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AIR AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS AND
TURBOCHARGERS
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Modern engines of both the four-stroke
and two-stroke type are turbocharged,i.e.
fitted with a turbine driven air compressor
which supplies air under pressure for
scavenging and pressure charging.
All the power required to operate the
turbochargers has been recovered from the
waste heat in the exhaust gases.
The operation of the turbocharger will be
understood from a study of Fig.10.1.
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Modern engines of both the four-stroke
and two-stroke type ...................., i.e.
fitted with a turbine driven .................
which supplies air under pressure for
................ and pressure charging. All the
power required to ............... the
turbochargers has been recovered from the
........... in the exhaust gases. The operation
of the turbocharger will be understood from
a ................ of Fig.10.1.
The exhaust gases entering the casing are led up to the
nozzle ring which is of annular form. It contains a number of
stationary blades which direct the flow of gas on to the
moving blades which direct the flow of gas on to the turbine
wheel. The blades of the turbine wheel are individual
members attached to the disc at their roots by specially
shaped fixing. Their surfaces are curved to extract the
maximum amount of energy from the exhaust gases and
transfer it to the turbine shaft. After passing through the
turbine the exhaust gas is at the pressure almost down to the
atmosphere. It is conducted away from the turbocharger
through the outlet casing via exhaust pipes to the exhaust
silencer, then out into the open air through the stack or
through the exhaust gas boiler.
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The exhaust gases entering the casing ................... to the
nozzle ring which is of _________ form. It contains a number
of stationary blades which .................. on to the _________
blades which direct the flow of gas on to the turbine wheel.
The blades of the _____________ are individual members
attached to the disc ................... by specially shaped fixing.
Their surfaces are curved to ............................. from the
exhaust gases and transfer it to the turbine ____________ .
After ............................. the exhaust gas is at the pressure
almost down to the atmosphere. It is conducted away from
the turbocharger through the outlet casing via ____________ to
the _________________, then ............................ through the
stack or through the exhaust gas boiler.
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The turbine of the turbocharger drives a centrifugal
compressor. The impeller of the compressor is
mounted on the same shaft as the turbine wheel. It
consists of a disc on the side of which are a
number of radial vanes which diminish in thickness
as they approach the periphery. At the centre they
are formed to gather the air which enters at the eye
of impeller. The rotation imparts a high velocity
flow to the air so that it leaves the periphery of the
disc at high speed. After leaving the disc it enters
the diffuser.This is a stationary member on which
there are number of blades forming passages
which gradually increase in cross section.
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The turbine of the turbocharger _________ a centrifugal
compressor. The impeller of the compressor is
_________ on the same shaft as the turbine wheel. It
consists of a disc on the side of which are a number of
radial vanes which _________ in thickness as they
_________ the periphery. At the centre they are _________
to gather the air which enters at the eye of impeller. The
rotation _________ a high velocity flow to the air so that
it _________ the periphery of the disc at high speed.
After _________ the disc it _________ the diffuser.This is a
stationary member on which there are number of blades
_________ passages which gradually _________ in cross
section.
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As the air flows through these passages its velocity
falls and is converted into pressure. The efficiency
of the system is increased by fitting a charge air
cooler (or intercooler) after the compressor. This
will cool the air at the constant pressure, increasing
its density before supplying it for compression in
the engine cylinders. The mass of air per cycle is in
this way increased and the quantity of fuel injected
can be raised to give a corresponding increase in
engine output. It will also increase the thermal
efficiency of the engine.
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As the air flows through these _________ its velocity
falls and is converted into _________ . The efficiency
of the system is increased by fitting a charge air
cooler (or _________ ) after the compressor. This
will cool the air at the constant pressure, increasing
its _________ before supplying it for compression in
the engine _________ . The mass of air per _________
is in this way increased and the quantity of
_________ injected can be raised to give a
corresponding increase in engine _________ . It will
also increase the thermal _________ of the engine.
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Why are turbochargers fitted to modern diesel engines ?
Where is the energy necessary to power the turbochargers derived from ?
On the entering the casing what component does the exhaust gas go
through ?
Why are the blade surfaces of the turbine wheel curved ?
