(Ch 9) Research and writing

Report
P100
Strategies for success
Lecture 3
Chapter 9
Researching & Writing
Don’t forget your English class!
Why do we have to write a research
paper?
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Sharpens to thinking skills
Sharpens you practical communication skills
To improve as a writer
To learn something!
To prove you can read and write English
To see if you can follow directions
To see if you can complete a long range
assignment on time
Know your audience!
• Who is going to read
the paper?
• Write for the reader!
Who is your “audience” of this research
paper?
A. Your self
B. Other students in the class
C. Other students at Porterville College
D. English instructors
E. Mrs. Keele
Writing Purpose
• What is the point
or reason for the
paper?
– Inform?
– Persuade?
– Entertain?
“If you follow your
instructor's advice
and suggestions,
success is almost
guaranteed because
your instructor is
your reader!”
What is the general purpose of this
research paper?
A. Inform
B. Persuade
C. Entertain
D. To bore the teacher to death!
Consider the importance of the
assignment
• Time spent of paper = value of
project
–25 points
–100 points + class grade!
Research Paper Topic
• What area of nursing are you interested in
working in? – That is your topic.
– Job description
• Setting
• Patient population
• Typical tasks
– Educational requirements
– Salary
– Challenges and Rewards
Research Paper Guidelines
• Cover Page
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Student’s name
Title
Course title
Faculty name
Date
***This is the only place I want to see your name!
No fancy covers!
Staple
• 5 points
Research Paper Guidelines 2
Research Paper Guidelines
This is an only an example of how to write a
research paper. This example is in A.P.A. format, but
any format that is professional may be used. However,
the format used must be consistent! Begin the paper
with the title on the top of the page and centered. It
should be the same type size as the text. Every page
should have a running header. This is located at the
top right of the paper. The title of the paper (the first 3
words) and the page number should be included in the
running header (Keele, 2009). Do not include your
name anywhere in the body of the paper; it should
only appear on the cover page.
Research Paper Guidelines - summarize
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Only an example
Any professional format
Be consistent!
Title same font size as the text
Running header
No name (only on the cover page)
Introduction
• The first paragraph of the paper is the
introduction. In the introduction the paper
informs the reader what the topic is. The
introduction of this paper should briefly
describe the area or specialty of nursing that
you are researching (Mann, 2008).
Introduction
• Tell the reader what you are going to write about
in the paper and what they can expect to learn by
reading your paper. Remember that the paper is
to typed using a standard professional 12-point
font such as Times Roman or Courier. The paper
should be double spaced. The margins on the
paper should be one inch on the top, bottom and
sides. The beginning of each paragraph should
be indented five to seven spaces or about onehalf inch (Henderson, 2007).
Summary
• Introduce topic:
– Topic Sentence!
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Typed
12-point font
Double spaced
1 inch margins
TRUE / FALSE: You should not use the
word “I” in a research paper.
A. True
B. False
• Do not use the word “I” in your paper, it is very
unprofessional. This is not an essay or a journal
entry; it is a research paper. You should not
include why you want to have this career when
you grow up (Keele, 2009)!
I
Introduction Rubric
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•
•
•
•
•
Section Headings
Introduce the topic
Purpose of the paper is clear
Points to be covered are included and clean
Does not use the word “I”
10 points
Job Description
The paper needs to include a job description
for the area / specialty that you have chosen.
This is an explanation of what the job entails,
what are the roles a nurse in this field performs,
what are their daily tasks. This section of the
paper should be one of the longest sections.
Notice the heading of this section, “Job
Description”. It is centered in the middle of the
page. The font for the section headings should
be the same as the text (Mann, 2008).
• Make sure that you site your work. This
means you need to site/ tell the reader, where
you got the information you are writing about.
At the end of a sentence, place in parentheses
the name of the author and the date of where
you found the information (Keele, 2009).
• In text citations are a must. In most cases there
should be an in-text citation for every paragraph. You
need to give credit to the sources that gave you the
information for the paper. You must give a citation for
everything included in your paper that you did not
already know. If the paper is only filled with
information that you already knew, it was not a
research paper. This is a research paper not an essay.
