the presentation

Report
Achieving a Cost Effective Live, Virtual
and Constructive Training Mix
“Helping MOD to make better decisions in an age of uncertainty”
Simon Foale
Group Leader (Analysis, Experimentation and Simulation)
© Crown copyright 2011. Published with the permission of the Defence Science
and Technology Laboratory on behalf of the Controller of HMSO.
Over a Decade of Synthetic Environment Research
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Ministry of Defence
Outline
• Experimentation
– Definitions
– Defence Operational Training Capability Vision
– Key Training Tenets
– LiveWIRE
• High Level Operational Analysis
• Scope
• Study Stages
• Summary
• Questions
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Definitions
• Live – Real people in real world platforms
• Virtual – Real people in simulated platforms
• Constructive – Computer generated forces
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Definitions
• Embedded
– Live platform onboard capability generating simulated
threats – does not require a link to the virtual-world
• Live vs Synthetic
– Training takes place using either live platforms or
simulators
• LVC
– Real-world and virtual/constructive-world blended
– May be Lvc (virtual participants and/or constructive
entities solely there to stimulate Live players
– May be LVc (two-way training for real-world and
virtual participants)
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Joint Synthetic Training Vision
2020+ DOTC - Defence Operational
Training Capability
Air Forces
Land forces
DOTC(A)
Joint Operations
DOTC(L)
DOTC(M)
Maritime forces
Joint Training
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Defence Operational Training
Capability (Air)
“To provide the Air element of a Defence
LVC Training Capability by exploiting
simulation and synthetically enhancing live
training, to satisfy the Team and Collective
training requirements at the Component,
Joint and Combined levels.”
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Live/Synthetic Trends
Simulator Based
Training
Past
Live Training
Simulated Effects
Now
Future
Live Training
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Concept of Training – 5 Key Tenets (1)
Adopt a user-centric approach
•
•
•
Training not the technology important
Unsure if an application/solution works until you fully stress the system
Must involve end-users every step of the way
05 September 2007
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2011
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Concept of Training – 5 Key Tenets (2)
Create a total training environment
• All phases important; planning, brief, execute, debrief
• Technology must support all activities; e.g. synchronised debrief
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Concept of Training – 5 Key Tenets (3)
Maintain the benefits of collocation
• Trust – confidence and understanding
‘The secret of a successful air campaign is interoperability
and the most important component of interoperability is trust’
Air Marshall Stu Peach
05 September 2007
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2011
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Concept of Training – 5 Key Tenets (4)
Flexibility is critical for an evolving capability
• Contractual and technical flexibility are essential:
– Cost effective solutions
– Greater interoperability
– More market choice
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Concept of Training – 5 Key Tenets (5)
Use an expert White Force
– Experience
– Credibility and leadership
– Control and trigger events
– Effective debriefs
– Emotional commitment
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Trial - LiveWIRE
Live Warfighter Integrated Research Environment
“Investigate the training potential and current limitations
of a true LVC environment as part of a future DOTC(A)
construct”
First UK trial of its kind (February 2011)
– Blend of all three elements of LVC
– In a training context
– Involving front-line air assets
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RED
OPERATING AREA
SA-11
CGF
VIRTUAL
SA-11
CGF
LIVE
VIRTUAL
CGF
VIRTUAL
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BLUE
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Ministry of Defence
LiveWIRE
Exercise Control
The expert “White Force” team, led by the Exercise
Director, indigenous to ABTC
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LiveWIRE
Air Battlespace Training Centre,
RAF Waddington
Link Van
RAF Coningsby
Provided UHF Voice and “Link 16”
air picture data link between the
ABTC and the live Typhoons
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LiveWIRE
Virtual AWACS
Simulated E3D aircraft provided airborne
surveillance and control to live and virtual assets
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LiveWIRE
Virtual Typhoon
Pair of virtual Typhoons provided by “type
representative” simulators in large domes
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LiveWIRE
Virtual Red Air
Pair of virtual Mig 29 provided by
“desktop roleplayer” simulators
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LiveWIRE
Air Battlespace Training Centre,
RAF Waddington
Live Typhoons
Pair of Typhoons from 29(R) Sqn flown
from RAF Coningsby
RAF Coningsby
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LiveWIRE - FIRST IMPRESSIONS
• Successfully proved concept
• Positive feedback from participants
• More mature LVC solution required for live players
• Real time kill removal is not available
• Safety implications
• Communications
• Weather becomes a factor
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Training High Level Operational Analysis
Aim to:
– Understand the training system and
– Assess most cost effective LVC mix for training activities
– Across the services.
• Two phases
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Phase 1
• Literature Review
• Summary of Live/Synthetic Analysis approaches:
• FAPV (Familiarization Acquisition Practice and Validation)
• ADVISOR
• STRIVE (Specifying Training Requirements in Virtual
Environments )
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Assessment Methods Cost Effective LVC Mix
• FAPV
– Favoured US methodology
– Uses a task based approach
• ADVISOR
– Canadian commercial model used by the UK MOD
– Similar task based approach
• STRIVE, a procurement model, used to:
– Support the development of Operational Requirements Documents
– Ensure that the tasks assigned to virtual environment training are realistic given
the current technological capabilities.
• All methodologies have at their heart the use of judgement by
SMEs.
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Issues for LVC Assessments
• All of existing Live or Synthetic Analysis approaches
have issues:
– Heavily reliant on military judgement
– Lack of Verification and Validation for methodologies
– Point estimates
– Difficult establishing areas of lowest risk
– Cost
– Benefits of live training difficult to quantify so how do we
establish if VC training is more/less/equally effective?
– More complicated in true LVC
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Phase 2 Overview
• Building a better analytical capability…
• Three stages
– A:
Collate and Categorise
– B:
Research Metrics and Methodology
– C:
Conduct Gap and Risk Analysis
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Stage A: Collate and Categorise
• Identify links and related studies
• Categorise the Military Training System
– Stages: Identifying individual, collective, and team
training and the use of training assets
– Roles: Taxonomy of roles
– Cost: Cost of training
• Training Enterprise Concept Model
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Stage B: Research, Metrics,
Methodology
• Training Requirement to Operations
– Training Gap Analysis
– Mission Essential Competencies (MECs)
• Links to HLOA and Campaign Analysis
– Implicit Assumptions / Robustness of Force Mix
Options
• Qualitative and Quantitative Approach
– Integration of Costs / Effectiveness / Risks
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Stage B: Mission Essential Competencies
Importance:
Extent Delivered:
How important is the
experience?
What extent can be given
Live? Syn/Sim? LVC?
“…fully prepared individual, crew, force, requires for successful
mission completion under adverse conditions in a nonpermissive environment.”
Gaps Identified:
Frequency:
Important experiences not
encountered frequently?
How often have units
encountered event?
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Stage C: Analysis (Gaps and Risk)
• ‘Better’ Analytical Capability
– Training Roles and (High-Level) link to
Capability
– Link to HLOA – validated method of use
– Platforms / Roles - trade-offs and risks
– Integration with cost model…
– Capability to provide evidence
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Summary
• Challenging area of experimentation and OR research
– Significant - UK MoD spends £Billions on training each year
• Need to do training cost-effectively
– But effectively – not just cheaply!
– LVC major part of way forward but needs care and planning
• Need to coordinate investment in training (all aspects)
with investment in other areas, e.g. equipment
• OR must provide objective, robust, auditable evidence
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Questions
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Ministry of Defence

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