Advanced Vocabulary ch 2

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ADVANCING
VOCABULARY SKILLS
Fourth Edition
Sherrie L. Nist
© 2010 Townsend Press
Unit One: Chapter 2
• collaborate
• rudimentary
• despondent
• scoff
• instigate
• squelch
• resilient
• venerate
• retrospect
• zealot
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
1 collaborate
– verb
• When Sarah and I were asked to collaborate on an article for the
school newspaper, we found it difficult to work together.
• Several writers and editors have collaborated in preparing this
vocabulary text, sharing their knowledge and skills.
Collaborate means
A. to compete.
B. to stop work.
C. to act as a team.
Navy trainees collaborating on a task
Photo: U.S. Navy
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
1 collaborate
– verb
• When Sarah and I were asked to collaborate on an article for the
school newspaper, we found it difficult to work together.
• Several writers and editors have collaborated in preparing this
vocabulary text, sharing their knowledge and skills.
Collaborate means
A. to compete.
B. to stop work.
C. to act as a team.
Navy trainees collaborating on a task
Photo: U.S. Navy
The words work together suggest that
collaborate means “to act as a team.”
In the second item, since the writers
and editors shared their skills, they
acted as a team.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
2 despondent
– adjective
• Devon becomes despondent too easily. If he gets even one bad
grade, he loses all hope of succeeding in school.
• For months after his wife died, Mr. Craig was despondent. No
matter how hard they tried, his family and friends could not cheer
him up.
Despondent means
A. ill.
B. depressed.
C. angry.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
2 despondent
– adjective
– adjective
• Devon becomes despondent too easily. If he gets even one bad
grade, he loses all hope of succeeding in school.
• For months after his wife died, Mr. Craig was despondent. No
matter how hard they tried, his family and friends could not cheer
him up.
Despondent means
A. ill.
B. depressed.
C. angry.
If Devon loses all hope, he must become depressed. Since Mr. Craig’s
family and friends could not cheer him up, he was depressed.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
3 instigate
– verb
• An English captain named Robert Jenkins instigated a war in
1738 by displaying his pickled ear, which he said had been cut
off by a Spanish patrol. The horrified British declared war on
Spain—the “War of Jenkins’ Ear.”
• The rock group’s violent performance instigated a riot in the
audience.
Instigate means
A. to prevent.
B. to predict.
C. to cause.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
3 instigate
– verb – verb
• An English captain named Robert Jenkins instigated a war in
1738 by displaying his pickled ear, which he said had been cut
off by a Spanish patrol. The horrified British declared war on
Spain—the “War of Jenkins’ Ear.”
• The rock group’s violent performance instigated a riot in the
audience.
Instigate means
A. to prevent.
B. to predict.
C. to cause.
Since the British declared war, Jenkins caused the war by claiming his
ear was cut off by a Spanish patrol. A rock group’s violent
performance could cause the audience to riot.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
4 resilient
– adjective
• Children can be amazingly resilient. Even after a sad or
frightening experience, they often bounce back to their normal
cheerful selves.
• Plant life is resilient. For example, a few weeks after the Mount
St. Helens volcano erupted in Washington in 1980, flowers were
growing in the ashes.
Resilient means
A. widespread.
B. slow to recover.
C. quick to recover.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
4 resilient
– adjective
– adjective
• Children can be amazingly resilient. Even after a sad or
frightening experience, they often bounce back to their normal
cheerful selves.
• Plant life is resilient. For example, a few weeks after the Mount
St. Helens volcano erupted in Washington in 1980, flowers were
growing in the ashes.
Resilient means
A. widespread.
B. slow to recover.
C. quick to recover.
In the first item, the words bounce back suggest that resilient means
“quick to recover.” In the second item, since the flowers were growing
again in only a few weeks, plant life must be quick to recover.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
5 retrospect
– noun
• After hobbling around on her broken foot for a week before
seeing a doctor, Maethen needed surgery. In retrospect, it’s clear
she should have gotten help sooner.
• When I took Ms. Klein’s writing course, I thought she was too
demanding. In retrospect, though, I realize that she taught me
more than anyone else.
Retrospect means
A. looking back.
B. looking for excuses.
C. looking ahead.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
5 retrospect
– noun – noun
• After hobbling around on her broken foot for a week before
seeing a doctor, Maethen needed surgery. In retrospect, it’s clear
she should have gotten help sooner.