A lack of in-text citations will result in a score of zero
and is considered a form of plagiarism. Remember you
are turning this into “turnitin.com” – don’t plagiarize
(Honesty, 2010)!
• One of the requirements of this research paper is
that you interview a person who has or is
currently working in the area / specialty that you
are researching. You need to site them as well in
your paper. You can either use in text citations at
the end of the paragraph i.e. (Nancy Nurse, 2011)
or introduce the person being interviewed in the
paragraph like so; Nancy Nurse a floor nurse at
Hospital on the Hill explained her job description
as “very physical”.
• Included in the job description should be such
things as the practice settings (i.e. acute
hospital, stand alone clinics, or helicopter) and
the patient population served. Examples of
patient populations could include but are not
limited to adults, children and elderly (Keele,
2009).
Educational Requirements
•
Another section of the paper should
contain information about the educational
requirement of working in the area / specialty.
Identify what level of nurses can perform work
in the area (i.e. RN, LVN, Nurse practitioner
etc.). Does the job require a bachelors degree
or is an associate degree acceptable (Paine,
2006)? Please do not include pictures!
Salary
Another section is about the salary and
financial benefits associated with the area /
specialty. Identify what the average salary is
for the person working in the area; not just
national averages, but local and state averages
as well. Do not just list the salaries, but make
analysis and compare those salaries to other
areas of nursing (Henderson, 2008).
• If you quote a source (meaning you write exacting
what is written somewhere else) you must put it in
“quotation marks” and then site the work at the end of
the sentence (Keele, 2009). You should not quote
anything more than 40 words. Ideally there should be
very few quotes used in this paper. The goal is for you
to read about the area / specialty and then write what
you have learned in your own words. Chapter nine of
your text book, Keys to Nursing Success by Janet R. Katz
(2009), does a very good job of explaining how to
paraphrase quotations in your own words.
Challenges & Rewards
Another section of the paper should
include the challenges of working in the area /
specialty. What makes this job hard? What is
unappealing about this area? Why do nurses
not stay in this area? Then address the
rewards of working in this area. Why did
nurses go into this area and what makes them
stay? Do not just address the financial
rewards! Be specific (Keele, 2009)
Body of Paper Rubric
• Body
– Section headings
– Job description
– Practice setting
– Patient population
– Educational requirements
– Salary
– Challenges and Rewards
– Topic is fully covered
Conclusion
The last paragraph of your paper should be
your conclusion. The conclusion is a summary
of the paper. The total paper not including
the title page and the bibliography should be
between three and five pages. It must be a
minimum of three full pages long.
• Please do not put any fancy covers on your
research paper – I will just rip them off, throw
them away and then mark you down for not
following instructions! Please put your name
only on the cover page – do not include it in the
footnotes or headers. Even though you are
writing about a career that you are interested in,
you must not include your name in the paper.
Your paper should be single sided, not double
sided like this paper is (Keele, 2009).
Conclusion Rubric
• Conclusion
– Section heading
– Summarizes each main point
• Job description
• Educational requirement
• Salary
• Challenges & Rewards
Bibliography
• The final page should be your bibliography.
This page is to be separate from the main
body of the paper. In other words, the
bibliography should be on a page all by its self.
The bibliography is a list of all of the sources
you used to write your paper. Every entry in
your bibliography should be sited somewhere
in your paper. You should have at least three
references sited in your bibliography. The
bibliography should be in alphabetical order.
• Any internet sites used should
include the URL.
–Do not use:
• Wikipedia
–Do use:
• Sound & reliable internet sites
Electronic Sources / Basic Format
(Internet sites):
Henderson, B.L. (2007, March 18).
Writing an awesome paper for P100.
Retrieved November 20,2000, from
http://henderson.writinganawesomepaper.ht
ml
Electronic version of newspaper article
Honesty, U.R. (2010, February 16).
Plagiarism and flunking out. Porterville
Times. Retrieved November 21,2011;
from http://www.portervilletimes.com
Book
Keele, Elizabeth (2009). How to write
a research paper. California: Basic
Books Press.
Journal references, magazines, etc.
Mann, E. (2008). The Art of Research.
