ece326ch02

Report
Figure 2.1 Circuit symbol for the op amp.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.2 Equivalent circuit for the ideal op amp. AOL is very large (approaching
infinity).
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.3 Op-amp symbol showing power supplies.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.4 Inverting amplifier.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.5 We make use of the summing-point constraint in the analysis of the inverting amplifier.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.6 An inverting amplifier that achieves high gain with a smaller range of resistor values than required
for the basic inverter.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.7 Summing amplifier. See Exercise 2.1.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.8 Circuits of Exercise 2.2.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.9 Circuit of Exercise 2.3.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.10a Schmitt trigger circuit and waveforms.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.10b Schmitt trigger circuit and waveforms.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.11 Noninverting amplifier.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.12 Voltage follower.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.13 Inverting or noninverting amplifier. See Exercise 2.4.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.14 Differential amplifier. See Exercise 2.5.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.15 Circuit for Exercise 2.6.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.20 If low-value resistors are used, an impractically large current is required.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.21 If very high value resistors are used, stray capacitance can couple unwanted signals into the circuit.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.22 To attain large input resistance with moderate resistances for an inverting amplifier,
we cascade a voltage follower with an inverter.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.23 Amplifier designed in Example 2.4.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.25 Bode plot of open-loop gain for a typical op amp.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.26 Noninverting amplifier.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.27 Bode plots for Example 2.5.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.28 For a real op amp, clipping occurs if the output voltage reaches certain limits.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.29 Circuit of Example 2.8.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.30 Output of the circuit of Figure 2.29 for RL = 10kV and Vs max = 5V.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.31 Output of the circuit of
Figure 2.29 for RL = 10kV and vs(t) = 2.5 sin (105p t).
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.32 Circuit of Exercise 2.15.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.33 Current sources and a voltage source model the dc imperfections of an op amp.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.34a Circuit of Example 2.10.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.34b Circuit of Example 2.10.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.34c Circuit of Example 2.10.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.34d Circuit of Example 2.10.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.35 Adding the resistor R to the inverting amplifier circuit causes the effects of bias currents to cancel.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.36 Noninverting amplifier, including resistor R to balance the effects of the bias currents. See Exercise~2.17.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.37 Noninverting amplifier.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.40 Bode plot of the gain magnitude for the circuit of Figure 2.37.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.42 Noninverting amplifier used to demonstrate nonlinear effects.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.45 Output of the circuit of Figure 2.42 for RL = 10kV and Vim =5V.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.46 Unity-gain amplifiers.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.47 Inverting amplifier.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.48 Ac-coupled inverting amplifier.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.49 Summing amplifier.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.50 Noninverting amplifier. This circuit approximates an ideal voltage amplifier.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.51 Ac-coupled noninverting amplifier.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.52 Ac-coupled voltage follower with bootstrapped bias resistors.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.53 Differential amplifier.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.54 Instrumentation-quality differential amplifier.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.55 Voltage-to-current converter (transconductance amplifier).
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.56 Voltage-to-current converter with grounded load (Howland circuit).
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.57 Current-to-voltage converter (transresistance amplifier).
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.58 Current amplifier.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.59 Variable-gain amplifier. See Exercise 2.21.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.60 Integrator.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.61 Square-wave input signal for Exercise 2.24.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.62 Answer for Exercise 2.24a.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.63 Differentiator.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.64a Comparative Bode plots.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.64b Comparative Bode plots.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.
Figure 2.64c Comparative Bode plots.
© 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

similar documents