Grid Modernization enabled through Smart Grid Platform

Report
Washington Electric Energy Systems Symposium
University of Washington
June 15th 2011
Patricia Hoffman
U.S. Department of Energy
Policies
state RPS, federal CES,
FERC, PUC’s,
environmental
regulations, siting, etc.
The Grid
Markets
business models, cost
allocation, wholesale
power trading, utilities,
vendors, etc.
Risk
Risk
Technologies
generation, infrastructure,
smart grid, electric vehicles,
storage, etc.
Risk
Systems
Generation
Now
Coal, Natural Gas,
Nuclear, Central
Transmission System monitoring by
based on limited
parameters
Distribution
Utilities perform
operations manually
(high latency)
Customer
Some demandresponse programs,
especially among
commercial and
industrial customers;
most residential
customers on fixed
rates
Near-term
Optimized Generation
Long-Term
Balance central/distributed
Sensor-based monitoring by
operators
Automatic switchable network
Expanded Contingency Analysis
Real-time tools to improve
reliability and system efficiency
Integration of PEVs, real-time
operations and dynamic
reconfiguration and protectionAbility to Microgrid
Customers are partners with
utilities in the management of
electricity.
All customers being offered a
variety of technologies and
pricing policies to better
establish demand-side
management practices
Utility business model: neutral
arbitrator of the grid or an energy
service company?
Benefit Category
Benefit
Sub-category
Improved Asset
Utilization
T&D Capital Savings
Economic
T&D O&M Savings
Theft Reduction
Energy Efficiency
Electricity Cost
Savings
Reliability (and
Risk)
Power Interruptions
Power Quality
Environmental
Air Emissions
Energy Diversity
Energy “Security”
Economics
Market Operations
Policy - Incentives
Specific Outcomes
Optimized Generator Operation (utility/ratepayer)
Deferred Generation Capacity Investments (utility/ratepayer)
Reduced Ancillary Service Cost (utility/ratepayer)
Reduced Congestion Cost (utility/ratepayer)
Deferred Transmission Capacity Investments (utility/ratepayer)
Deferred Distribution Capacity Investments (utility/ratepayer)
Reduced Equipment Failures (utility/ratepayer)
Reduced Distribution Equipment Maintenance Cost (utility/ratepayer)
Reduced Distribution Operations Cost (utility/ratepayer)
Reduced Meter Reading Cost (utility/ratepayer)
Reduced Electricity Theft (utility/ratepayer)
Reduced Electricity Losses (utility/ratepayer)
Reduced Electricity Cost (consumer)
Reduced Sustained Outages (consumer)
Reduced Major Outages (consumer)
Reduced Restoration Cost (utility/ratepayer)
Reduced Momentary Outages (consumer)
Reduced Sags and Swells (consumer)
Reduced Carbon Dioxide Emissions (society)
Reduced SOX, NOX, and PM-10 Emissions (society)
Reduced Oil Usage (society)
Reduced Wide-scale Blackouts (society)
Reduced volatility
Reduced Electricity Cost (consumer)
Adapted from *Methodological Approach for Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Smart Grid Demonstration Projects, EPRI, January 2010.
TheARRA programs estimate that
they will train approximately
30,000 American workers to
help modernize the nation’s
electrical grid and implement
smart grid technologies in
communities across the country.
Science Technology Engineering
and Mathematics
5
Transformers
Control Systems components
Assessment of Critical Components
8
Generation Opportunities/Options
•
•
Transformational Technologies for Central Generation in Wind, Solar,
Storage
Central and Distributed Generation- balanced approach
•
Reuse of Vehicle batteries for Community Energy Storage
•
Hybrid Energy Systems – going beyond Combined Heat and Power
Distribution and Demand
Distribution and Demand
2009
3653 billion kWh
Hybrids, No PHEVs
Electrically-sensitive
equipment (limited
consideration - PQ)
2035
Demand Transformation
Expanding Digital Economy
Power quality needs
Demand growth
5168 billion kWh
Load curves – increased peaking
Plug-in hybrids (could increase demand 25%)
More electrically sensitive equipment (2.5x)*
Changing load curves
Vehicle electrification
Demand response
Energy management systems
Changing operational paradigms
Active consumer participation
New Utility Business Models