• When I took Ms. Klein’s writing course, I thought she was too
demanding. In retrospect, though, I realize that she taught me
more than anyone else.
Retrospect means
A. looking back.
B. looking for excuses.
C. looking ahead.
Looking back, it is clear that Maethen might not have needed surgery
if she had gotten help sooner. Similarly, looking back, it is clear the
teacher who seemed too demanding was actually teaching the speaker
a lot.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
6 rudimentary
– adjective
• A grammar book usually starts with rudimentary skills, such as
identifying nouns and verbs.
• I’m so used to adding and subtracting on a calculator that I’ve
probably forgotten how to do those rudimentary mathematical
calculations on my own.
Rudimentary means
2+1=3
A rudimentary math problem
A. basic.
B. intermediate.
C. advanced.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
6 rudimentary
– adjective
– adjective
• A grammar book usually starts with rudimentary skills, such as
identifying nouns and verbs.
• I’m so used to adding and subtracting on a calculator that I’ve
probably forgotten how to do those rudimentary mathematical
calculations on my own.
Rudimentary means
2+1=3
A rudimentary math problem
A. basic.
B. intermediate.
C. advanced.
Identifying nouns and verbs are
basic grammar skills. And adding
and subtracting are basic
mathematical calculations.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
7 scoff
– verb
• Bystanders scoffed at the street musician playing a tune on a row
of tin cans, but he seemed unaware that people were making fun
of him.
• Tony scoffed at reports that a hurricane was coming until he saw
the winds knocking down trees and overturning cars.
Scoff means
A. to laugh at.
B. to watch.
C. to take seriously.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
7 scoff
– verb – verb
• Bystanders scoffed at the street musician playing a tune on a row
of tin cans, but he seemed unaware that people were making fun
of him.
• Tony scoffed at reports that a hurricane was coming until he saw
the winds knocking down trees and overturning cars.
Scoff means
A. to laugh at.
B. to watch.
C. to take seriously.
The words making fun of him suggest that scoff means “to laugh at.”
If Tony didn’t believe that a hurricane was coming, he would laugh at
the reports.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
8 squelch
– verb
• My history teacher shot me a dirty look during class when I
couldn’t quite manage to squelch a burp.
• Decades of communism in Eastern Europe didn’t squelch the
desire for freedom. As soon as they could, the people in these
countries began to form democracies.
Squelch means
A. to encourage.
B. to hold back.
C. to release.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
8 squelch
– verb – verb
• My history teacher shot me a dirty look during class when I
couldn’t quite manage to squelch a burp.
• Decades of communism in Eastern Europe didn’t squelch the
desire for freedom. As soon as they could, the people in these
countries began to form democracies.
Squelch means
A. to encourage.
B. to hold back.
C. to release.
Since the teacher was annoyed, the student must not have been able
to hold back a burp. Since the people in Eastern Europe formed
democracies as soon as they could, decades of communism must not
have held back their desire for freedom.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
9 venerate
– verb
• The Tlingit Indians venerate the wolf and the raven, and their
totem poles illustrate stories in praise of these animals.
• The guests at our dean’s retirement banquet made it clear that
they venerated her; when she entered the room, everyone rose.
Venerate means
A. to pity.
B. to honor.
C. to remember.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
9 venerate
– verb – verb
• The Tlingit Indians venerate the wolf and the raven, and their
totem poles illustrate stories in praise of these animals.
• The guests at our dean’s retirement banquet made it clear that
they venerated her; when she entered the room, everyone rose.
Venerate means
A. to pity.
B. to honor.
C. to remember.
The word praise suggests that venerate means “to honor.” Since
everyone stood up when the dean entered the room, it is clear
that the guests honored her.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
10 zealot
– noun
• Annie, a zealot about health, runs a hundred miles a week and
never lets a grain of sugar touch her lips.
• The Crusaders were Christian zealots during the Middle Ages
who left their homes and families and went off to try to capture
the Holy Land.
Zealot means
A. an extremist.
B. an observer.
C. a doubter.
TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT
Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word.
10 zealot
– noun – noun
• Annie, a zealot about health, runs a hundred miles a week and
never lets a grain of sugar touch her lips.
• The Crusaders were Christian zealots during the Middle Ages
who left their homes and families and went off to try to capture
the Holy Land.
