### Aircraft Wing Structural Dynamics

```UCSD
Our experience with an

What is Research
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Project information
Aircraft Wing and
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Overview
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Lab Culture
structural Dynamics
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Theoretical Methods
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Experimental Methods
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Cost and Budgets
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Literature Survey
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applying the research
method

Conclusion
“Research is seeking through methodical
processes to add to one’s own body of
knowledge and, hopefully, to that of others by
the discovery of non trivial facts and insites”
-Michelle Lowe of Beginning Research:
A guide for foundation degree students
State the
Problem
Research
About
Topic
Hypothesis
Think
again!
Hypothesis
is true
Test with
an
Experiment
Analyze
and draw a
conclusion
Hypothesis is
partially true
or false
Report
Results!
 Come
up with a
topic to be
researched
 Research
a subject
you enjoy
 Ask
the journalistic
questions who,
what, when, where,
why and how.
 These questions
provide the
foundation of why
the research is
important.
 Answers
to your
previous questions
will serve as your
thesis statement.
 Your
thesis will be
the driving force
behind your
research


Thesis statement and
answers to previous
questions will give the
research significance.
It will serve to note if
research is original
work or if others have
already investigated
the subject.


Set goals or make blueprint to actual
experimentation.
Setting goals measures
1) Dependent and independent Variables
2) What exactly will be measured
3) What relationships will be examined
Project Location: University of California, San
Diego.
 UCSD design lab (Aerospace Engineering).
 Principal Investigator: Tom Hung.



Project Goal: Measuring the strength of a Balsa
Wing Structure subject to a Uniform Distributive
Load.
Measured the strength of a Balsa Wing Structure
by applying point load, force (sandbags) while
having structure secured to a test stand.

4 different wings were made, each one
differed by the amount of materials it was
made of.

Each wing was put under the same amount of
force.

To build stiffer wings that can hold more weight.
Information gained: Which built wing is the most
effective according to its stiffness to test on a
wind tunnel.
 This experiment was made in a micro scale and
with balsa wood and other light materials.
 This also can be applied to real life, with real
wings and alternate compound materials.
 Industry cares and will benefit from this
experiment.

This research is important because it is a
micro scale testing of the strength of a wing
structure.
 The beneficiaries of the research are:
1)Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
2)National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB)
3)General Public

 All
laboratory
operations contain
elements of danger

No food or drinks
allow in the
laboratory

Smoking is
prohibited

No open toe shoes




Use appropriate eye
protection
Be familiar with the
lab
Learn and know
what to do in case
of an emergency
Unauthorized
person(s) shall not
be allowed in the
lab




Laboratories shall remain locked other
than office hours
Never open (remove cover) of any
equipment in the labs
Report all problems to staff in charge
In case of emergency, Campus security
may be called
 Teamwork
 Individual
 Time
Task
management
 Results/conclusion
Theory explains
1) Equations that
will be used.
2)The physics
behind the issue.
3)If the theory is
testable.


Theory: A proposed
explanation whose
status is still
speculative and
subject to
experimentation.

Beam Theory : Provides a mean of calculating
the load-carrying and deflection
characteristic of beams

Beam: Horizontal of Vertical structure capable
of withstanding load by resisting bending.

Deflection: Degree under which a structural
element is displaced under a load(force)
Beam Theory Equation: d^2y/dx^2 = M(x)/EI
 Under this experiment we assume that the
wings behave as beams.


At the Tip Deflection Formula: Y=PL^3/3EL
 Point
Load Formula:
y=P/6EI (-x^3+3L^2x-2L^3)
 A point load is a load which is located to a
specific location on a structure.
Uniform Distributive Load:
y=-w(x^4-4L^3x+3L^3)/24EI
 Uniform Distribution: When the load w per
unit length has a constant value over part of
the beam

 Putting
theory into
practice
 Plan of action for
experiment – how
will you get that
data.
 Takes into
consideration time
and costs.





Balsa Wood
Glue
Exacto Knife
Test Stand (Beam)
Plastic cover

•
•
•
•
Dependable Variables:
Christian
Michelle
Manny
Ivan

•
•
•
•
•
•
Controlled Variable:
Ribs
Wings
Chord Length
Spars
Leading edge
Some air fall

All have 3in. Ribs

All wings are 2 ft.

Chord Length

2 Sets of spars

Same air fall

This Research
Academy was
made possible
by:
NASA California Space
Grant Consortium

Experiment Cost:
\$110.00dlss
Staff Salary
General Subjects

Airfoils and lifts

Forces and moments

Beams in bending

Cantilever of beams and
wings
Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Volume 40, July 2012, Pages
18-28 (S.C. Luo, Y.S. Chen)
It generally increases lift while
decreasing drag

What is lift?

Wings counter act gravity by creating lift!

Bernoulli’s principle states that as velocity
goes up, pressure goes down

Wing design, wing tips!