Magazine for great Students, 14, 253263.
Interview
Nurse, Nancy. (2011, Feb 14). Telephone
interview. (559) 555-1212
Please provide me with contact
information for the person you
interviewed.
Bibliography Rubric
• Bibliography
– 3 or more references cited
– References listed alphabetically
– Internet sources include URL’s
– Bibliography page is titled
– At least one interview
– Separate page for the bibliography
– APA format
• 20 Points
Mechanics Rubric
• Mechanics
– 1200 – 1800 words in length
– Proper grammar
– Narrative style
– Double spaced & 12-point font
– No extra spaces
– Student name not found in body of paper
• 20 Points
Timeliness Rubric
• Hard copy turned into Mrs. Keele on time and
turnitin.com on time – 0 extra points
• Hard copy turned into Mrs. Keele but not
turned in to turnitin.com on time -20 points
• Hard copy turned in late or not submitted to
turnitin.com within one week of due date -100
points
Where should your name appear in your
research paper?
A. Only on the title page
B. On the title page and in the running
header
C. Only in the running header
D. At the end of the paper
How many pages long does my paper
need to be?
A. At least 500 – 1000 words
B. At least 750 – 1000 words
C. At least 2000 – 3000 words
D. At least 1200 – 1800 words
Do the 1200 – 1800 words include the
bibliography?
A. Yes
B. No
TRUE / FALSE: Every source in the
bibliography must be cited somewhere
in the paper.
A. True
B. False
How many sources must you use in
this paper?
A. At least 2
B. At least 3
C. At least 4
D. At least 5
E. At least 6
Does my paper have to have section
heading to get full credit?
A.Yes
B. No
How do I do the research?
• Start with a Road Map
What is in the library
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Circulation Desk
Reference area
Book area
Periodical area
Audiovisual materials
Computer areas
Learn how to conduct an information
search
Internet search strategy
• What do you want to locate?
I want to be Mrs. Keele
when I grow up to be a
Real Nurse!
• Search Engine:
– Google / Yahoo / etc.
– “I want to teach in a nursing school”
• 136,000,000 hits
– Use “key words” or correct “lingo”
• Nurse educator
– 26,000,000 hits
• “nurse educator”
– 691,000 hits
Conduction a Keyword search
• Field + nurse
– Hospice nurse
• “Hospice nurse”
– Anesthetics nurse
• “Nurse anesthetist”
– Traveling nurse
• “Traveling Nurse”
– Pediatric nurse
• “Pediatric Nurse”
Internet search strategy
• What do you want to locate?
• Refine the search
• Create a question
– What are the educational requirements to become a
nurse educator?
• 48,000,000 hits
• Identifying the important words
– Field + nurse + topic point
• “Hospice nurse” job description
• “Hospice nurse” salary
• “Hospice nurse” challenges
Internet search strategy
• What do you want to locate?
– (Educational requirements for Nurse educator)
• Create a question
– What are the educational requirements to become a nurse
educator?
• Identifying the important words
• Collection of words to use in your search
– Vary word order
• Spell it right!
• Evaluate the list of links  too many  narrow your
search
General rules
• Quotes
– “hospice nurse”
• Upper case / lower case
– Nurse
– nurse
• Word derivatives
– Nurse
– Nurses
– Nursing
You’ve found a source that looks good,
what now?
• Print / make a copy
• “Source Packet”
• Copy the bibliography info too!!
– Print with web address i.e. URL
• Uniform Resource Locator (world wide web address)
– DATE submitted to web or print date
– Author?
• Staple together
• Write a code number on the top of each source
packet (i.e. #1, #2, #3, #4 etc.)
• Use analytical thinking to evaluate every
source
– Which source is of value?
• Ask questions about the source
– Author?
– Website’s name – reputable?
– .edu = educational institution
– .gov = government agencies
• Evaluate and verify the data
Don’t stop – keep going!
• Remember you need at least 3 sources for this
research paper.
• Remember the topics you need to cover
– Job description
– Salary
– Educational requirement
– Challenges / rewards
I have my 6 different information source
packets printed, what now?
• Glean the information.