Zealot means
A. an extremist.
B. an observer.
C. a doubter.
Someone who runs a hundred miles a week and never touches sugar
is an extremist about health. Since the Crusaders left their homes
and families to try to capture the Holy Land, they must have been
Christian extremists.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. collaborate
B. despondent C. instigate
F. rudimentary G. scoff
H. squelch
D. resilient
E. retrospect
I. venerate
J. zealot
1. My ability to speak Spanish is ___________, but I can at
least manage to ask directions or order a meal.
2. Jaime was __________ over the death of his dog, his
companion for fourteen years.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. collaborate
B. despondent C. instigate
F. rudimentary G. scoff
H. squelch
D. resilient
E. retrospect
I. venerate
J. zealot
1. My ability to speak Spanish is ___________,
rudimentary but I can at
least manage to ask directions or order a meal.
Asking directions and ordering a meal indicate a basic ability in a
foreign language.
2. Jaime was __________
despondent over the death of his dog, his
companion for fourteen years.
Losing a companion of fourteen years would make Jaime downhearted.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. collaborate
B. despondent C. instigate
F. rudimentary G. scoff
H. squelch
D. resilient
E. retrospect
I. venerate
J. zealot
3. The novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which exposed the horrors
of slavery, helped to _________ the American Civil War.
4. Dawn is a __________ about banning nuclear weapons.
She has walked for miles in protest marches and stood in
the rain for hours during demonstrations.
5. Mother Teresa, who devoted her life to helping the poor, is
________(e)d by some people as a twentieth-century saint.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. collaborate
B. despondent C. instigate
F. rudimentary G. scoff
H. squelch
D. resilient
E. retrospect
I. venerate
J. zealot
3. The novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which exposed the horrors
of slavery, helped to _________
instigate the American Civil War.
A book exposing the horrors of slavery would help bring about the
Civil War.
4. Dawn is a __________
about banning nuclear weapons.
zealot
She has walked for miles in protest marches and stood in
the rain for hours during demonstrations.
Dawn’s actions show she is totally devoted to the cause.
5. Mother Teresa, who devoted her life to helping the poor, is
___________
venerated by some people as a twentieth-century saint.
Since people think she is a saint, they must respect her deeply.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. collaborate
B. despondent C. instigate
F. rudimentary G. scoff
H. squelch
D. resilient
E. retrospect
I. venerate
J. zealot
6. The Cord, in the 1920s, was the first car with front-wheel
drive, but in those days most people considered the idea
ridiculous and ________(e)d at it.
7. Marie and Pierre Curie _______(e)d on important scientific
experiments involving radioactivity.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. collaborate
B. despondent C. instigate
F. rudimentary G. scoff
H. squelch
D. resilient
E. retrospect
I. venerate
J. zealot
6. The Cord, in the 1920s, was the first car with front-wheel
drive, but in those days most people considered the idea
ridiculous and ___________
at it.
scoffed
People would mock an idea they considered ridiculous.
7. Marie and Pierre Curie __________
collaborated on important scientific
experiments involving radioactivity.
The Curies worked together on the experiments.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. collaborate
B. despondent C. instigate
F. rudimentary G. scoff
H. squelch
D. resilient
E. retrospect
I. venerate
J. zealot
8. Kim’s parents nagged her so hard about practicing the
piano that they finally _______(e)d any interest she might
have had in music.
9. Since I’d like to be a photographer, I can see, in _________,
that I would have gained valuable experience if I’d taken
pictures for the school newspaper.
10. Athletes need to be _________. After a defeat, an individual
or a team must be able to come back and fight for victory
the next time.
SENTENCE CHECK 1
Complete each item with the correct word from the box.
A. collaborate
B. despondent C. instigate
F. rudimentary G. scoff
H. squelch
D. resilient
E. retrospect
I. venerate
J. zealot
8. Kim’s parents nagged her so hard about practicing the
piano that they finally __________
squelched any interest she might
have had in music.
Constant nagging can crush a person’s interest.
9. Since I’d like to be a photographer, I can see, in retrospect
_________,
that I would have gained valuable experience if I’d taken
pictures for the school newspaper.
Looking back, the speaker can see the value of taking pictures for
the paper.
10. Athletes need to be _________.
resilient After a defeat, an individual
or a team must be able to come back and fight for victory
the next time.
The words able to come back tell you athletes must be quick to recover.

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