Indoor Air Quality - CTM

Report
INDOOR AIR
QUALITY
Keeping employees and tenants
healthy and productive
February 7, 2014
CTM Building Management
and Operations Seminar
Gail Lawlor
Energy Matters
BENJAMIN FRANKLIN
“I am certain that no air is so
unwholesome as air in a closed
room that has been often breathed
and not changed.”
WHAT DO YOU THINK IS MEANT BY “GOOD
INDOOR AIR QUALITY”?
Absence or low levels of contaminants
No odours - fresh, clean air
No one is made sick
Right temperature range and humidity
ACCORDING TO THE WORLD HEALTH
ORGANIZATION AND ASHRAE……….
 “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-
being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”
 “Air in which there are no known contaminants or harmful
concentrations and with which a substantial majority (usually
80%) of the people exposed do not express dissatisfaction”
 Implies compliance with both objective criteria (measurements) and
subjective criteria (e.g. odour) to provide comfort.
FACTORS AFFECTING IAQ
These four elements are involved in IAQ problems:
1. Source of contamination or discomfort indoors, outdoors
or within the mechanical system of the building
2. HVAC system not able to control existing contaminants
and not able to ensure thermal comfort
3. Existence of one or more pollutant pathways (e.g. HVAC
system or building penetration) and a driving force to
move them along
4. Building occupants are present
WHO IS AFFECTED BY POOR INDOOR
AIR?
Everyone is affected - some more than others
One out of five has some form of lung disease
Clean air needed most by people
who have respiratory issues
WHO IS AFFECTED BY POOR INDOOR
AIR?
People with allergies
Individuals suffering from Environmental
Hypersensitivity, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome,
Fibromyalgia, etc.
TYPICAL IAQ COMPLAINTS
What do you hear as typical IAQ problems in your work
environment?
 Headaches, cough, stuffy nose, dizziness, nausea, eye/nose/throat
irritation, shortness of breath, skin irritation
 Stuffy air, bad odours,
 Too hot / too cold / too dry
Some of these symptoms can be caused by other factors such
as improper lighting, noise, vibration, over crowding, job stress
“SICK BUILDING SYNDROME” (SBS)
Although there is no universal agreement on exactly what SBS
is, the following definition is used:
Sick Building Syndrome exists when a significant percentage
(more than 20%) of the occupants complain during a 2-week
period of a set of symptoms, including headaches, fatigue,
nausea, eye irritation and throat irritation, that are alleviated by
leaving the building and not known to be caused by any specific
contaminants.
“BUILDING RELATED ILLNESS”
 Diagnosable illness brought on by exposure to the building
air
 Can be directly attributed to environmental agents in the
air
 Legionnaire’s disease, carbon monoxide poisoning, radon
exposure – all with serious life-threatening consequences.
WHY IS IAQ A PROBLEM NOW MORE
THAN EVER?
 Greater public awareness of the importance of healthy,
comfortable and productive indoor environments
 We spend about 90 percent of our time indoors !!
 Air inside homes and offices can be more polluted than outside air!
 US EPA ranks indoor air pollution (second hand smoke,
radon, organic compounds and biological pollutants) among
the top five environmental threats to public health
WHY IS IAQ A PROBLEM NOW MORE
THAN EVER?
 Managing a building is increasingly more difficult and
complex due to competing demands:
 Contain or reduce operating costs
 Health and safety
 Building maintenance, housekeeping
 Attention and resources can be drawn away from IAQ
WHY GOOD IAQ MAKES SENSE
 When the IAQ is good, buildings are more desirable places
to work, to learn, to conduct business, and to rent
 Widespread impacts can lead to significant costs due to
health-care expenses, sick leave and lost productivity
 EPA estimated tens of billions of dollars saved each year in
the USA when IAQ is good in the workplace!
Happy and healthy employees/tenants is the goal !
CURRENT IAQ STANDARDS
 ASHRAE Standard 62.1 2013 Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor
Air Quality
 Industry consensus standard cited by Canadian Labour and Building
Code for office environments
 Specifies minimum ventilation rates and other measures to provide
IAQ that minimizes adverse health effects
 Guides the improvement of IAQ in existing buildings
 Intended for regulatory application for new buildings and additions
 Download from ASHRAE for $79
BEST DEFENSE – MANAGE IAQ
1. Designate an IAQ Manager
 E.g. facility manager, health and safety director
2. Develop an IAQ Profile
 Document current IAQ situation and existing operation and
maintenance practices,
 Conduct walkthrough – look for IAQ indicators (discoloured walls,
fans or heaters at desks, dirty filters etc.)
3. Address Existing and Potential IAQ Problems
IAQ SOLUTION STRATEGIES
REMOVE or REDUCE the
source
2. ISOLATE / SEAL / COVER
the source or modify the
environment (e.g. schedule
contaminant-producing
activities during unoccupied
periods)
1.
Improve VENTILATION to dilute
and/or exhaust pollutants
4. Improve air FILTRATION
3.
“Get rid of the skunks”
BEST DEFENSE – MANAGE IAQ
4.
Educate Building Staff / Tenants About IAQ
Management
 They can look out for blocked vents, water leaks, unsanitary conditions
5.