– Start with #1
– Read for key information
– Transfer information onto an index card
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•
•
•
Number card with code #
Write a subject
Note (in own words)
“Quote” – make sure you put quotation marks around
it!
#1 www.iteachnursingms.org/
• Associate Degree in
Nursing (ADN)
• Faculty must have a
master’s or higher
degree with a major
in nursing, and a
minimum of one year
of clinical experience
as a registered nurse
(IHL Accreditation
Standards, 2004).
#1
#1 www.iteachnursingms.org/
• Associate Degree in
Nursing (ADN)
• Faculty must have a
master’s or higher
degree with a major
in nursing, and a
minimum of one year
of clinical experience
as a registered nurse
(IHL Accreditation
Standards, 2004).
#1
Educational Requirements
#1 www.iteachnursingms.org/
• Associate Degree in
Nursing (ADN)
• Faculty must have a
master’s or higher
degree with a major
in nursing, and a
minimum of one year
of clinical experience
as a registered nurse
(IHL Accreditation
Standards, 2004).
#1
Educational Requirements
Mississippi requires instructors to have a minimum
of the following to teach in a A.D.N.
•master’s in nursing
•1 year experience in the clinical setting
•Be a registered nurse
#5
http://education-portal.com/articles/Hospice_Nurse_Job_Description_and_Requirements_for_Becoming_a_Hospice_Nurse.html
• “Hospice Nurse: Job
Description and Requirements
for Becoming a Hospice Nurse
• “Hospice nurses are registered
nurses (RNs) who provide care
for critically ill patients. They
work with patients, their
families and other healthcare
professionals during the final
stages of life. An
undergraduate degree and
national licensing is necessary
to become a nurse, while
additional training and
certification is recommended
for this career field.”
How would you start your index
card?
#5
http://education-portal.com/articles/Hospice_Nurse_Job_Description_and_Requirements_for_Becoming_a_Hospice_Nurse.html
• “Hospice Nurse: Job
Description and Requirements
for Becoming a Hospice Nurse
• “Hospice nurses are registered
nurses (RNs) who provide care
for critically ill patients. They
work with patients, their
families and other healthcare
professionals during the final
stages of life. An
undergraduate degree and
national licensing is necessary
to become a nurse, while
additional training and
certification is recommended
for this career field.”
#5
Job description
#5
http://education-portal.com/articles/Hospice_Nurse_Job_Description_and_Requirements_for_Becoming_a_Hospice_Nurse.html
“Hospice nurses are registered
nurses (RNs) who provide care
#5
for critically ill patients. They
work with patients, their families Job description
and other healthcare
professionals during the final
stages of life. An undergraduate GLEAN!!!
degree and national licensing is
necessary to become a nurse,
while additional training and
certification is recommended for
this career field.”
#5
http://education-portal.com/articles/Hospice_Nurse_Job_Description_and_Requirements_for_Becoming_a_Hospice_Nurse.html
“Hospice nurses are registered nurses
(RNs) who provide care for critically #5
ill patients. They work with patients,
Job description
their families and other healthcare
professionals during the final stages
of life. An undergraduate degree and Provide care for critically ill patients
national licensing is necessary to
become a nurse, while additional
training and certification is
recommended for this career field.”
#5
http://education-portal.com/articles/Hospice_Nurse_Job_Description_and_Requirements_for_Becoming_a_Hospice_Nurse.html
“Hospice nurses are registered nurses
(RNs) who provide care for critically #5
ill patients. They work with patients,
Job description
their families and other healthcare
professionals during the final stages
of life. An undergraduate degree and Provide care for critically ill patients
national licensing is necessary to
plagiarism
become a nurse, while additional
training and certification is
recommended for this career field.”
#5
http://education-portal.com/articles/Hospice_Nurse_Job_Description_and_Requirements_for_Becoming_a_Hospice_Nurse.html
“Hospice nurses are registered nurses
(RNs) who provide care for critically
ill patients. They work with patients, #5
their families and other healthcare
Job description
professionals during the final stages
of life. An undergraduate degree and
Provide care for critically ill patients
national licensing is necessary to
become a nurse, while additional
training and certification is
recommended for this career field.”
