File Physical Development 4

Chapter 14
Physical Growth and
Development from 4-6
14.1 Physical Growth and Development
from 4-6
14.2 Providing Care for Children from 4-6
Height and Weight
 Slightly slower compared to ages 1-3
 Average yearly increase in height is 2 ½
to 3 inches
 Gain about 4-5 pounds
 Smaller or larger gains are common
 Boys tend to be slightly taller and heavier
than girls
Average heights and
Height (inches) Weight
Teamwork Activity
 Divide into 4 groups
 Measure the height
of each person and
calculate the group’s
average height and
 How do the averages
and ranges
Group Avg Ht Ht
Proportion and Posture
 Body becomes straighter and slimmer between
4th and 7th birthday
 Abdomen flattens
 Shoulders widen
 Chest broadens and flattens
 Neck becomes longer
 Legs lengthen rapidly, grow straighter and
 Balance and coordination improve
Think about it
 How might caregivers treat a child who is
much taller or shorter than average?
 How could this affect the child?
 What can caregivers do to prevent this
 Begin to lose primary teeth around age 6
 32 permanent teeth replace primary teeth
 First permanent teeth to arrive are “6 year old
molars” or “first molars”
 2 upper, 2 lower, back of the 20 primary teeth
 Act as a lock to keep other teeth in place
 Primary teeth are lost in the order they came in
Thumb Sucking
 4-6 will continue to suck their thumb
 Way to handle tension or comfort
 Forcing a child to quit can cause more
problems than the habit itself
 Usually stop on their own
Motor Skills
 Large and small improve significantly
 Love physical activity, very energetic
 Learn to throw and catch large and small
balls at age 4
 Improved speed and coordination by age
 Movements are smoothly coordinated by
age 6
 4 and 5 year olds show improved dexterity,
improved hand-eye coordination
 Children need plenty of opportunities for skill
 Time and space to run, jump, climb for large motor
 Color, paint, cutting, and writing for small motor
 Children with well developed small motor skills
find learning to read to and write easier
How Motor Skills Develop
Small Motor
*Large Motor
*lace shoes
*dress and undress self
*cuts on line with scissors
*gallops and hops
*jumps forward as well as
in place
*throws overhand with
body control
*ties shoelaces
*draws recognizable person
*skillfully picks up very small items
*buttons, snaps and zips clothing
*Stands and balances on
tiptoes for short period and
skips, alternating feet
*Build block towers to
shoulder height
*Cuts, pastes, molds, and
colors skillfully
*Writes entire words
*Throws and catches ball
with more ease and
*Rides a bicycle
Tie It Up
 How would you teach a 5 year old to tie
 Make a simple chart and give a visual
demonstration of the steps you would
use. Make sure your verbal explanation
can be understood by a child during the
demonstration. Write your verbal
explanation with your chart and turn in.
You may work with one partner.
Hand Preference
 What inconveniences might a left-handed
person face in a right-handed world?
Hand Preference
 Consistently use the same hand by age 5
 Becomes the most skillful
 Ambidextrous- use both hands with equal
 Research still unclear on how hand
preference develops
 What do you think?
Hand Preference
 Write the following sentence on a sheet of
Mrs. Yarbrough is the best teacher I have ever had.
 Now write the same sentence with the opposite
 What was the experience like? How did it
make you feel? What correlations can you
make between writing with your opposite hand
and a child learning to write?
14.2 Providing Care
for Children from 4-6
 Nutritious foods supply energy needed
for growth, learning, and activity
 The amount of food needed depends on
height, weight, and physical activity
 Eating 5-6 small meals and snacks a day
rather than 3 can do better for children
because they provide a constant level of
energy and their stomachs are small
Poor Nutrition
 Poor nutrition- not getting the key
nutrients needed through food
 Causes of poor nutrition
 Lack of money
 Caregiver do not understand the need for
good nutrition
 Setting an example with poor eating habits
 Allowed to choose their own food
What are some places that
sell prepared food that
children can eat?
 What makes them popular?