What is the pressure of the exhaust gas after it has passed through the
turbine ?
Wherw do the exhaust gases pass before being let into open air ?
Is the air compressor of the turbochargers of the reciprocating piston type
? For what operation is this type of compressor used ?
How does a centrifugal blower function ?
What is air made to pass through before being admitted into the cylinders ?
Give reasons for it.
What is the purpose of supercharging ? Mention its main advantages.
The method of turbocharging described in Lesson 10 is one of the constant
pressure type. Do you know if there is any other system ?
STATIONARY ELEMENTS
ROTATING ELEMENTS
what it cosist of and its function
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Scavenging means:
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to supply a larger mass of air to the cylinder by blowing it under pressure.
to remove the exhaust gases by blowing in fresh air.
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The scavenging process is used:
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in four-cycle engines
in two-stroke engines
in both the four-cycle and two-cycle engines
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Supercharging means:
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to raise the density and consequently the weight of air supplied to cylinders
to fill the engine cylinders with a supply of fresh air ready for compression
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Supercharging is used:
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in four cycle-engines
in two-cycle engines
in both the four-cycle and two-cycle engines
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A centrifugal force:
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tends to move a rotating body outwards from the centre of rotation
tends to move a rotating body inward towards the centre of rotation
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Annular means:
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shaped in sharp corners
ring-like shape
coming or happening every year.
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An impeller is:
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a mechanical device having two or more blades which when rotated produces a forward thrust
a rotating component which imparts kinetic energy by centrifugal force to fluid
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The intercooler is placed:
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at the turbine entry casing to reduce the temperature of the exhaust gases in order to avoid heat stresses
between the supercharger and the engine to reduce the temperature of the air entering the engine
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The term radial means:
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extending in a direction parallel to the main axis
extending in a straight line from the centre of the circle to the curve or circumference.
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After passing through the disc the air _________________ the diffuser
casing.
In the internal combustion engines the energy _______________ from
thermal to mechanical energy.
The flow of air through the passages in the diffuser _______________ into
pressure.
The flow of fuel __________ by a distributor valve.
Through the exhaust manifold the flow of gases _____________ to the
turbocharger.
The tiny passages _____________ to separate the exhaust streams and
lead them to the nozzle ring.
After leaving the turbocharger the exhaust gases _____________ to the
silencer, then out into the open air.
The exhaust gases from the engine cylinders blow on the turbine blades
and make it turn at high speed ___________________ the air compressor.
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at, in, of, from, by, on, to, through
Basically a turbocharger consists ________ two disc connected
___________ a shaft. Both discs carry vanes which make them act like
fans. The gases ___________ the engine cylinders blow ___________
one disc and make it turn __________ high speed driving the other
disc. The latter disc which acts as a compressor draws air
___________ the atmosphere, compresses it and then cools it
__________ the charge air cooler before supplying it _______ the
engine cylinders ____________ the scavenge ports or inlet valves. The
charge air cooler is fitted ____________ the system because
compression will raise raise the temperature of air __________ a high
level thus reducing its density. By cooling the engine is maintained
__________ a safe working temperatures and lower compression
temperature reducess stress ________ piston rings, piston and liner.
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deteming the tense, number and person
finding the true subject
transforming them into active voice where
appropriate.
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VIII Put the passive sentences from the
previous exercise into the interrogative form.
Use the “YES-NO” type questions, i.e.
questions beginning with an auxiliary verb.
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Kod ovog motora ispušne cijevi spojene su na svaki cilindar
posebno.
Ove cijevi vode izravno do sapnice.
Na dnu cijevi nalaze se prirubnice.
Putem cjevovoda za dovod goriva dovodi se gorivo do svakog
cilindra.
U sredini diska prolazi (vanes) su širi nego na krajevima.
Na osovini montiran je rotor turbopuhala.
Zrak izlazi iz kućišta turbine velikom brzinom.
S lijeva nadesno poprečni presjek cijevi se smanjuje.
1. GENERAL
The power of any Diesel engine is determined by the amount of fuel burnt
in each cylinder per cycle and the speed at which it can run.
