02-08.06.2013 Staszów, Poland BULGARIA Dobrich Private Language School “Leonardo da Vinci” Renewable and non-renewable energy resources Renewable and non-renewable energy resources There are two basic groups of energy: renewable energy (biomass, geothermal, solar, water, and wind power) and non-renewable (fossil fuels coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear). Three quarters of the world’s energy is generated by burning fossil fuels. RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA - 1 Non-renewable *A non-renewable resource is a natural resource that cannot be remade or re-grown at a scale comparable to its consumption. *It won't last forever. It's a natural resource that can't be produced, re-grown, regenerated, or reused. *Non-renewable resources make up approximately 95% of world’s energy. Types of non renewable energy: Usage: RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA – 2 Non-renewable • Natural gas • Oil (Petroleum) Oil was formed from the remains of animals and plants that lived millions of years ago in a marine (water) environment before the dinosaurs. Over the years, the remains were covered by layers of mud. Heat and pressure from these layers helped the remains turn into what we today call crude oil. The word "petroleum" means "rock oil" or "oil from the earth." Millions of years ago, the remains of plants and animals decayed and built up in thick layers. This decayed matter from plants and animals is called organic material - it was once alive. Over time, the mud and soil changed to rock, covered the organic material and trapped it beneath the rock. Pressure and heat changed some of this organic material into coal, some into oil (petroleum), and some into natural gas -- tiny bubbles of odourless gas. The world's top five crude oilproducing countries are: • Saudi Arabia • Russia • United States • Iran • China RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA - 3 Non-renewable Nuclear energy • Coal is a non-renewable energy source because it takes millions of years to create. The energy in coal comes from the energy stored by plants that lived hundreds of millions of years ago, when the earth was partly covered with swampy forests. The United States produces half of its electricity from coal. China uses coal to generate more than three-fourths of its electricity. Australia, Poland, and South Africa produce an even greater percentage. Overall, coal makes up 2/5 of the world’s electricity generation. Nuclear energy is energy in the nucleus of an atom. Atoms are tiny particles that make up every object in the universe. There is enormous energy in the bonds that hold atoms together. Nuclear energy can be used to make electricity. But first the energy must be released. It can be released from atoms in two ways: nuclear fusion and nuclear fission. The United States produces more nuclear-generated electricity than any other country, nearly 1/3 of the world’s total. The second largest producer is France, which generates more than 3/4 of its electricity in nuclear reactors. RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA - 4 What comes from radioactive components? • When the radioactive components disintegrate, they release ionizing rays. They are called this way because they convert the neutral atoms to positive or negative ions. These rays can be alpha-, beta-, gamma-, x-rays, cosmic and neutral. • Some sources of ionizing rays are: - all devices and radioactive components; - all areas of work, which are connected with cultivation, production, usage, conservation and transportation of natural and other kinds of sources of ionizing rays, as well as radioactive waste in medicine and manufacturing. RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA - 5 Applications of x-ray • In medicine: – x-ray photos of bones and soft tissue; – treatment of tumors, whose cells divide much quicker than normal ones and are a lot more sensitive to ionizing rays; • In archeology – used for dating and analyzing artifacts. RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA - 6 Biological effect of ionizing radiation • The basis of the ionizing rays’ biological effect is the fact that they can penetrate deep in the matter. • The absorbed rays lead to physical changes in the cells such as destruction of molecules, stopping the enzymes’ actions and separation of chromosomes, etc. The cells which divide more quickly are the ones which get affected the most by this kind of radiation. RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA - 7 Sources of radiation • Ionizing irradiation may be either external, coming from a source outside the organism, or internal – coming from radioactive components that have been ingested. Internal irradiation as a result of inhaling radioactive particles in the air. External irradiation from radioactive particles in contaminated soil Internal irradiation from consuming food and water that have been contaminated. External irradiation directly from the cloud. RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA - 8 Consequences • The effects of radiation on the human organism depend mostly on the type of radiation, its amount and intensity. • Radiation has the following effects on people: • Somatic: – In smaller doses (up to 0,3 Sv) the body’s recovery systems are able to compensate for the damage. – Big doses of radiation (more than 1 Sv) result in acute radiation sickness, which can be lethal. • Genetic : – The