Plagiarism
• “The act of using someone else’s exact
words, figures, unique approach, or
specific reasoning, without giving
appropriate credit.” (Katz, 2009)
Quotes
• “A quotation repeats a sources exact
words, which are set off from the rest of
the text by quotation marks.” (Katz,
2009)
Paraphrase
•
•
•
•
Restate the author using your own words.
Use the authors ideas to enhance your own work
Can’t just exchange or cut words!
Demonstrated that you understand the author’s
argument.
• Use a different sentence structure (your voice)
• HINT: Do a paragraph at a time!
– Read – cover – restate in your own words!
– Explain it to your mother (or your kids)
• Citation
• Even if you are only paraphrasing, you still
must use citations!
• The words may be your own, but the idea is
barrowed. You must give credit to your
source.
#5
http://education-portal.com/articles/Hospice_Nurse_Job_Description_and_Requirements_for_Becoming_a_Hospice_Nurse.html
“Hospice nurses are registered
nurses (RNs) who provide care
for critically ill patients. They
work with patients, their
families and other healthcare
professionals during the final
stages of life. An
undergraduate degree and
national licensing is necessary
to become a nurse, while
additional training and
certification is recommended
for this career field.”
#5
Job description
Have to be an RN
Give end of life care.
May require some more training (preferred)
#3
http://anirbanbhattacharya1.articlesbase.com/medical-tourism-articles/the-challenges-and-rewards-ofbeing-a-travel-nurse-842871.html
• “Free Accommodation
• “When you work with a travel
nursing company, your
accommodation needs will be
taken care of at no additional
charge to you. Most
accommodations are near the
work area, and are fully or
partly furnished. What is
more, you are provided a
housing allowance should you
decide to take your own
accommodation or stay with
friends.”
How would you start your index card?
#3
http://anirbanbhattacharya1.articlesbase.com/medical-tourism-articles/the-challenges-and-rewards-ofbeing-a-travel-nurse-842871.html
• “Free Accommodation
• “When you work with a travel
#3
nursing company, your
accommodation needs will be Rewards / challenges
taken care of at no additional
charge to you. Most
accommodations are near the
work area, and are fully or
partly furnished. What is
more, you are provided a
housing allowance should you
decide to take your own
accommodation or stay with
friends.”
#3
http://anirbanbhattacharya1.articlesbase.com/medical-tourism-articles/the-challenges-and-rewards-ofbeing-a-travel-nurse-842871.html
• “Free Accommodation
• “When you work with a travel
#3
nursing company, your
accommodation needs will be Rewards / challenges
taken care of at no additional
charge to you. Most
accommodations are near the
work area, and are fully or
partly furnished. What is
more, you are provided a
housing allowance should you
decide to take your own
accommodation or stay with
friends.”
Glean!
#3
http://anirbanbhattacharya1.articlesbase.com/medical-tourism-articles/the-challenges-and-rewards-ofbeing-a-travel-nurse-842871.html
• “Free Accommodation
• “When you work with a travel
nursing company, your
accommodation needs will be
taken care of at no additional
charge to you. Most
accommodations are near the
work area, and are fully or
partly furnished. What is
more, you are provided a
housing allowance should you
decide to take your own
accommodation or stay with
friends.”
#3
Rewards / challenges
Paid accommodations
Housing allowance
Flexibility to live where you want
Is this plagiarism?
Original Text
•
Critical care nurses function in a
hierarchy of roles. In this open heart
surgery unit, the nurse manager hires
and fires the nursing personnel. The
nurse manager does not directly care
for patients but follows the progress of
unusual or long-term patients. On each
shift a nurse assumes the role of
resource nurse. This person oversees
the hour-by-hour functioning of the
unit as a whole, such as considering
expected admissions and discharges of
patients, ascertaining that beds are
available for patients in the operating
room, and covering sick calls. (Chase,
1995, p. 156)
Student Paper
• Critical care nurses have a
hierarchy of roles. The nurse
manager hires and fires nurses.
S/he does not directly care for
patients but does follow unusual
or long-term cases. On each shift
a resource nurse attends to the
functioning of the unit as a
whole, such as making sure beds
are available in the operating
room.