Develop / Implement Plan for Facility Operations and
Maintenance
 IAQ can be affected both by the quality of maintenance and by the
materials and procedures used to operate and maintain the building
 Poor housekeeping can cause IAQ problems, including the cleaning
products!
 Produce a written preventative maintenance schedule for monitoring,
inspecting and cleaning HVAC components
BEST DEFENSE – MANAGE IAQ
6. Manage Times of Significant Pollutant Sources
(renovations, pest control etc.)
 Isolate work areas, choose low VOC products, schedule work
during periods of low occupation, pressurize space etc.
7. Maintain Cooperative Relations with Tenants and
Occupants
 Both to prevent IAQ problems from occurring and cooperation
when solving existing problems
 Provide EPA’s “An Office Building Occupants’ Guide to Indoor Air
Quality”
BEST DEFENSE – MANAGE IAQ
8. Establish Procedure for Responding to IAQ
Complaints
 Occupant complaints about IAQ must be taken seriously and
investigated fully
 If building occupants know they will get a response – more likely to
provide prompt, helpful input about building conditions
 Keep good records – may come in handy some day to prove
efficient and effective response
IF YOU NEED EXPERT HELP
What to Expect from an IAQ Audit:
 Measurement of:
 Temperature, humidity
 Carbon Monoxide
 Carbon Dioxide
 Airborne Particulates
Measurements are best used
to compare “problem” areas
with “acceptable” areas
 Mechanical system review
 Physical inspection for signs of moisture/mold
 Prioritized list of recommendations for actions
THERMAL COMFORT - TEMPERATURE
 ASHRAE Standard 55 Thermal Environmental Conditions
for Human Occupancy sets standard for temperature and
Relative Humidity
 Perception of comfort dependent on activity level, clothing,
etc. as well as air temperature, circulation, air velocity,
thermal radiation and humidity
 Winter range: 19.9 to 24.5 °C
 Summer range: 22.5 to 27 °C
 Fall and Spring entire temperature range acceptable
THERMAL COMFORT - HUMIDITY
 Relative Humidity (RH) below 60% in summer
 Between 25 and 50% for winter
 High winter RH may lead to condensation on interior and
exterior surfaces – potential for mold growth
 Below 25% RH – drying of nasal passage and lips, irritation
of eyes and those wearing contacts
 Low RH can affect operation of computers and paper
processing equipment
CARBON MONOXIDE
 Colourless, odourless, tasteless toxic gas is a product of
incomplete combustion
 Sources of combustion contaminants in commercial
buildings:
 Gas and oil heating systems
 Tobacco smoke
 Food courts
 Underground parking garages
 Loading docks attached to or having a pathway to working spaces
CARBON MONOXIDE – HEALTH EFFECTS
 Chronic low levels of CO can compromise existing health
condition such as respiratory problems and chronic hear
disease
 Symptoms can be nagging headaches , constant stuffiness
 Higher concentrations symptoms include dizziness,
vomiting, flu like symptoms general weakness and confusion
and even death
CARBON DIOXIDE
 Measurement indicates if fresh air is sufficient
 800 – 1000 ppm or less indicates adequate ventilation
 Naturally occurring substance
 We exhale it
 Plants use it in photosynthesis
 Symptoms can include:
 Poor concentration,
 Headaches
 Fatigue
 Leading to laboured breathing and unconsciousness
AIRBORNE PARTICULATES
 Dust, fumes, smoke, viruses, pollen grains, bacteria and mold
spores
 Outside sources drawn into the building through infiltration,
outdoor air intakes, occupants’ clothing and footwear
 Inside sources from paper handling, carpets, poor
housekeeping, retrofit activities, mechanical ventilation
system (e.g. humidifier additives, scale, disinfectants)
FACTORS THAT AFFECT GERMINATION
AND GROWTH OF MOLDS
 Which is the only factor we can control?
 Nutrients
 Temperature
 Presence of oxygen
 Water
 Time
Water
MOISTURE
is the key
to
MOLD GROWTH !!
To avoid mold problems we need to:
Keep surfaces warm and dry
WHAT DO YOU NOT NEED IN AN IAQ
AUDIT
NO Mold testing required
 Mold is an indicator that there is a moisture problem
 Find the moisture source
 Resolve the moisture problem
 Clean / remove the moldy items
 NO NEED TO TEST FOR MOLD
 Clean up procedure is the same whether you test or not
IN CONCLUSION……
 Maintaining a healthy and comfortable indoor environment
in any building requires integrating many components of a
complex system
 Indoor air problems are preventable and solvable
 Practical guidance is available from EPA, ASHRAE and
Health Canada
FOR MORE INFORMATION
http://www.senecacollege.ca/ce
Search for Building Environmental
Systems (BES) for part time and
correspondence courses.
ASHRAE’s FREE
Indoor Air Quality Guide
• Provides information and tools to create
healthy work spaces without incurring
excessive costs or employing special trades
• Collaborative effort for best practices
FOR MORE INFORMATION
EPA’s FREE
Building Air Quality: A Guide for Building Owners
and Facility Managers (BAQ), available online:
http://www.epa.gov/iaq/largebldgs/pdf_files/iaq.
pdf
EPA’s FREE
Building Air Quality Action Plan
• 8 step Action Plan that provides a logical set
of steps to achieve better IAQ in a building

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