To enable and adapt to these changes, the distribution infrastructure must
evolve to meet the new and growing challenges
* RAND Digital Study, 2001
Impact of Distribution Automation Technology
Optimized control of voltage and reactive power
(Volt/VAR) requirements resulting in improved energy
efficiency, including an ability to undertake
conservative voltage reduction (CVR)
Many empirical studies indicate a reduction
in distribution system voltage reduces
energy consumption.
How CVR achieves this energy reduction
has been a topic of debate.
Dominion Virginia Power applied CVR at its Trabue station in
Midlothian where 6,000 customers in the test area saved roughly
$260,000 in energy costs, or about 2.7 percent of their overall
consumption during the past year.
*“Evaluation of Conservative Voltage Reduction (CVR) on a National Level [PNNL-19596]”, July 2010,
http://www.pnl.gov/main/publications/external/technical_reports/PNNL-19596.pdf
Source: Georgia Tech
Potential for High Impact:
13
Can address capacity issues, improve
asset utilization, reduce need for new
transmission build out, enhance reliability
and resiliency, facilitate automation and
restoration, improve power quality, and
enable new markets and services
PG&E
Energy Management + Demand Response
Original profile
Optimized profile
Demand
Response
Optimization can save
energy as well as
provide reduces peak
requirements
Adaptive set-points
Standards vs Markets
Understanding the Impact of AMI and Dynamic Prices
on Consumer Behavior
Statistically rigorous studies are being conducted to:
• Identify factors influencing customer acceptance of dynamic electricity rates and AMI technology
• Quantify the effect of dynamic rates on electricity consumption (peak and overall load reduction)
• Understand the relative and combined contributions of pricing, information feedback, and control
technology on consumer behavior
• Provide statistically-relevant data with analysis to researchers and decision-makers
Oklahoma Gas and Electric (OG&E) is undertaking a 2 yr study with 4,600 residential and 650 small businesses
to determine load reduction resulting from combinations of dynamic rates and enabling technologies
Technology Option
Pricing Strategy
Web Portal
Variable Peak Price
(VPP)
Treatment 1
TOU Critical Peak Price
(CPP)
Treatment 5
Control Group
In-Home Display
(IHD)
Programmable
Communicating
Thermostat (PCT)
All Technology
Options
Treatment 2
Treatment 3
Treatment 4
Treatment 6
Treatment 7
Control Group
Treatment 8
OG&E expects to avoid building two 165 MW peaking units based upon
achieving a 20% customer participation rate (on an opt-in basis)
Outage Management Systems –
Reliability
Cullman Electric Cooperative has
implemented an enterprise GIS
system that includes real-time
location and tracking from Air-Trak.
The system displays all power
outages and pinpoints vehicle
locations.
Arizona’s Public Service’s selfhealing grid pilot in Flaggstaff has
avoided more than 300,000 customer
outage minutes in eight separate
events since July 2010
Research Opportunities:
Communications, Controls
and Modeling
POWER GRID SENSORS
Transmission
Line Sag
Transmission
Line Current
Transformer
Status
DER Real &
Reactive
Power
SCADA and
Load
Monitoring
Communications (High Speed/Wide Bandwidth) & Data
Acquisition/Processing (High Performance) Systems
POWER GRID CONTROL
Dynamic
Transmission
Line Loading
Power Line
Flow Control
Dynamic
Transformer
Loading
DER Power
Control
Load
Control (i.e.,
price
signals)
Source: C. DeMarco, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison
Improving Wide-Area Situational Awareness through
SynchroPhasor Technology
• FUTURE: Phasor technology is expected to offer great benefit for real-time
operations and power system planning, including integrating renewable and variable
resources, automated controls for transmission and demand response, increasing
transmission system throughput, and improving system modeling.
Sam
mi
Han 345kV s-Star
natr
Har
3
J
45k uni ips
di ng
V tr per
-Ch
ip
345
a
kV t mberl s
in
rips
August 14, 2003
Ea s
Sources: AEP; PNNL
Stu
a
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e5
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
Grid Stress – phase angle measurements

