lived in Oklahoma from about
1,200 to 500 years ago
Grew corn, beans, squash,
gourds, sunflowers, & tobacco
Hunted bison & deer
The Moundbuilders
Built the Spiro Mounds
Lived in small farming villages
Spiro men & women: painted
themselves with colorful paints
Fine craftsmen: worked with
stone, shell, & copper
Still live in the area
Early Plains Indians
Resorted to the more nomadic
way of life
Hunted buffalo, deer, antelope,
rabbit, or whatever available
Forged for wild plant foods
Lived in grass houses covered
with buffalo hide
May be ancestors of Wichitas
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Section 2: Historic Indian Cultures
elements of culture were
exhibited by the Indians during first
contact with Europeans?
First Encounters
1493: Coronado’s expedition
first recorded contact between
Indians & the Spanish
1542: Spanish monks at Kaw
1601: Juan de Oñate –
explored western Oklahoma
Mid-1700s: French hunters
Indian Culture
Indians: believed in afterlife
Cowards & thieves punished
Life sacred to the Plains tribes
Believed in Mother Earth
Believed all things tied together
Honesty expected
Indian Culture
The Family
 Marriages permitted between
related tribes & could have more
than one wife
 Men: warriors & hunters
 Women: kept the home & family
Indian Culture
 Women: prepared the food
 Meats: eaten raw, roasted,
boiled, or dried
 Wild animals were food source
 Other foods were wild honey &
other natural foods
Indian Culture
 Used many wildflowers & plants
 About 170 used by Indians
 Many used for medicine
Much of their time spent in surviving
After lecture…
 Read over notes – 2 times
 Write summary
Level Questions
• Level 1 question- (fill in the blank)
– EX: _________ is the name for the day when the stock market
• Level 2- (not in the text, read between lines)
– EX: Compare and contrast….
– EX: Describe your own words…..
– EX: How is _____ related to_______......
• Level 3- (Hypothesis, or application, much like an
– EX: do you agree that ...? what do you think about ...? what is the
most important ...? place the following in order of priority ...
Compare /Contrast
Tribe 1
Tribe 2
Let’s Move around
• Find someone with completely different
tribes than you and share the Venn Diagram
with them.
• Have a seat
When done…
• Work on Chapter 3 Vocab. Due Friday

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