Flexural Stiffness (EI) vs. Weight (W)
0.7
Flexural Stiffness (EI=lbs*in^2)
0.6
0.5
0.4
Michelle
Christian
0.3
Manny
0.2
Ivan
0.1
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
Weight (ounces)
2.5
3
3.5
Tip Deflection vs. Tip Load
0.9
0.8
Tip Deflection (inches)
0.7
y = 0.6545x - 0.0297
christian
Ivan
0.6
y = 0.564x - 0.002
0.5
Michelle
Manny
0.4
y = 0.4066x + 0.0073
0.3
Christian
Linear (Ivan)
Linear (Michelle)
0.2
Linear (Manny)
y = 0.4949x - 0.0079
0.1
Linear (Christian)
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
Tip Load (lbs)
0.8
1
1.2
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
San Diego State University


Scholarships in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (S-STEM) Program

Web: www.csrc.sdsu.edu/s-stem.html

Contact: Prof. Satchi Venkataraman at [email protected]/* <![CDATA[ */!function(t,e,r,n,c,a,p){try{t=document.currentScript||function(){for(t=document.getElementsByTagName('script'),e=t.length;e--;)if(t[e].getAttribute('data-cfhash'))return t[e]}();if(t&&(c=t.previousSibling)){p=t.parentNode;if(a=c.getAttribute('data-cfemail')){for(e='',r='0x'+a.substr(0,2)|0,n=2;a.length-n;n+=2)e+='%'+('0'+('0x'+a.substr(n,2)^r).toString(16)).slice(-2);p.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(decodeURIComponent(e)),c)}p.removeChild(t)}}catch(u){}}()/* ]]> */


Minority Access to Research Careers (MARC)

Web: www.sci.sdsu.edu/casa/marc/index.php

Contact: Thelma Chavez at [email protected]/* <![CDATA[ */!function(t,e,r,n,c,a,p){try{t=document.currentScript||function(){for(t=document.getElementsByTagName('script'),e=t.length;e--;)if(t[e].getAttribute('data-cfhash'))return t[e]}();if(t&&(c=t.previousSibling)){p=t.parentNode;if(a=c.getAttribute('data-cfemail')){for(e='',r='0x'+a.substr(0,2)|0,n=2;a.length-n;n+=2)e+='%'+('0'+('0x'+a.substr(n,2)^r).toString(16)).slice(-2);p.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(decodeURIComponent(e)),c)}p.removeChild(t)}}catch(u){}}()/* ]]> */


Minority Biomedical Research Support (MBRS)

Web: sci.sdsu.edu/imsd/

Contact: Michelle Lopez at [email protected]/* <![CDATA[ */!function(t,e,r,n,c,a,p){try{t=document.currentScript||function(){for(t=document.getElementsByTagName('script'),e=t.length;e--;)if(t[e].getAttribute('data-cfhash'))return t[e]}();if(t&&(c=t.previousSibling)){p=t.parentNode;if(a=c.getAttribute('data-cfemail')){for(e='',r='0x'+a.substr(0,2)|0,n=2;a.length-n;n+=2)e+='%'+('0'+('0x'+a.substr(n,2)^r).toString(16)).slice(-2);p.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(decodeURIComponent(e)),c)}p.removeChild(t)}}catch(u){}}()/* ]]> */


McNair Scholars Program

Web: www.sci.sdsu.edu/mcnair/index.htm

Contact: [email protected]/* <![CDATA[ */!function(t,e,r,n,c,a,p){try{t=document.currentScript||function(){for(t=document.getElementsByTagName('script'),e=t.length;e--;)if(t[e].getAttribute('data-cfhash'))return t[e]}();if(t&&(c=t.previousSibling)){p=t.parentNode;if(a=c.getAttribute('data-cfemail')){for(e='',r='0x'+a.substr(0,2)|0,n=2;a.length-n;n+=2)e+='%'+('0'+('0x'+a.substr(n,2)^r).toString(16)).slice(-2);p.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(decodeURIComponent(e)),c)}p.removeChild(t)}}catch(u){}}()/* ]]> */


University of California San Diego


Doris A. Howell Foundation Research Scholarship

Web: aep.ucsd.edu/?action=scholarships

Contact: David Artis at [email protected]/* <![CDATA[ */!function(t,e,r,n,c,a,p){try{t=document.currentScript||function(){for(t=document.getElementsByTagName('script'),e=t.length;e--;)if(t[e].getAttribute('data-cfhash'))return t[e]}();if(t&&(c=t.previousSibling)){p=t.parentNode;if(a=c.getAttribute('data-cfemail')){for(e='',r='0x'+a.substr(0,2)|0,n=2;a.length-n;n+=2)e+='%'+('0'+('0x'+a.substr(n,2)^r).toString(16)).slice(-2);p.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(decodeURIComponent(e)),c)}p.removeChild(t)}}catch(u){}}()/* ]]> */
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
Portal to Various Research Programs –

aep.ucsd.edu/?action=programs

students.ucsd.edu/academics/research/undergraduate-research/opportunities/index.html

University of San Diego


Portal to Various Research Programs –

www.sandiego.edu/ugresearch/students/on_campus/

www.sandiego.edu/academics/research_and_scholarship/undergrad_research.php

```