Is this plagiarism? Yes
Original Text
•
Critical care nurses function in a
hierarchy of roles. In this open heart
surgery unit, the nurse manager hires
and fires the nursing personnel. The
nurse manager does not directly care
for patients but follows the progress of
unusual or long-term patients. On each
shift a nurse assumes the role of
resource nurse. This person oversees
the hour-by-hour functioning of the
unit as a whole, such as considering
expected admissions and discharges of
patients, ascertaining that beds are
available for patients in the operating
room, and covering sick calls. (Chase,
1995, p. 156)
Student Paper
• Critical care nurses have a
hierarchy of roles. The nurse
manager hires and fires nurses.
S/he does not directly care for
patients but does follow unusual
or long-term cases. On each shift
a resource nurse attends to the
functioning of the unit as a
whole, such as making sure beds
are available in the operating
room.
Why
• No acknowledgement of the
source
Is this still plagiarism?
Original Text
•
Critical care nurses function in a
hierarchy of roles. In this open heart
surgery unit, the nurse manager hires
and fires the nursing personnel. The
nurse manager does not directly care
for patients but follows the progress of
unusual or long-term patients. On each
shift a nurse assumes the role of
resource nurse. This person oversees
the hour-by-hour functioning of the
unit as a whole, such as considering
expected admissions and discharges of
patients, ascertaining that beds are
available for patients in the operating
room, and covering sick calls. (Chase,
1995, p. 156)
Student Paper
• Critical care nurses have a
hierarchy of roles. The nurse
manager hires and fires nurses.
S/he does not directly care for
patients but does follow unusual
or long-term cases. On each shift
a resource nurse attends to the
functioning of the unit as a
whole, such as making sure beds
are available in the operating
room. (Chase, 1995, p. 156)
Is this still plagiarism? YES!!!
Original Text
•
Critical care nurses function in a
hierarchy of roles. In this open heart
surgery unit, the nurse manager hires
and fires the nursing personnel. The
nurse manager does not directly care
for patients but follows the progress of
unusual or long-term patients. On each
shift a nurse assumes the role of
resource nurse. This person oversees
the hour-by-hour functioning of the
unit as a whole, such as considering
expected admissions and discharges of
patients, ascertaining that beds are
available for patients in the operating
room, and covering sick calls. (Chase,
1995, p. 156)
Student Paper
• Critical care nurses have a
hierarchy of roles. The nurse
manager hires and fires nurses.
S/he does not directly care for
patients but does follow unusual
or long-term cases. On each shift
a resource nurse attends to the
functioning of the unit as a
whole, such as making sure beds
are available in the operating
room.
Why?
• Copies the author’s
writing style
• The phrases in red are
directly copied from the
source or changed only
slightly in form.
• Still plagiarized
• No quotation marks.
Verbatim Plagiarism
From time to time this submerged or latent theater in becomes
almost overt. It is close to the surface in Hamlet’s pretense of
madness, the “antic disposition” he puts on to protect himself
and prevent his antagonists from plucking out the heart of his
mystery. It is even closer to the surface when Hamlet enters his
mother’s room and holds up, side by side, the pictures of the
two kings, Old Hamlet and Claudius, and proceeds to describe
for her the true nature of the choice she has made, presenting
truth by means of a show. Similarly, when he leaps into the
open grave at Ophelia’s funeral, ranting in high heroic terms, he
is acting out for Laertes, and perhaps for himself as well, the
folly of excessive, melodramatic expressions of grief.
Verbatim Plagiarism
• Almost all of Shakespeare’s Hamlet can be
understood as a play about acting and the theater.
For example, there is Hamlet’s pretense of madness,
the “antic disposition” that he puts on to protect
himself and prevent his antagonists from plucking out
the heart of his mystery. When Hamlet enters his
mother’s room, he holds up, side by side, the pictures
of the two kings, Old Hamlet and Claudius, and
proceeds to describe for her the true nature of the
choice she has made, presenting truth by means of a
show. Similarly, when he leaps into the open grave at
Ophelia’s funeral, ranting in high heroic terms, he is
acting out for Laertes, and perhaps for himself as
well, the folly of excessive, melodramatic expressions
of grief.