1. GENERAL
The power of any Diesel engine is determined by the amount of fuel burnt
in each cylinder per cycle and the speed at which it can run.
The quantity of air provided by turbocharging is so great that the amount of
fuel burnt per cylinder is not limited on this account but because of the
temperature that can be withstood by exhaust valves, cylinder heads and
pistons.
1. GENERAL
The power of any Diesel engine is determined by the amount of fuel burnt
in each cylinder per cycle and the speed at which it can run.
The quantity of air provided by turbocharging is so great that the amount of
fuel burnt per cylinder is not limited on this account but because of the
temperature that can be withstood by exhaust valves, cylinder heads and
pistons.
Diesel fuel requires about 14.5 times its own mass of air for its complete
combustion.
1. GENERAL
The power of any Diesel engine is determined by the amount of fuel burnt
in each cylinder per cycle and the speed at which it can run.
The quantity of air provided by turbocharging is so great that the amount of
fuel burnt per cylinder is not limited on this account but because of the
temperature that can be withstood by exhaust valves, cylinder heads and
pistons.
Diesel fuel requires about 14.5 times its own mass of air for its complete
combustion.
2. TURBOCHARGE FUNCTIONS
1. GENERAL
The power of any Diesel engine is determined by the amount of fuel burnt
in each cylinder per cycle and the speed at which it can run.
The quantity of air provided by turbocharging is so great that the amount of
fuel burnt per cylinder is not limited on this account but because of the
temperature that can be withstood by exhaust valves, cylinder heads and
pistons.
Diesel fuel requires about 14.5 times its own mass of air for its complete
combustion.
2. TURBOCHARGE FUNCTIONS
a) Pressure charging
1. GENERAL
The power of any Diesel engine is determined by the amount of fuel burnt
in each cylinder per cycle and the speed at which it can run.
The quantity of air provided by turbocharging is so great that the amount of
fuel burnt per cylinder is not limited on this account but because of the
temperature that can be withstood by exhaust valves, cylinder heads and
pistons.
Diesel fuel requires about 14.5 times its own mass of air for its complete
combustion.
2. TURBOCHARGE FUNCTIONS
a) Pressure charging
b) Scavenging
1. GENERAL
The power of any Diesel engine is determined by the amount of fuel burnt
in each cylinder per cycle and the speed at which it can run.
The quantity of air provided by turbocharging is so great that the amount of
fuel burnt per cylinder is not limited on this account but because of the
temperature that can be withstood by exhaust valves, cylinder heads and
pistons.
Diesel fuel requires about 14.5 times its own mass of air for its complete
combustion.
2. TURBOCHARGE FUNCTIONS
a) Pressure charging
b) Scavenging
The more oxygen during the engine compression stroke, the larger the
amount of fuel to be ignited and therefore an increased engine output
developed.
3. TURBOCHARGER DEFINITION
3. TURBOCHARGER DEFINITION
Turbocharger is a turbine driven air compressor powered by exhaust
gases from the internal combustion engine.
3. TURBOCHARGER DEFINITION
Turbocharger is a turbine driven air compressor powered by exhaust
gases from the internal combustion engine.
4. OPERATION
3. TURBOCHARGER DEFINITION
Turbocharger is a turbine driven air compressor powered by exhaust
gases from the internal combustion engine.
4. OPERATION
 exhaust gases ( waste gases )
3. TURBOCHARGER DEFINITION
Turbocharger is a turbine driven air compressor powered by exhaust
gases from the internal combustion engine.
4. OPERATION
 exhaust gases ( waste gases )
 turbine ( turbine wheel )
3. TURBOCHARGER DEFINITION
Turbocharger is a turbine driven air compressor powered by exhaust
gases from the internal combustion engine.
4. OPERATION
 exhaust gases ( waste gases )
 turbine ( turbine wheel )
 centrifugal compressor ( compressor; air compressor )
3. TURBOCHARGER DEFINITION
Turbocharger is a turbine driven air compressor powered by exhaust
gases from the internal combustion engine.
4. OPERATION
 exhaust gases ( waste gases )
 turbine ( turbine wheel )
 centrifugal compressor ( compressor; air compressor )
 intercooler ( charge air cooler )

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