Airmanship Knowledge LO2 Rules of the Air

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Airmanship Knowledge
Learning Outcome 2
Rules of the Air
Revision 1.00
Airmanship Knowledge
Learning Outcome 2
Know the basic principles of the Rules of the Air
Rules of the Air
Rights of Way
Without the Highway Code the many thousands of cars
would find it impossible to move about safely.
There must be rules to govern the way aircraft move about
the sky so that accidents can be avoided.
They are called “Right of Way” rules.
Different for each type of aircraft
All types of aircraft must give way to balloons
Gliders have the right of way over both powered aircraft and
Airships must give way to both gliders and balloons
Powered Aircraft
Powered conventional aircraft must give way to
balloons, gliders and airships
Approaching aircraft
When approaching head on, each aircraft must alter
course to the right
Converging Aircraft
When on converging courses at the same height, the aircraft
which has the other on its Starboard (Right) must give way
When overtaking the aircraft being overtaken has the ‘right of
way’. The overtaking one must avoid the other by turning Right.
NOTE: If both are gliders the over-taker may turn right or left.
An aircraft landing or on final approach to land has right
of way over aircraft in flight or on the ground.
When two or more aircraft are approaching to land, the
lower one has right of way
Note: unless the captain of the lower aircraft becomes
aware that one of the others has an emergency.
Aircraft on the ground
Aircraft and vehicles being taxied give way to aircraft
being towed.
Vehicles not towing aircraft give way to aircraft being
Rules at Night
At night it can be difficult for a pilot to see another
aircraft - and when it is seen, its heading may still be
Rules at night
Most modern aircraft carry one or more flashing “anticollision” lights so that they can be seen easily, and
“navigation” lights.
Powered Aircraft
Navigation Lights
Powered aircraft –
Port side (left) Red,
Starboard side (right) Green,
Rear White
Glider Navigation Lights
Gliders – may carry the same type of lights as powered
aircraft or this type
Airship Navigation Lights
Moving Airship
Stationary Airship
Balloon Navigation Lights
Balloons – Carry a red light hung 9 metres below the
Converging at Night
Converging: if the Harrier (A) pilot looks out to starboard
and sees a RED light moving alongside (B)
Converging at Night
He knows that the other aircraft has right of way and he must
take action to avoid a collision
Converging at Night
The Jaguar pilot (A) sees a GREEN light crossing from port to
starboard, and therefore knows that the Hawk (B) should give
Converging at Night
The Jaguar pilot must, however, be aware that the Hawk pilot
might not have seen him and should therefore be ready to
take avoiding action if necessary
Staying alert
Use your eyes!!
It is the responsibility of all in the aircraft to check for
hazards – including other aircraft
Staying alert
Alert captain to position using Clock Code system:
Staying alert
Indicate HIGH / LEVEL / LOW, relative to your aircraft
• Used to safely control and manage Air Traffic
Airspace is divided into classes, or functional areas.
• Some have strict rules on the conduct of flying within
them: they are termed “Controlled Airspace”.
Airways System
One important class is a network of imaginary “tunnels”
in the air called AIRWAYS.
These facilitate safe passage of large numbers of
aircraft in congested airspace.
Airways System
Any aircraft can use them providing:
The pilot has a valid instrument rating
The aircraft is fitted with appropriate radio and
navigational equipment
The flight is made in accordance with the rules
Features Of Airways
• They are between 10 and 20 nautical miles (18.5 to
37km) wide
• Have Upper and Lower height limits
• As they approach airfields they do slope down to the
ground to form airfield zones
Features Of Airways
• The centre of an airway is marked by beacons
• Aircraft fly from beacon to beacon reporting to ATCC
their position, time and height
Clearance For Airways
• Clearance is always required for flights along airways
• Routes taken must be planned and submitted to
ATCC before takeoff
• Contact with ATCC must be established before an
aircraft can enter the airway
Clearance For Airways
• Aircraft is tracked on radar, all through it
• It remains the pilot’s responsibility, to maintain
planned tracks and timings
Crossing Airways
If an aircraft wishes to cross an airway there are 2 ways
to do it:
• If the base of the airway is above the ground, the
aircraft can fly underneath with no permission
Crossing Airways
If an aircraft wishes to cross an airway there are 2 ways
to do it:
• Flown through the airway, provided clearance and
radar control is obtained.

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