Chapter 1 - A Continent of Villages, To 1500

Out of Many
A History of the American People
Seventh Edition Brief Sixth Edition
A Continent of
Villages to 1500
Out of Many: A History of the American People, Brief Sixth Edition
John Mack Faragher • Mari Jo Buhle • Daniel Czitrom • Susan H. Armitage
Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
A Continent of Villages to 1500
The First American Settlers
The Development of Farming
Farming in Early North America
Cultural Regions of North America on the Eve of
• Conclusion
Painting of Cahokia Mounds, Collinsville, Illinois
by Michael Hampshire.
A Continent of Villages
• What does the chapter title suggest about
North American Indian societies before
Bust from the skull of “Kennewick Man”
Chapter Focus Questions
• How were the Americas first settled?
• In what ways did native communities
adapt to the distinct regions of North
• What were the consequences of the
development of farming for native
Chapter Focus Questions (cont'd)
• What was the nature of the Indian cultures
in the three regions where Europeans first
invaded and settled?
American Communities: Cahokia
• Tenth through fourteenth-century urban
complex on Mississippi
• 20,000-30,000 people by mid-1200
 Highly productive cultivation techniques
 Goods for continent-wide trade
American Communities: Cahokia
• Center of long-distance trading
• City-state—tribute and taxation
Monument mounds
Priests and governors
Huge temple — wealth and power
Mystery well into the 19th century
The First American Settlers
Clovis points
Who Are the Indian People?
• “Indian”—Columbus’ believed he reached
the Indies.
• Diverse group of people
 2,000 separate cultures
 Several hundred languages
 Many varying physical characteristics
Who Are the Indian People? (cont'd)
• Theories of origin
 Degenerate offspring from a superior Old
World culture.
 Land bridge
MAP 1.1 Migration Routes from Asia to America
Migration from Asia
• New genetic research links.
• Beringia land bridge.
 Glaciers lower sea levels, creating grasslands
750 miles wide from north to south.
• Three migrations from Asia beginning
about 30,000 years ago
 Traveled by land (ice-free corridor) and along
Clovis: The First American
Environmental Adaptation
• New and powerful technology.
 More sophisticated style of making fluted
blades and lance points.
 Named for site of first discovery: Clovis, New
• Mobile, foraging communities of
interrelated families.
• Clovis bands migrated seasonally to the
same hunting camps.
New Ways of Living on the Land
• As the last Ice Age ended 15,000 years
ago, new climate patterns developed in
North America.
• Between 10,000 and 2,500 years ago, the
modern regions of the continent took
shape and, with it, the distinct cultural
regions of the Archaic Native American
Hunting Traditions
• Massive climate shift stressed big game
• Hunted bison (buffalo) with fast accurate
• Folsom tradition
• Spear-throwers
Hunting Traditions (cont'd)
• Hunting technique of stampeding bison
over cliffs.
 Sophisticated division of labor and knowledge
of food preservation techniques
Example of a projectile point
embedded in the ribs of a long extinct
species of bison
MAP 1.2 Native North American Culture Areas
and Trade Networks, ca. 1400 CE
Desert Culture
• Small-game hunting and intensified
• seasonal routes of foraging
• Skills
fiber baskets for collecting;
pitch-lined baskets for cooking;
nets and traps;
and stone tools.
Desert Culture (cont'd)
• Spread to Great Plains and Southwest
 West coast developed first permanently
settled communities in North America
Forest Efficiency
• Eastern North America a vast forest
• Archaic developments:
 small-game hunting;
 gathering seeds, nuts, roots, and other
 burning woodlands, prairies to stimulate
growth of berries, fruits, and roots;
 burning created meadows to provide food
that attracted grazing animals for hunting;
and fishing.
Forest Efficiency (cont'd)
• Populations grew, permanent settlements
• Men and women in different roles
The Development of Farming
Mesoamerican maize cultivation, as illustrated by
an Aztec artist for the Florentine Codex
• First cultivated maize about 5,000 years
• Crops: potatoes, beans, squash,
tomatoes, peppers, avocados, chocolate,
and vanilla.
• Sedentary lifestyle and rise of large, urban
• Teotihuacán—200,000 inhabitants.
Mexico (cont'd)
• Elite class of rulers and priests,
monumental public works, and systems of
mathematics and hieroglyphic writing
• Toltecs and Aztecs succeeded
Teotihuacán culture
Mexico (continued)
• Early 1500s, Tenochtitlán — a city of
200,000, larger than any in Europe
• Yucatan
 Maya flourished from 300 BCE to 900 CE,
developing advanced writing and calendar
systems and sophisticated mathematics.
Increasing Social Complexity
• Farming stimulated complexity
• Clans bound people into tribe
• Led by clan leaders of chiefs and advised
by councils of elders
 Chiefs were responsible for collection,
storage, and distribution of food.