 What types of food are available?
 Do they provide good nutrition, how can it
be improved?
Negative Effects of Poor
 Less resistance to colds and illness
 Growth can be limited
 Learning can be difficult because they
are tired and easily distracted
Weight Problems
 Can look chunky or slim and still be
 Doctor or dietitian can determine if there
is a weight problem
 Can decide what eating and activity changes
need to be made
 What works for adults may not be
appropriate for children
 When a child consistently consumes more
calories than the body uses, the extra calories
are stored as fat
 A child who is underweight is not eating
enough food to supply energy needs
 Overweight and underweight result from long
term eating habits
 Depends not only on quantity, but quality as
 Eating healthy and physical activity go together
Promoting Health
 Create a poster that promotes and shows
some type of physical activity that
children ages 4-6 would participate in.
 Imagine that the poster will hang up
inside a gym, PE classroom, childcare
center, or after school program.
 The design should be eye catching,
colorful, and appeal to ages 4-6.
Teaching Children About
 Nutrition lessons learned between 4-6
will stay with children through life
 Children make nutrition decisions on their
own when they attend school
Nutrition at Home
 Help grocery shop and put away
 Help care for a garden
 Wash fruits and vegetables
 Help with simple cooking tasks
 Makes them feel proud of their contributions
 Positive time working with caregiver
 Improve small motor skills
Nutrition at School
 Eat lunch from home or one from school
 What they are given to eat and what they
actually eat can be different
 Traded or thrown away
How to Help Pack a Lunch
Let them choose their own lunch box
Send different foods each day
Make foods easy to eat
Finger foods are convenient
Sandwiches can get boring
Sweets don’t have to be “sugary” foods
Surprise such as a note or special treat
Design a Healthy Lunch
 Create a lunch that you would pack for
your 5-6 year old child.
 The lunch should demonstrate balanced
nutrition, be colorful, have a variety of
shapes and textures, and be easy to eat.
 Decorate your lunch bag to make it
appealing to the child. What else can
you add to make it special?
Teaching Self-Care Skills
 Keeping clean, dressing themselves, and
caring for clothes increasingly improves
Washing and Bathing
 Bathing has lost its “fun” by this age
 Set up and maintain a hygiene routine
 Behavior will become more accepted
 Need praise to continue with tasks
 Find ways to make it fun
Brushing Teeth
 Should develop into a routine
 Instruct how to effectively brush and floss teeth
 Tooth decay is a concern because permanent
teeth are coming in
 Dentist might recommend sealants- thin plastic
coatings that prevent plaque from developing
 Use a toothpaste with fluoride- strengthens the
outer coating of the teeth
Basic Rules of Cleanliness
Dressing and Choosing
 Can easily dress themselves
 Have difficulty in matching clothes
 Can help select coordinating outfits and
store them together
 Comfort, durability, and economy are
guidelines for choosing clothes
 Two other factors in selecting clothes:
 Definite likes and dislikes
 Can become attached to a favorite garment
 Group identification- a feeling of belonging
 Desire to wear clothes that are popular with
Caring for Clothes
 Once they begin to care about what they wear,
they will want to care for their clothes
 They can fold and hang up clothes
 Put dirty items in a certain place
 Make sure storage is within reach to put
clothes away
 Helps increase independence and
 Afternoon naps no longer exist
 Generally more cooperative about going
to bed
 Usually do not use a lot of delaying
 Might still want a bedtime story
 Helps develop an interest in reading
 Few accidents
 If accidents do occur, the child is usually
concentrating fully on an activity
 Might be in a new place and scared to
ask where the bathroom is
 Sickness can lead to accidents
 Persistent problems should be checked
by a doctor
Steps to Minimize
 Have the child go to the bathroom before
leaving home
 Help the child find the bathroom at a new
 Keep an extra outfit available in case an
accident does happen
Nightly Self-Care Routine
 Develop a plan for your child’s nightly
 It can include self-care skills and some
skills that require parental help
 Make it attractive so that you would hang
it in your child’s room

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