Advent of the Air Age: World War I

Report
1
ADMIN NOTES
•
Mid-Term Results
-
Part III, Balkans
2
SAMPLES OF BEHAVIOR
--
Identify the three vital interest the United
States and its NATO allies had at stake
during the Kosovo crisis.
-- State the five NATO objectives
established in April 1999.
-- State the three key strategic objectives of
Operation ALLIED FORCE.
-- Identify the key lessons learned by the US
military in Operation ALLIED FORCE.
3
The Balkans: A Brief
History
- After World War II, monarchy abolished;
Communist Party leader Tito proclaimed
the country the Federal People's Republic
of Yugoslavia, with himself as prime
minister
- Eliminating opposition, the Tito gov’t
executed Mihajlovic in 1946
- Tito died in 1980, and the fragility of the
federation he ruled quickly became
apparent
Tito
4
Three ethnic groups fell
into conflict
Serbs—Dominant in Yugoslavia's politics
and army, orthodox Christianity makes them
natural allies of Russia
Croats—Roman Catholics, closer to the
West than Serbs and exposed to Western
influences
Muslims—Living mainly in ethnically mixed
towns and cities in Bosnia-Herzegovina
5
6
The Crisis in Bosnia
 Oct 1992, UN Security Council Resolution 781
established a no-fly zone over Bosnia-Herzegovina
 Operation Deny Flight
•
Enforced the no-fly zone
• Provided close air support to UN troops
• Conducted approved air strikes under a dual-key
command arrangement with the UN
 28 Feb 1994, NATO aircraft
shot down four warplanes
violating the no-fly zone over
Bosnia-Herzegovina
• This was the first military
engagement ever
undertaken by the Alliance
7
The Crisis in Bosnia
 NATO objectives
• Bosnian Serb compliance to cease attacks on
Sarajevo and other safe areas
• Withdrawal of Bosnian Serb heavy weapons from
the total exclusion zone around Sarajevo
• Complete freedom of movement for UN Forces
and personnel, and nongovernment officials
• Unrestricted use of
Sarajevo airport
8
The Crisis in Bosnia
 NATO missions of Operation Deny Flight
• To conduct aerial monitoring and enforce
compliance with UN Security Council Resolution
816
• To provide close air support for UN troops on the
ground at the request of, and controlled by, UN
forces
• To conduct approved air strikes
against designated targets
threatening the security of the
UN-declared safe areas
9
The Crisis in Bosnia
 Operation Deny Flight lasted from 12 Apr 1993 to
20 Dec 1995
• Almost 100,000 sorties flown
 A formal closure ceremony was
held in Vicenza, Italy on 21 Dec 1995
• Forces associated with Operation Deny Flight
were then transferred to Operation Decisive
Endeavor as part of the
overall NATO operation
Joint Endeavor.
10
The Crisis in Bosnia
Lessons Learned





Lack of doctrine
Tactical air and space power
problems
Bases weren’t large enough to
accept the contingency surges
Coalition/Joint problems
Technological problems
11
KOSOVO
12
Kosovo Crisis

Kosovo lies in southern Serbia and has a
mixed population, the majority of which are
ethnic Albanians (Muslims)

Serbian leader Slobodan Milosevic altered
the status of the region, removing its
autonomy and bringing it under the direct
control of Belgrade, the Serbian capital

The Kosovar Albanians
strenuously opposed
the move
13
United States and
NATO Interests at stake

Serb aggression threatened peace
throughout the Balkans and the
stability of NATO’s SE region

Belgrade’s repression in Kosovo
created a humanitarian crisis of
staggering proportions

President Milosevic’s conduct
directly challenged the credibility
of NATO
14
NATO Action

After the failure of repeated international
diplomatic efforts since the spring of 1998 to
peacefully resolve the conflict in Kosovo

North Atlantic Council decided on 23 March
1999 to authorize NATO air strikes

Aimed at strategic targets in the Federal
Republic of Yugoslavia to end the repression
of Kosovar Albanians by the
Yugoslav government
15
NATO’s Objectives

A stop to all military action and the
immediate ending of violence and
repression

The withdrawal from Kosovo of the
military, police, and paramilitary
forces

The stationing in Kosovo of an
international military presence
16
NATO’s Objectives (cont’d)

