Napoleon Forges an Empire - Montgomery County Schools

Napoleon Forges an Empire
REVOLUTION (1789-1815)
Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)
 Born on island of Corsica
 Military School at 9 yrs. &
lieutenant in artillery at 16.
Only 5 ‘ 3” tall!
He joined army of new
government, ousted British from
Toulon in 1793, & became General
at age 25.
Married Josephine de Beauharnais
Oct. 1795 – Royalists marched on
National Convention & Napoleon
becomes savior of the new French
A Military Genius
 1796 – the Directory sends him vs.
Austria & Kingdom of Sardinia – he
crossed the Alps & won a series of
great victories in Italy.
 He became an instant hero in
France & his picture was
everywhere. He was compared to
Julius Caesar & Alexander the
 He said “In Italy I realized I was a
superior being & conceived the
ambition of performing great
things.” He wanted to rule France!
Napoleon Invades Egypt
 1797 – Britain was only one left
fighting France & the Directory
wanted to invade England.
 Instead, Napoleon suggests & led
an attack on Egypt to threaten
British India.
 British admiral Lord Nelson
destroyed a French fleet at Battle
of Nile & his army was pinned
down in Egypt.
 Napoleon kept these stories out of
papers & returned once again a
hero on Oct. 8, 1799.
France Needs a Leader
 The Directory had failed – couldn’t make
repairs, supply food, & it was corrupt, but it
wouldn’t hand over power.
 Nov. 10, 1799 – Council of Elders & Council of
500 attacked him & he had to be helped away
by his soldiers.
 “Kill anyone who resists. Follow me! I am the
god of battles.” His brother Lucien helped
rally troops by holding sword on his brother.
 They fixed bayonets & drove the Directory’s
deputies from power in a coup d’etat.
A Short-lived Peace Comes to Europe
 The lawmakers who remained
voted to establish a government of
three consuls – one was Napoleon
– he became Dictator of France.
 Napoleon led his troops from Paris
to deal with Britain & their new
allies Russia & Austria who wanted
him out of power.
 1802 – due to war & diplomacy –all
three had made peace with
France. Now he could focus on
Exit Slip – Napoleon Seizes Power
1. T or F: Napoleon became a hero when he saved
the French Republic from royalist rebels.
2. T or F: Napoleon won a key victory in Egypt that
led to the defeat of the British Army and Navy.
3. T or F: Napoleon’s coup d’etat led to him
becoming first consul and dictator of France.
4. T or F: By 1802 Napoleon had defeated or signed
treaties with his enemies and Europe was at
peace for the first time in ten years.
Bell Ringer–Napoleon Forges an Empire
1. How old was Napoleon when he became a
2. In what nation was Napoleon in when he
first realized he wanted to rule France?
3. In spite of military failure in ______,
Napoleon misled his people and returned a
4. What governing body did Napoleon
overthrow during his 1799 coup d’ etat?
Napoleon Rules France
 1800 – by Plebiscite (vote of the people) –
voters chose new constitution because they
were desperate for leadership. 1st Consul
had all the power.
 Napoleon passed laws to strengthened the
federal gov’t & free it from corruption.
 Established a national bank & new system
of tax collection to give him control of the
Other Reforms of Napoleon
 Lycees (government-run
public schools for males) to
provide trained public officials
hired on merit & not family
 He signed a concordat with
Pope Pius VII that recognized
influence of Church, but
rejected Church control in
national affairs.
 Napoleonic Code – gave
France a uniform set of laws
Napoleon’s Coronation as
Emperor of France
 Dec 2, 1804 – Notre Dame
Cathedral –he took the
crown from the pope to
show he was bigger than
 Josephine was crowned
 This move was supported
by French citizens
Exit Slip – Napoleon Rules France
1. Napoleon established _______, or government-run
public schools, to provide the government with
trained, honest officials.
a. plebiscites
b. colleges c. lycees
2. The concordat with the pope gave the ________
supremacy over government affairs.
a. pope b. second consul c. Napoleon
3. Napoleon believed his greatest achievement for France
was the ________.
a. Napoleonic Code b. defeat of Austria c. national bank
4. Who crowned Napoleon emperor in 1804?
a. the pope b. Napoleon c. Josephine
Napoleon Loses American Territories
 1789 – Ideals of Revolution
reached St. Dominique (now
Haiti on Hispaniola)
 Valued for sugar industry & Afr.
slaves provided labor force
 Toussaint L’Ouverture led
revolt & French defeated in
1801 by rebels & disease
 Napoleon abandons idea of
American empire
The Louisiana Purchase
 1803 – The U.S. wanted to
buy the port of New Orleans
 Napoleon offered all of
Louisiana Territory to
President Thomas Jefferson
for $15 million.
 It doubled the size of U.S.
 Napoleon needed money
and he wanted to punish
Napoleon Conquers Europe
 Netherlands & parts of Italy
already annexed.
Great Britain, Russia, Austria,
and Sweden form an alliance
to stop French expansion.
By end of 1805, Aust., Russia,
Prussia were defeated.
Largest empire since Romans.
Only Great Britain was left.
The Battle of Trafalgar (1805)
 Napoleon’s only defeat was a
loss at sea to British Navy.
 Admiral Nelson split French
fleet off coast of Spain and
captured & sunk many ships.
 Napoleon could not invade
Britain & Britain would control
seas for next 100 years.
 His obsession with crushing
Britain would later do him in!
The French Empire
 1812 – only Britain, Sweden, Portugal, & Ottoman
Empire were free from Napoleon
 Puppet rulers, like his brother Joseph of Spain,
ruled much of Germany, Poland, & Italy.
 He introduced the Napoleonic Code, reduced
Church power, & ended serfdom; some saw him
as a liberator, but as he taxed and drafted, people
soon grew tired of him.
 The empire was huge, but unstable & he would
eventually be his own worst enemy.
Napoleon’s Fear?
 He was worried about what would become
of the empire after his death.
 Josephine bore him no children so he
divorced her.
 He married Marie Louise (Marie
Antoinette’s grand niece) to build an
alliance with Austria.
 She bore him a son, Napoleon II, whom
Napoleon named King of Rome.
Exit Slip – Napoleon Creates an Empire
1. Napoleon gave up on an American empire in 1801
after a successful slave revolt in ________.
a. St. Lucia
b. Haiti c. Guiana
2. To gain money and punish Britain, Napoleon sold
_________ to the United States in 1803.
a. Louisiana b. Texas c. Oregon
3. France suffered a devastating loss to _________ in the
1805 naval Battle of Trafalgar.
a. Russia
b. Great Britain c. Sweden
4. Napoleon’s brother Joseph was the puppet ruler of
a. Spain
b. Italy c. Prussia

similar documents