Lifting selected passages and phrases
• Almost all of Shakespeare’s Hamlet can be understood as
a play about acting and the theater. For example, in Act 1,
Hamlet adopts a pretense of madness that he uses to
protect himself and prevent his antagonists from
discovering his mission to revenge his father’s murder. He
also presents truth by means of a show when he
compares the portraits of Gertrude’s two husbands in
order to describe for her the true nature of the choice she
has made. And when he leaps in Ophelia’s open grave
ranting in high heroic terms, Hamlet is acting out the folly
of excessive, melodramatic expressions of grief.
Paraphrasing while maintaining the basic
paragraph and sentence stucture
• Almost all of Shakespeare’s Hamlet can be understood as
a play about acting and the theater. For example, in Act 1,
Hamlet pretends to be insane in order to make sure his
enemies do not discover his mission to revenge his
father’s murder. The theme is even more obvious when
Hamlet compares the pictures of his mother’s two
husbands to show her what a bad choice she has made,
using their images to reveal the truth. Also, when he
jumps into Ophelia’s grave, hurling his challenge to
Laertes, Hamlet demonstrates the foolishness of
exaggerated expressions of emotion.
OK – I’ve now gleaned all of my source
packets. What now?
• Put your index cards in
order by topic
• Create an outline / thesis
statement
• Read all cards used for
first topic on outline
• Start writing!
• At the end of using a card,
write a citation note as to
where you got the
information!
• Thesis statement
– (Central Message!)
– “Being a nurse educator
can be a rewarding yet
challenging career choice.”
• Writing is easy. All you do is stare at a blank
sheet of paper until drops of blood form on
your forehead. --- Gene Fowler
Write the bibliography
• All sites used must
be in bibliography
• All sites in
bibliography must be
used!
Write a title!
• You can be creative here, or just get the job
done with a simple direct approach!
Proof Read
• Read your paper out loud slowly.
– Read it backwards (one sentence at a time)
• Have someone else read the paper checking
for grammar errors
• Recheck the requirement – did you meet them
all?
• Start your work early enough so you can
proof read!
Quotes
• Quotes in literature – OK
• Quotes in a science paper - rarely
needed.
– Don’t understand the information.
– Lazy
eHow – How to write an research
paper
1. Interesting
2. Broad vs. narrow
eHow – How to write an research
paper
2. Find your sources.
eHow – How to write an research
paper
3. Reserve one index card for each
source.
eHow – How to write an research
paper
4. Take reading notes on index cards,
writing down only the material that
is most relevant to your project.
Write the source number on each
card.
eHow – How to write an research
paper
5. Organize your index cards by topic
and subtopic.
eHow – How to write an research
paper
6. Use the cards as a basis for an
outline
eHow – How to write an research
paper
7. Write an introduction that grabs
the reader and plots out the
trajectory of your argument.
eHow – How to write an research
paper
8. Write the body of the paper,
following the structure you created in
your outline. Be sure to cite sources.
eHow – How to write an research
paper
9. Write the conclusion, reviewing
how you've made your points.
eHow – How to write an research
paper
10. Create a title
eHow – How to write an research
paper
11. Read your paper at least twice
eHow – How to write an research
paper
12.Proofread carefully
Eye halve a spelling
chequer
It came with my pea
sea
It plainly marques four
my revue
Miss steaks eye kin
knot sea.
Eye strike a key and
type a word
And weight four it two
say
Weather eye am wrong
oar write
It shows me strait a
weigh.
As soon as a mist ache
is maid
It nose bee fore two
long
And eye can put the
error rite
Its rare lea ever wrong.
Eye have run this poem
threw it
I am shore your pleased
two no
Its letter perfect awl the
weigh
My chequer tolled me
sew.
1. Establish your topic
2. Look for sources
3. Read sources and take
notes
4. Organize ideas
5. Write first draft
6. Use end note/footnotes
7. Write bibliography
8. Revise first draft
9. Proofread final draft
Bibliography
•
•
•
•
•
A,B, C order
Hanging indentation
&
Capitalize first word of title
Title  italics
Bibliography - Book
•
•
•
•
Author Last name, First initial.
