2.5 Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES)

Report
Energy Storage Technologies & Their Role in
Renewable Integration
Andreas Oberhofer
Research Associate, Global Energy Network
Institute (GENI)
[email protected]
Table of Content
1
2
Short Introduction to the Electric Grid
Energy Storage Technologies
2.1
2.3
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
3
Flywheels
Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES)
Batteries
Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH)
Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES)
Electrolysis of water and Methanation
Summary / Conclusion
1
Short Introduction to the Electric Grid
The amount of electricity produced must always be on the same level as demanded!
 Base Load
 Intermediate Load
 Peak Load
Source: http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf10.html
1
Short Introduction to the Electric Grid
Most renewable energy sources have a fluctuating output.
Source: http://michaelwenzl.de/wiki/ee:virtuelles-kraftwerk-lechfeld:vortrag_gruene
Need for storage solutions!
2
Energy Storage Technologies
Storage systems balance out the fluctuation of renewable energies.
Source: http://www.saftbatteries.com/MarketSegments/Energystorageandrenewables/OnGridEnergyStorage/Electricity
Consumption/tabid/467/Language/en-US/Default.aspx
2.1
Flywheels
Flywheels store
energy in form of
kinetic energy in a
rotating hub.
Source: http://www.acsystems.com/vycon/
2.1
Flywheels
Pros and Cons
Low maintenance and long lifespan: up to 20 years
Almost no carbon emissions
Fast response times
No toxic components
High acquisition costs
Low storage capacity
High self-discharge (3 –20 percent per hour)
2.2
Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage
A SMES system stores energy in form
of an electromagnetic field
surrounding the coil.
Source: http://www.lowcarbonfutures.org/assets/ media/SMES_final.pdf
2.2
Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage
Pros and Cons
Fast respond times
Capable of partial and deep discharges
No environmental hazard
High energy losses (~12 percent per day)
Very expensive in production and maintenance
Reduced efficiency due to the required cooling process
2.3
Batteries
Batteries store energy in chemical
form.
Most battery technologies use two
different compounds which release
energy in form of an electrical
current when reacting with each
other.
Source: http://www.wholesale-electrical-electronics.com/p-solar-battery-np12200ah-12v-200ah-855419.html
2.3
Batteries
Pros and Cons
Common technology
High potential for improvements
Limited life cycles
Rather low energy densities
Limited life cycles
Require a lot of resources for production
2.4
Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH)
In an PSH electrical powered
turbines pump water into
higher reservoirs.
When needed, the water flows
back down and power the
reversed turbines.
Source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/learning/bitesize/
standard/physics/energy_matters/generation_of_electricity_rev3.shtml
2.4
Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH)
Pros and Cons
Mature technology, capable of storing huge amounts of energy
High overall efficiency (around 70-80 percent)
Fast response times
Inexpensive way to store energy
Few potential sites
Huge environmental impacts
Requires a significant huge water source
2.4
Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH)
With the new role of PSH, the numbers of new constructions have
improved drastically and will furthermore.
Source: http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2011/08/renaissance-for-pumped-storage-in-europe
2.5
Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES)
CAES plants store energy in form of compressed air in underground caverns.
The Advanced Adiabatic (AA) CAES stores the heat produced during the
compression and compensates the freezing during the expansion.
Source: http://www.climateandfuel.com/pages/storage.htm
2.5
Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES)
Pros and Cons
Capable of storing huge amounts of energy, similar to PSH
AA-CAES capable of efficiencies nearly as good as PSH (~70%)
Fast response times
Inexpensive way to store energy
Requires sealed storage caverns
Economical only up to a day of storage (for AA-CAES)
Competing against other storage needs (natural gas, hydrogen)
Not yet fully developed
2.5
Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES)
Considerably large storage opportunities exist worldwide.
Source: http://web.fhnw.ch/plattformen/ee/CAS%20EE%2009%20ZA%20Druckluftspeicher.pdf
2.5
Electrolysis of Water and Methanation
Excess Electricity could be used to produce hydrogen and methane out
of water and inject it into the natural gas grid.
2.5
Electrolysis of Water and Methanation
The natural gas grid in Germany alone holds the potential of storing
approximately 220 TWh. ( cf. current PSH share: 0,07 TWh )
2.5
Electrolysis of Water and Methanation
Pros and Cons
Clean sustainable way of storing energy
Capable of storing huge amounts of energy
Capable of storing energy for several days, even months
Very low efficiency (30 – 40 percent)
Potential for efficiency unlikely to pass 50 percent
Requires a good constructed natural gas grid
3
Summary / Conclusion
• Current renewable technologies require storage possibilities
 Leading to a huge storage problem world wide
• PSH currently the only viable solution
• Flywheels, SMES and batteries possess small potential
• CAES shows the greatest potential
• Electrolysis/Methanation as a contingency plan

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