genetic effects are attributed to the irradiation of the reproductive cells. As a result, additional mutations occur and are later transmitted to the progeny. RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA - 9 Consequences Apart from the disasters of World War II, radiation affects many people during breakdowns of nuclear power stations (such as Chernobyl, Ukraine, 1986, Fukushima, Japan 2011) RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA - 10 There is a much better alternative Renewable energy • Renewable energy is natural energy which does not have a limited supply. • Renewable energy can be used again and again, and will never run out. Examples of living renewable resources: *trees (forests and woodlands) and crops *fish and livestock Types of renewable energy: *Biomass *Hydro-electric *Wind *Geothermal *Solar *Tidal *Wave *Wood RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA - 11 Renewable energy: • Biomass energy Biomass is organic material which has stored sunlight in the form of chemical energy. Biomass fuels include wood, wood waste, straw, manure, sugar cane, and many other by products from a variety of agricultural processes. Fiber RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA -12 Renewable energy: *Wind energy *Hydro energy Hydropower is a clean, renewable and reliable energy source which converts kinetic energy from falling water into electricity, without consuming more water than is produced by nature. Wind is called a renewable energy source because wind will continually be produced as long as the sun shines on the earth. Today, wind energy is mainly used to generate electricity. There are several different kinds of wind turbines used for producing renewable energy. There are buildings designed to funnel wind through the gap to provide accelerated wind passing through the turbines. RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA - 13 Renewable energy: • Geothermal energy Geothermal energy - heat from the earth (in most cases mineral water) - is an important energy source having environmental and economic advantages over fossil and nuclear energy sources. Types: Dry steam power plants Flash steam Binary-cycle • Solar energy We can use solar power in two different ways: as a heat source, and as an energy source. People have used the sun as a heat source for thousands of years. Families in ancient Greece built their homes to get the most sunlight during the cold winter months. Photovoltaic systems are solar systems that produce electricity directly from sunlight. Enough sunlight reaches the earth’s surface each minute to satisfy the world’s energy demands—for an entire year.. RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA - 14 Bizarre Sources for Alternative Energy Breathing Food Leftovers Biogas is a fuel obtained from organic matter, after it has been degraded over time by bacteria and natural conditions. A lot of leftover food and waste – such as fruit skins or coffee – can be used to obtain biogas, and there are already a number of small industries collecting and using the trash produced in big cities to generate electricity, a lot like in Back to the Future. Electric Eels An electric eel is a fish capable of generating a 400 V electric discharge. This mechanism is used by the fish to defend itself from predators and to hunt small fish – but its main purpose is that of a radar system, a replacement for its nearly blind eyes. This fish has fascinated us since the very moment someone realized its awesome electric power, so the next step was obvious: find a way to use it. A Japanese aquarium has already used an eel to light up a Christmas tree, so maybe the future electrical generator in our homes will be a small pond full of eels. Too lazy to walk? Don’t worry – human bodies can still be useful sources of energy just by being alive. As an example, you can recharge your cellphone by breathing.. You can also feed your pacemaker and some small medical devices with the energy created by your heartbeat and muscular spasms. Now you can stay on the couch watching movies, and tweet to the whole world that your message was powered by your own internal energy. RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA - 15 Renewable energy 50 45 40 • Since 2004 the portion of renewable energy sources has permanently increased in all of the countries – members of the EU. 46.8 • The highest rise in this period was registrated in Sweden. 38.3 35 30.9 30 25 25.9 23.1 18.4 20 15 2004 2011 22.8 14.9 13.8 12.3 9.2 10 4.8 5 0 Sweden Danemark Austria Germany Estonia Bulgaria RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA - 16 Where is Europe? • Do you know that there are countries in which the energy produced by renewable energy sources is over 95%? • Albania – 100% • Burundi – 100% • Iceland – 100% • Mozambique – 100% • Nepal – 100% • Paraguay – 100% • • • • • • Bhutan – 99,86% Zambia - 99,69% Congo – 99,46% Tajikistan – 98,25% Norway – 97,11% Angola– 96,5% • • http://co2scorecard.org http://www.kolektori.com/cheh. htm RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES- BULGARIA - 17 • This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. • This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.’ • Този проект е финансиран с подкрепата на Европейската комисия. • Тази презентация отразява само личните виждания на нейния автор и от Комисията не може да бъде търсена отговорност за използването на съдържащата се в нея информация.