(Date).
Title.
Publisher location: Publisher Name.
Bibliography - Journal
•
•
•
•
•
Author Last name, First initial.
(Date: Year, Month day).
Title of article.
Journal / magazine title.
Vol. page - numbers.
Bibliography - Internet
•
•
•
•
Author Last name, First initial.
(Date: year, month day)
Title.
Retrieved on _(date)_ from _(URL)_.
Interview
• Last name, First.
• (Date of interview).
• Telephone number or e-mail address.
Adopting and Advocating for the Special Needs
Child: A guild for Parents and Professionals
• Authors: L. Anne
Babb and Rita
Laws
• Published:
Westport Conn.
Bergen & Garvey,
1997
Bibliography
• Author Last name, 1st initials., & second
author. (publishing date). Title in italics.
Location of printing: printer.
• Babb, L. A., & Laws, R. (1997). Adopting and
advocating for the special needs child.
Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.
In-text Citation
• 1 author
– (Last name, date)
• 2 authors
– (Last name & last name, date)
• 3+ authors
– First time (Last name, Last name and last name,
date)
– Subsequent (Last name & et al., date)
• (Babb & Laws, 1997)
http://www.psychiatry.org/mentalhealth
• Suicide
• Addiction
• Bibliography
• American Psychiatric Association. (2012). Suicide.
Retrieved January 30, 2013.
http://www.psychiatry.org/mental-health
• In-text citation
• (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2012)
• (APA,2012)
• (APA-suicide, 2012)
http://www.psychiatry.org/mentalhealth
“Suicide is a major public
health concern. Every year in
the United States, more than
36,000 individuals die by
suicide, hundreds of
thousands attempt suicide,
and millions of friends and
loved ones are affected. Yet,
suicide is preventable.
Knowing the risk factors for
suicide and who is at risk can
help reduce the suicide rate.”
• Write a sentence using
this information
• Include an in-text citation.
Examples…
• According to the American Psychiatric
Association (2012) more than 36,000 people
in the United States commit suicide each year.
• More and 36,000 people commit suicide each
year and many more attempt it. (American
Psychiatric Association [APA], 2012)
http://journals.lww.com/ajnonline/page
s/default.aspx
• Original Research: Perioperative Medication
Withholding in Patients with Parkinson's
Disease: A Retrospective Electronic Health
Records Review
• Fagerlund, Kathleen; Anderson, Lisa Carney;
Gurvich, Olga
• AJN, American Journal of Nursing. 113(1):2635, January 2013.
• doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000425744.76107.9f
Bibliography
• Fagerlund, K., Anderson, L. C. & Gurvich, O.
(2013, January). Original research:
Perioperative medication withholding in
patients with Parkinson's disease: A
retrospective electronic health records
review. American journal of
Nursing on
line. Retrieved from
http://journals.lww.com/ajnonline/pages/
defau lt.aspx
doi:10.1097/01.NAJ.0000425744.76107.9f
In-text Citation
• 1st time
– (Fagerlund, Anderson & Gurvick, 2013)
• Subsequent times
– (Fagerlung et al. 2013)
Write a bibliography
• Authors:
–
–
–
–
Janet R Katz
Carol Carter
Joyce Bishop
Sarah Lyman Kravits
• Copyright 2009 by
pearson education, Inc.,
Upper Saddle River,
New Jersey, 07458.
Bibliography
• Katz, J.R., Carter, C. Bishop, J. & Krazitz, S.L.
(2009) Keys to nursing success. New Jersey:
Pearson Education, Inc.
In-text citation
• 1st
–(Katz, Carter, Bishop & Kravitz. 2009)
• Subsequent
–(Katz & et al. 2009)
When is the research paper due in this
class?
A. April 3, 2013
B. March 18, 2013
C. August 4 2013
D. April 10, 2013
E. When even I get it turned in.
When can I turn in my research paper?
A. After April 3, 2013
B. Two weeks before the paper is due.
C. Any time before the paper is due.
Do I need to do in-text citation?
A. Yes
B. No
Reading Assignment
• Chapter 9 of the text book

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