Paleolithic and Neolithic Eras.ppt - Nagel

Scientists believe that life began on the continent of
Africa 3.6 million years ago……
Modern Man
Cro-Magnon man early Homo sapiens
(the species to which
modern humans
belong) that lived
about 40,000 years
Role of Artifacts rubin/images/artif...
• Let us know more
about ancient cultures
• Somewhat limited –
theories have formed
to attempt to explain
the past
• The Old Stone Age or the Paleolithic Era, was a period of time
that lasted until about 12,000 to 70,000 years ago.
•Man survived by hunting
animals and gathering roots,
berries, leaves, and seeds.
•Old Stone Age (Paleolithic Era) people
eventually began to hunt in groups.
•Cave Art showing
men hunting in groups
•These antlers may have been used
as a disguise during the hunt.
•Man used
stone, wood,
and bone tools
to survive
during the Old
Stone Age.
Bow found in Denmark
Hand Axe
Flint Blades used to sharpen tools
Bone Harpoon
•using a flint blade to skin
an animal
•using a flint blade to butcher
a carcass
There was another important
was another
– the discovery
– the discovery of
Many Stone Age people were Nomads,
or people who had no settled home.
• The New Stone
Age or The
Neolithic Era
lasted until
about 6,000 to
12,000 years
• During the
Era, people
began to
settle in one
•Man began to change his diet and
eat grains and small animals.
• Agriculture is the
raising of crops and
• The development of
agriculture began
over a long period of
time and in more
than one place.
• People no longer
needed to travel
great distances to
gather food.
• People learned how to
domesticate plants and
• To domesticate means
to train something to
be useful to people.
• Early people learned to
care for plants such as
wheat, barley, peas,
and lentils.
• The first farmers also
domesticated wild
goats, cattle, and
•Ancient charred
wheat grains are
shown in the
picture above.
• Man domesticated wild wheat.
• Thousands of years
ago, an ear of corn
did not make much
of a meal. (top)
• It took thousands of
years of careful
breeding for ears of
corn to reach their
present size. (bottom)
• People still used
stone, bone, and
wooden tools, but
some new tools
were added by
using copper and
•These early farming tools date back to around 8,000 years
ago. The axe, bottom, was used for clearing; flint sickles,
left, were used for harvesting cereal crops; a flat rock and
rounded stone, center, were used for grinding flour; and
perforated clay slabs, upper right, were probably used to
ventilate bread ovens.
Paleolithic Age – Old Stone Age (Est. 2 mil BC-9000 BC)
1. Hunters & Gatherers
A. Nomad: Moving from place to place in search for food.
B. Men  hunted & fished.
C. Woman  gathered fruits, nuts, etc.
2. Way of Life
A. Cave paintings
B. Stone tools & pottery
C. Domesticated dogs
II. Neolithic Age – New Stone Age (9000 BC – 3000 BC)
1. Farming  Neolithic Revolution
A. People could remain in one place.
B. Herding of animals – goats, sheep & cattle.
2. Community –
A. Council of Elders/Chief – made important decisions.
B. Warrior class
C. Kept possessions.
Early People
Section 1: Studying the Distant Past
• Archaeologists study prehistoric times by
examining things that early peoples left
• The study of fossils has helped
archaeologists learn about the lives of the
earliest humans.
• Archaeological studies suggest that the
earliest humans
Early People
Section 2: Hunter-Gatherer Societies
• Hunter-gatherer societies moved from place
to place, hunting small animals and
gathering plants for food.
• The development of tools and the use of fire
helped the people in hunter gatherer
societies improve their lives.
• Modern humans developed the ability to
use language, which helped them to
Early People
Section 3: Populating the Earth
• By about 12,500 years ago, modern
humans had spread to many regions of the
world, including Africa, Asia, Europe,
Australia, North America, and South
• Modern humans adapted to Ice Age
conditions by building shelters and making
warm clothing.
• By forming larger groups, modern humans
adapted in order to better hunt and defend
The Beginning of Civilization
Section 1: Early Agriculture
• Over a long time, hunter-gatherers
domesticated plants and animals, and most
groups became farmers.
• Although the Middle East was the first
center of agriculture, farming appeared in
several other parts of the world.
• Permanent farming settlements developed,
and surplus food allowed some people to
become crafts workers.

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