• Gender-divided labor
• Marriage ties generally weak
Increasing Social Complexity (cont'd)
• Growing populations required larger food
surpluses, leading to war
The creation of man and woman depicted on a pot
(dated about 1000 CE)
The Resisted Revolution
• Change a gradual process
• Costs and benefits—farmers worked
harder than foragers, less flexible, and
more vulnerable
• Rejection of farming: climate, abundant
food sources, cultural values
The Resisted Revolution (cont'd)
• Foraging: provided varied diet, less
influenced by climate, required less work
 Farmers: more disease and famine than
 Favorable climate needed for farming.
Farming in Early North America
Cliff Palace, at Mesa Verde National Park in
southwest Colorado
Farmers of the Southwest
• Farming emerged in southwest in first
millennium B.C.E
• The Mogollon
 First in settled farming life: maize, beans,
 Pit houses in permanent villages near
Farmers of the Southwest (cont'd)
• The Hohokam
 Maize, beans, squash, tobacco, cotton
 Villages: floodplain of the Salt and Gila rivers
(C.E. 300 to 1500)
 First irrigation system
 Shared traits with Mesoamerican civilization
The Anasazis
• Farming culture
 Plateau of Colorado River—Four Corners
(Arizona, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico)
 Densely populated, multistoried apartment
complexes (pueblos)
 High-yield maize in irrigated terraced fields
 Hunting with bow and arrow
 25,000+ known communities
The Anasazis (cont'd)
• Farming culture
 Declined due to extended drought and arrival
of Athapascan migrants
Farmers of the Eastern Woodlands
• Farming culture in eastern North America
was dated from the first appearance of
pottery about 3,000 years ago.
• Woodland culture combined hunting and
gathering with farming
 Sunflowers, small grains, tobacco
 Developed a complex social structure
Farmers of the Eastern Woodlands
• Adena culture occupied Ohio Valley
 Established custom of large burial mounds for
Mississippian Society
• Introduction of bow and arrow,
development of Northern Flint maize, and
switch from digging sticks to hoes were
basis of Mississippian culture.
 Developed sophisticated maize farming
 Centered around permanent villages on
Mississippi River floodplain, with Cahokia as
urban center
 Sites from Oklahoma to Arkansas to Alabama
to Georgia have been excavated.
The Great Serpent Mound in southern Ohio
The Politics of Warfare and Violence
• River systems—trading partners and rivals
• Warfare predated the colonial era
 Hunters led small raids on farming
 Farming communities fought to gain land for
 Highly organized tribal armies
- Bow and arrow—deadly weapon
- Scalping—warring tribes.
The Politics of Warfare and Violence
• Warfare predated the colonial era
 Eventually, many cities collapsed and people
scattered, forming small decentralized
Bottle in the shape of a nursing
mother (dated about 1300 BCE)
Cultural Regions of North America
on the Eve of Colonization
An Early European Image of Native Americans
MAP 1.3 Population Density of Indian Societies in
the Fifteenth
The Population of Indian America
• 1600s—Western Hemisphere population
50 million or more
• Cultural regions
 Largest populations were centered in
Southwest, South, and Northeast—culture
areas where first encounters with Europeans
”The New Queen Being Taken to the King,” an
engraving copied from a drawing by Jacques
MAP 1.4 Indian Groups in the Areas of First
The Southwest
• Aridity—though a number of rivers flow out
of mountain plateaus
• Dry farming or irrigated agriculture, living
in villages.
 Separate dispersed settlements
 Pueblos and communal village life
• Yuman, Pimas, Pueblos, and,
Athapascans who developed into Navajo
and Apaches.
The Southwest (cont'd)
• Pueblos inhabit the oldest continuously
occupied sites in the United States,
persisting through Spanish occupation in
the seventeenth century.
The South
• Mild climate with short winters and long
summers proved ideal for farming.
• Large populations lived in villages and
towns, often ruled by chiefs.
• Region home to Choctaw, Chickasaw,
Creeks, and Cherokees.
• Many groups decimated by disease
following the arrival of Europeans resulted
in poor documentation of history.
The South (cont'd)
• Mild moist climate for farming
• Natchez in floodplains of the lower
Mississippi Delta
• Ranked society—powerful elites
• Unstable chiefdoms—smaller
decentralized communities
The South (cont'd)
• Post-Mississippians (Choctaws,
Chickasaws and Creeks): centralized and
stratified societies
• Shared traditions (agricultural festivals,
stick and ball game)
Hiawatha wampum belt of the Haudenosaunee or
Iroquois Five Nation Confederacy
The Northeast
• Colder with coastal plains, mountains,
rivers, lakes, valleys
• The Iroquois:
Present-day Ontario, upstate New York
Corn, beans, squash, sunflowers
Matrilineal (longhouses)
Formed confederacy to eliminate warfare
The Northeast (cont'd)
• The Algonquians:
 50 distinct, patrilineal cultures
 Bands with loose ethnic affiliation in north
 Farmed and lived in villages in south
Worlds Old and New
• Columbus did not discover a New World;
he brought together two old worlds.
• Europeans too often misunderstood or
ignored the complexities of Native
American cultures they encountered.

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