Lecture 23

Operating Systems
I/O Management (1)
November 30 2010 - Lecture 23
Instructor: Bhuvan Urgaonkar
• Project 3 due today
• Please indicate time to meet TA on sheet
• Project 4 out and due on Dec 10
– You need to study material on content addressable storage
– Will release slides on this later today
• Will release practice question set to help you
prepare for the final exam (sometime this week)
– Exam is on Dec 16
I/O Management: Topics
• General issues in I/O management
• Secondary storage management
– Properties of media
• Magnetic disks and Flash
– Systems software for using these media
• File Systems
• Note: Would like you to read ahead for P4
– Material on content addressable storage: will post slides
I/O Hardware
• Incredible variety of I/O devices
• Two ways of communicating
– Port
– Bus
• Plus … interrupts
– Unidirectional: From device to CPU
– Special CPU input lines/pins for these
Some familiar ports
I/O Hardware
• Incredible variety of I/O devices
• Two ways of communicating
– Port
– Bus
• Controller: Electronics to operate a port/bus or a
– More complex controller: host adapter
Some examples
PCI slots and card
Some examples
SATA cable
SATA ports on a motherboard
A Typical PC Bus
I/O Hardware
• I/O instructions control devices
• Devices have addresses, used by
– Direct I/O instructions
• These are part of the ISA
• E.g., IN and OUT on Intel
– Memory-mapped I/O
• Not to be confused with memory mapped file IO!
Direct V. Memory Mapped IO
• Direct I/O
• Uses special instructions for accessing the I/O devices
• i.e., different from loads/stores
• IO devices have separate address space from general
• Either accomplished by an extra IO pin in CPU’s physical
• Or, separate bus for IO devices
• Also called isolated IO
Direct V. Memory Mapped IO
• Memory Mapped I/O
• Uses loads and stores
Device I/O Port Locations
on PCs (partial)
Communication between host
and device
Employs registers on the port/controller
• Typically four important registers
– Data-in: read by the host to get input
– Data-out: written by the host to send output
– Status: Bits readable by the host that indicate state of
• Has the current command been completed?
• Has a device error occurred?
• Is there data available to be read from Data-in register?
– Control: Writable by the host to start a command, select
certain properties of the port (e.g., speed)
• Interaction between host and controller
– Polling
• Determines state of device
– command-ready
– busy
– Error
• Busy-wait cycle to wait for I/O from device
• CPU Interrupt-request line triggered by I/O
• Interrupt handler receives interrupts
• Maskable to ignore or delay some interrupts
• Interrupt vector to dispatch interrupt to correct
– Based on priority
– Some non-maskable
• Interrupt mechanism also used for exceptions
Intel Pentium Processor EventVector Table
Direct Memory Access
• Used to avoid programmed I/O for large
data movement
• Requires DMA controller
• Bypasses CPU to transfer data directly
between I/O device and memory
Six Step Process to Perform DMA
Application I/O Interface
• I/O system calls encapsulate device behaviors in generic classes
• Device-driver layer hides differences among I/O controllers from kernel
• Devices vary in many dimensions
Character-stream or block
Sequential or random-access
Sharable or dedicated
Speed of operation
read-write, read only, or write only
A Kernel I/O Structure
Characteristics of I/O Devices
Block and Character
• Block devices include disk drives
– Commands include read, write, seek
– Raw I/O or file-system access
– Memory-mapped file access possible
• Character devices include keyboards, mice, serial
– Commands include get, put
– Libraries layered on top allow line editing
Network Devices
• Varying enough from block and character to
have own interface
• Unix and Windows NT/9x/2000 include socket
– Separates network protocol from network operation
– Includes select functionality
• Approaches vary widely (pipes, FIFOs, streams,
queues, mailboxes)
Clocks and Timers
• Provide current time, elapsed time, timer
• Programmable interval timer used for
timings, periodic interrupts
• ioctl (on UNIX) covers odd aspects of I/O
such as clocks and timers
Synchronous I/O
• Blocking - process suspended until I/O completed
– Easy to use and understand
– Likely to be inefficient
• Quiz: When and why?
Asynchronous I/O
• Process runs while I/O executes
– Returns immediately
• “Event-driven” programming
– Difficult to use
– I/O subsystem signals process when I/O completed
Two I/O Methods
“Hybrid” IO
• Nonblocking - I/O call returns as much as available
– One approach: Implemented via multi-threading
• Some threads do blocking I/O, while others continue executing
– Other approach: OS provides non-blocking call
• Does not halt execution of application for an extended time,
returns quickly with count of bytes read or written
• Good e.g., select () system call for network I/O
Kernel I/O Subsystem
• Scheduling
– Some I/O request ordering via per-device queue
– Some OSs try fairness
• Buffering - store data in memory while transferring
between devices
– To cope with device speed mismatch
– To cope with device transfer size mismatch
– To maintain “copy semantics”
Kernel I/O Subsystem
• Caching - fast memory holding copy of data
– Always just a copy
– Key to performance
• Spooling - hold output for a device
– If device can serve only one request at a time
– i.e., Printing
• Device reservation - provides exclusive access to a device
– System calls for allocation and deallocation
– Watch out for deadlock
Error Handling
• OS can recover from disk read, device
unavailable, transient write failures
• Most return an error number or code when
I/O request fails
• System error logs hold problem reports
I/O Protection
• User process may accidentally or purposefully
attempt to disrupt normal operation via illegal
I/O instructions
– All I/O instructions defined to be privileged
– I/O must be performed via system calls
• Memory-mapped and I/O port memory locations
must be protected too
Use of a System Call to
Perform I/O
Monitor = privileged/kernel mode
Life Cycle of
An I/O Request
• I/O a major factor in system performance:
– Demands CPU to execute device driver, kernel
I/O code
– Context switches due to interrupts
– Data copying
Improving Performance
• Reduce number of context switches
• Reduce data copying
• Reduce interrupts by using large transfers,
smart controllers, polling
• Use DMA
• Balance CPU, memory, bus, and I/O
performance for highest throughput
I/O W/O a Unified Buffer Cache
Unified Buffer Cache
• A unified buffer cache uses the same page
cache to cache both memory-mapped pages
and ordinary file system I/O
I/O Using a Unified
Buffer Cache
• Consistency checking – compares data in directory structure
with data blocks on disk, and tries to fix inconsistencies
• Use system programs to back up data from disk to another
storage device (floppy disk, magnetic tape, other magnetic
disk, optical)
• Recover lost file or disk by restoring data from backup

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