Nonrenewable

Report
02-08.06.2013
Staszów, Poland
BULGARIA
Dobrich
Private Language School
“Leonardo da Vinci”
Renewable and non-renewable
energy resources
Renewable and non-renewable
energy resources
There are two basic groups of
energy:
renewable energy (biomass,
geothermal, solar, water, and
wind power)
and non-renewable (fossil
fuels coal, oil, natural gas,
nuclear).
Three quarters of the world’s
energy is generated by
burning fossil fuels.
RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA - 1
Non-renewable
*A non-renewable resource is a natural resource that cannot be remade or re-grown at a scale comparable to its consumption.
*It won't last forever. It's a natural resource that can't be produced,
re-grown, regenerated, or reused.
*Non-renewable resources make up approximately 95% of world’s
energy.
Types of non renewable energy:
Usage:
RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA – 2
Non-renewable
• Natural gas
• Oil (Petroleum)
Oil was formed from the
remains of animals and plants
that lived millions of years ago
in a marine (water)
environment before the
dinosaurs. Over the years,
the remains were covered by
layers of mud. Heat and
pressure from these layers
helped the remains turn into
what we today call crude
oil. The word "petroleum"
means "rock oil" or "oil from
the earth."
Millions of years ago, the remains of
plants and animals decayed and built
up in thick layers. This decayed
matter from plants and animals is
called organic material - it was once
alive. Over time, the mud and soil
changed to rock, covered the organic
material and trapped it beneath the
rock. Pressure and heat changed
some of this organic material into
coal, some into oil (petroleum), and
some into natural gas -- tiny bubbles
of odourless gas.
The world's top five crude oilproducing countries are:
• Saudi Arabia
• Russia
• United States
• Iran
• China
RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA - 3
Non-renewable
Nuclear energy
•
Coal is a non-renewable energy source
because it takes millions of years to create.
The energy in coal comes from the energy
stored by plants that lived hundreds of
millions of years ago, when the earth was
partly covered with swampy forests.
The United States produces half of its electricity
from coal. China uses coal to generate more than
three-fourths of its electricity. Australia, Poland,
and South Africa produce an even greater
percentage. Overall, coal makes up 2/5 of the
world’s electricity generation.
Nuclear energy is energy in the nucleus
of an atom. Atoms are tiny particles that
make up every object in the universe.
There is enormous energy in the bonds
that hold atoms together.
Nuclear energy can be used to make
electricity. But first the energy must be
released. It can be released from atoms
in two ways: nuclear fusion and nuclear
fission.
The United States produces more
nuclear-generated electricity than any
other country, nearly 1/3 of the world’s
total. The second largest producer is
France, which generates more than 3/4
of its electricity in nuclear reactors.
RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA - 4
What comes from
radioactive components?
• When the radioactive components disintegrate,
they release ionizing rays. They are called this
way because they convert the neutral atoms to
positive or negative ions. These rays can be
alpha-, beta-, gamma-, x-rays, cosmic and neutral.
• Some sources of ionizing rays are:
- all devices and radioactive components;
- all areas of work, which are connected with cultivation,
production, usage, conservation and transportation of
natural and other kinds of sources of ionizing rays, as
well as radioactive waste in medicine and
manufacturing.
RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA - 5
Applications of x-ray
• In medicine:
– x-ray photos of bones
and soft tissue;
– treatment of tumors,
whose cells divide
much quicker than
normal ones and are a
lot more sensitive to
ionizing rays;
• In archeology – used for
dating and analyzing
artifacts.
RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA - 6
Biological effect of
ionizing radiation
• The basis of the ionizing rays’
biological effect is the fact that
they can penetrate deep in the
matter.
• The absorbed rays lead to physical
changes in the cells such as
destruction of molecules, stopping
the enzymes’ actions and
separation of chromosomes, etc.
The cells which divide more
quickly are the ones which get
affected the most by this kind of
radiation.
RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA - 7
Sources of radiation
• Ionizing irradiation may be either external,
coming from a source outside the organism, or
internal – coming from radioactive components
that have been ingested.
Internal irradiation as a result of
inhaling radioactive particles in
the air.
External irradiation from
radioactive particles in
contaminated soil
Internal irradiation from
consuming food and water that
have been contaminated.
External irradiation directly from
the cloud.
RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA - 8
Consequences
• The effects of radiation on the human
organism depend mostly on the type of
radiation, its amount and intensity.
• Radiation has the following effects on
people:
• Somatic:
– In smaller doses (up to 0,3 Sv) the body’s
recovery systems are able to
compensate for the damage.
– Big doses of radiation (more than 1 Sv)
result in acute radiation sickness, which
can be lethal.
• Genetic :
– The genetic effects are attributed to the
irradiation of the reproductive cells. As a
result, additional mutations occur and are
later transmitted to the progeny.
RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA - 9
Consequences
Apart from the disasters of World War II, radiation affects
many people during breakdowns of nuclear power stations
(such as Chernobyl, Ukraine, 1986, Fukushima, Japan 2011)
RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA - 10
There is a much better alternative
Renewable energy
•
Renewable energy is natural energy which does not have a limited supply.
•
Renewable energy can be used again and again, and will never run out.
Examples of living renewable resources:
*trees (forests and woodlands) and
crops
*fish and livestock
Types of renewable energy:
*Biomass
*Hydro-electric
*Wind
*Geothermal
*Solar
*Tidal
*Wave
*Wood
RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA - 11
Renewable energy:
• Biomass energy
Biomass is organic material which has stored sunlight
in the form of chemical energy. Biomass fuels
include wood, wood waste, straw, manure, sugar
cane, and many other by products from a variety of
agricultural processes.
Fiber
RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA -12
Renewable energy:
*Wind energy
*Hydro energy
Hydropower is a clean,
renewable and reliable energy
source which converts kinetic
energy from falling water into
electricity, without consuming
more water than is produced
by nature.
Wind is called a renewable
energy source because wind will
continually be produced as long
as the sun shines on the earth.
Today, wind energy is mainly
used to generate electricity.
There are several different kinds of wind
turbines used for producing renewable
energy.
There are
buildings
designed to
funnel wind
through the gap
to provide
accelerated wind
passing through
the turbines.
RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA - 13
Renewable energy:
• Geothermal energy
Geothermal energy - heat from
the earth (in most cases mineral
water) - is an important energy
source having environmental
and economic advantages over
fossil and nuclear energy
sources.
Types:
Dry steam power plants
Flash steam
Binary-cycle
• Solar energy
We can use solar power in two
different ways: as a heat source,
and as an energy source. People
have used the sun as a heat
source for thousands of years.
Families in ancient Greece built
their homes to get the most
sunlight during the cold winter
months.
Photovoltaic systems are solar
systems that produce electricity
directly from sunlight.
Enough sunlight reaches the
earth’s surface each minute
to satisfy the world’s energy
demands—for an entire year..
RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA - 14
Bizarre Sources for Alternative Energy
Breathing
Food Leftovers
Biogas is a fuel obtained
from organic matter, after
it has been degraded over
time by bacteria and
natural conditions. A lot of
leftover food and waste –
such as fruit skins or
coffee – can be used to
obtain biogas, and there
are already a number of
small industries collecting
and using the trash
produced in big cities to
generate electricity, a lot
like in Back to the Future.
Electric Eels
An electric eel is a fish capable of
generating a 400 V electric
discharge. This mechanism is used
by the fish to defend itself from
predators and to hunt small fish –
but its main purpose is that of a
radar system, a replacement for its
nearly blind eyes. This fish has
fascinated us since the very moment
someone realized its awesome
electric power, so the next step was
obvious: find a way to use it. A
Japanese aquarium has already
used an eel to light up a Christmas
tree, so maybe the future electrical
generator in our homes will be a
small pond full of eels.
Too lazy to walk? Don’t worry –
human bodies can still be useful
sources of energy just by being
alive. As an example, you
can recharge your cellphone by
breathing.. You can also feed your
pacemaker and some small
medical devices with the energy
created by your heartbeat and
muscular spasms. Now you can
stay on the couch watching
movies, and tweet to the whole
world that your message was
powered by your own internal
energy.
RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA - 15
Renewable energy
50
45
40
• Since 2004 the portion of renewable energy
sources has permanently increased in all of the
countries – members of the EU.
46.8 • The highest rise in this period was registrated in
Sweden.
38.3
35
30.9
30
25
25.9
23.1
18.4
20
15
2004
2011
22.8
14.9
13.8
12.3
9.2
10
4.8
5
0
Sweden Danemark Austria
Germany
Estonia
Bulgaria
RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA - 16
Where is Europe?
• Do you know that there
are countries in which
the energy produced
by renewable energy
sources is over 95%?
• Albania – 100%
• Burundi – 100%
• Iceland – 100%
• Mozambique – 100%
• Nepal – 100%
• Paraguay – 100%
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bhutan – 99,86%
Zambia - 99,69%
Congo – 99,46%
Tajikistan – 98,25%
Norway – 97,11%
Angola– 96,5%
•
•
http://co2scorecard.org
http://www.kolektori.com/cheh.
htm
RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA - 17
• This project has been funded with support from the European
Commission.
• This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the
Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be
made of the information contained therein.’
• Този проект е финансиран с подкрепата на Европейската
комисия.
• Тази презентация отразява само личните виждания на
нейния автор и от Комисията не може да бъде търсена
отговорност за използването на съдържащата се в нея
информация.

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