Grid Robustness – damping status and trend

Dangerous Oscillations – low damping

Frequency Instability – Frequency variation across interconnection

Voltage Instability – Low Voltage Zones

Reliability Margin – “How far are we from the edge” – Sensitivity metrics
Effective Controls Require Seamless Communications
(and Data Access) across the Electric System
Communication Line
AMI — Automated Metering Infrastructure
Electrical Power Line
ISO — Independent System Operator
This chart captures a representative architecture. It is recognized that there are multiple technological options available for each vertical (Home Intelligence,
Feeder, Substation and Transmission Automation) respectively. It is not the intent of this chart to represent a comprehensive depiction of ALL technologies.
Power Electronic Devices
• Cost and performance of devices limit the
application of power electronic systems
• Advances in semiconductor materials (SiC,
GaN, diamond) and new architectures will
help improve this technology
Semiconductor Switch Targets
20 kV, 100 A, 20 kHz
Operating temperatures > 200 °C
Needs: Improved materials processing, thermal
management
Operating Temperature
Potential
24
Breakdown Voltage
Potential
Source: OSHA
Source: NASA
25
• Two-way power flows (increased distributed generation, use of electric
vehicles, community storage, etc.) can lead to fault currents that are
much larger than previously experienced or anticipated
• Advanced protection devices can leverage power electronic advances
26
Energy Storage Requirements and Targets
End user storage
Central storage
Distributed storage
Vehicle
Requirements
Energy Density and Cost
Life cycle cost (¢/kWhr/cycle)
Stationary
Lifetime and Capital Cost
100¢/kWh/cycle
Li ion Battery
High-Power Fly Wheels
Lead Acid Battery
NAS Battery
ZEBRA Battery
Flow Batteries: ZrBr , VBR, PS etc
PHEV Target
$250/kWh
10¢/kWh/cycle
CAES
Higher cost OK for some power applications
Stationary Storage Target
$100-150/kWh, or 4¢/kWh/cycle
Pumped
Hydro
1¢/kWh/cycle
UPS & Power Quality
1 kW
10 kW
T&D Grid Support & Load Shifting
100 kW
1 MW
10 MW
Bulk Power Mgmt
100 MW
1 GW
Redox & Advanced Flow Batteries
• Power determined by cell/stack, energy
determined by electrolyte tank capacity
• Cost, stability, energy density are challenges
• Many system chemistries
Short term
Long term
0.40
Develop and optimize of existing redox chemistries and new ones
Levelized cost ($/kWh)
0.35
0.30
Modify and develop of membrane/separator
Optimize electrodes and maximize electrochemical activity
Develop novel cell/stack designs, bench-top prototype systems
0.25
0.20
0.15
0.10
Through collaborated
efforts of labs, industries
and universities
Develop systems and field demonstration
Scale-up and commercialization
Combined cycle gas turbine
0.05
2010
2012
2014
2016
2018
2020
Years
Potential for High Impact:
• Improved membranes enables higher electrolyte ion concentrations, low maintenance
• Increased electrolyte ion concentration increases energy density, range of operation
• Novel liquid-metal and redox chemistries, durable electrodes
Benefit – 2x energy density, greater cycle life, improved efficiency, 2x cost
reduction
Iron-containing “MetIL”
Traditional
tubular sodium –
sulfur cell,
operated >300350oC
Short term
Long term
0.35
Newly developed
planar sodium
metal-halide cell,
operated <250oC
Proof of concept of planar design
0.30
Modify electrode cathode chemistries interfaces
Levelized cost ($/kWh)
Develop effective sealing, stack components
0.25
Optimization of interfaces and cell designs to allow operation
~200oC and energy efficiency (system >80%)
0.20
Develop and demonstrate KWs prototype system
Scale-up and commercialization
0.15
0.10
Combined cycle natural gas turbine
Mn2O3 orthorhombic lattice
0.05
2010
2012
2014
2016
2018
2020
Years
Potential for High Impact:
• Improved sealing and thin solid electrolytes enable planar design
• Cathode optimization enables reduced temperatures
• Novel nanofiber synthesis enables room temperature sodium-ion system
Benefit - 2x power density, 50% energy density improvement, 2x cost reduction
.
Planar stack,
operated <250oC
SECURITY and RISK
2009
Blackouts
Aging Infrastructure
Vulnerability of assets
2035
Vulnerability of Energy
Infrastructure
Interdependencies of electric and
energy systems
Infrastructure protection
Increased globalization
Materials and resource limitations
All-hazard risks will continue to increase
Cyber protection is still under development for this industry –
• How do we accelerate protection of the grid from cyber concerns?
• Other low frequency – high impact events also present concerns
for example solar flares.
• Does the grid have adequate protection? What are the expectations?
• How much security is enough and at what cost?
• US Manufacturing –transformers
Measure and
Assess Security
Posture
Develop and
Integrate Protective
Measures
Energy asset
owners are able to
perform fully
automated security
state monitoring
and control
systems networks
with real-time
remediation
Next-generation
control systems
components and
architectures
produced with
built-in, end-to-end
security will
replace older
legacy systems
Detect Intrusion
& Implement
Response Strategies
Control systems
networks will
inform operator
response to provide
contingency and
remedial actions in
response to
attempted intrusions
Sustain Security
Improvements
Implement effective
incentives through
Federal and state
governments to
accelerate investment
in secure control
system technologies
and practices
Research, develop and commercialize a managed switch
for the control system that uses whitelist filtering and
performs deep packet inspection
Physical Security
SEL WatchDog Managed Switch
The Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL) dongle
(that secures communications for intelligent electronic devices
at the distribution level), detects physical tampering and coPhysical Security
operates with the SEL managed switch .
SEL
Padlock
SEL
Padlock
SEL
Padlock
SEL
SEL
Padlock Padlock
SEL
Padlock
Trustworthy Information Sharing is Critical:
Standards, Privacy Protection and CyberSecurity
Average Intruder Knowledge
“stealth”/advanced
scanning techniques
widespread attacks using
NNTP to distribute attack
1990
massive botnets
widespread attacks on
client-side software
home users targeted
distributed attack
tools
hijacking sessions
packet spoofing
coordinated
cyber-physical
attacks
increase in
targeted phishing
& vishing
anti-forensic techniques
GUI intruder
tools
Internet social
engineering attacks
supply-chain
compromises
DDoS
attacks
executable code
attacks (against
browsers)
adaptive, highimpact, targeted
attacks on critical
infrastructures
control systems
targeted
increase in
worms
widespread attacks on
DNS infrastructure
automated
widespread
attacks
sophisticated
command
& control
High
widespread
denial-of-service
attacks
automated
probes/scans
widespread attacks on
web applications
Attack Sophistication
persistent malware
infiltration & persistent
surveillance
email propagation of
malicious code
malicious
counterfeit
hardware
increase in wide-scale
Trojan horse
distribution
techniques to analyze
code for vulnerabilities
without source code
Windows-based
remote controllable
Trojans
(Back Orifice)
2010
Source: CERT/Software Engineering Institute/Carnegie Mellon University
Low

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