The unconditional and safe return of all
refugees and displaced persons

Establish political framework agreement for
Kosovo in conformity with international law
17
Military Objective
“Degrade and damage the military and
security structure President Milosevic has
used to depopulate and destroy the Albanian
majority in Kosovo.”
William Cohen, SECDEF
15 April 1999
18
NATO Strategic Objectives
 Demonstrate the seriousness of
their opposition to Belgrade’s
aggression in the Balkans
 Deter Milosevic’s attacks on
helpless civilians, and reverse
ethnic cleansing
 Damage Serbia’s capacity to
wage war against Kosovo
19
Lessons Learned on
Kosovo War Objectives
US Grand Strategy



Maintain a peaceful,
prosperous US-led
Europe
Convince NATO to
transition from old
Cold War common
defense against
external threats to new
Continental security
coalition
Persuade NATO to
acquire means and
will to conduct out of
area military ops
European Strategy
Kosovo War Aims

Stop the Serbian
slaughter and
expulsion of ethnic
Albanians

Remove Milosevic
from power

Accomplish the
above with minimal
collateral damage
and NATO casualties

Maintain a peaceful,
prosperous, and
independent Europe

Prevent spillover into
Albania and
Macedonia, then to
Greece and Turkey

Maintain NATO
relationship with
Russia and give it a
role in helping end the
crisis

Demonstrate
European unity
Common Effort Concealed Widely Differing Objectives20
Lessons Learned by
US Military






United States air refuelers were stretched thin during the
operation
Force structure numbers and resources were inadequate for
current level of commitments (all services); support and
training as important to victory as strike
Older platforms with smart weapons may be seen as good
enough; smart weapons may be better than smart platforms
Need the right force structure for the future
C4ISR is currently the weakest link in joint
and coalition ops
On the brink of another “hollow force”
21
Political Lessons Learned by
Europeans
 Militarily, Europe remains dependent on Americans
• Best technology, weapons, and platforms “Made in USA.”
• Politicians unwilling to pay the cost of matching unique US capabilities
 United States cannot always be counted on to serve the
Alliance’s interests
• US focus shifted with opinion polls
• Fear US commitment could falter if US forces take heavy casualties
 European Union can provide diplomatic muscle (Martti Ahtisaari
saves the day); many foreign policy interests are similar among
EU Nations
•
•
•
•
Refugee issue
Humanitarian (ethnic cleansing)
Threat of rising Islamic fundamentalism
Need to build external identity
 Europe can overcome internal diversity to maintain cohesion
• German Luftwaffe conducted first combat missions since 1945
• Greece provided logistical support despite popular opposition
• Italy and France (which have Communist ministers) offered air bases
22
Impact of Kosovo Lessons Learned
on Future DOD Budget Trends








No DOD/Allied spending surge
like post-Desert Storm
International defense market
continues to shrink
Readiness and retention will
increasingly consume $$$$ for
modernization
Inevitable tax cut legislation
will further erode DOD budgets
Services must eventually deal
with the bow wave
Old platforms with smart
weapons were good enough
Congress may balk at big bills
for new platforms (JSF, F-22,
CVX, DD-21)
Support Forces will need big
$$$$ too
“We have to make a trade between
smart weapons and platforms...We
need to encourage the services to
concentrate more on smart
weapons.”
Jacques Gansler
23
Summary









Background to the Gulf War Conflict
Iraqi Threat
Air Defense Threat
The Plan of Attack
Concept of Operations
Five Strategic Rings
Target Systems
Campaign Overview
Video Clip - Beyond the Wild Blue
24
Summary
 Operation PROVIDE COMFORT/NORTHERN
WATCH
• Background to conflict and lessons learned
 Operation SOUTHERN WATCH
• Background to conflict and lessons learned
 Operation PROVIDE RELIEF/RESTORE HOPE
• Background to conflict and lessons learned
 History of the Balkans
• Background
• Ethnic Groups
25
Summary
 Operation DENY FLIGHT
• Background to conflict and lessons learned
 Operation ALLIED FORCE
• Background to conflict
• NATO actions
• Operation ALLIED FORCE begins
 Operation ALLIED FORCE
• Lessons learned by US Military
• Political lessons learned
• Impact of lessons learned on future DOD budget
 CFD Review
26
Next Week
- Air and Space Power Today: The Global
War on Terrorism
-- Global War on Terrorism (GWOT),
Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom and
GWOT
Read Chapter 21
27

similar documents