Nomenclature

Report
Nomenclature
Types of Chemical Substances

Inorganic




Organic




elements
molecular
ionic
aliphatic
cyclic
substituted
Common substances

inorganic or organic
Naming


must be simple as possible
must be unique
Elements


one kind of atom
most are monoatomic (one atom)


8 elements are diatomic (2 atoms)


Cu, Fe, Al, He
H2 N2 O2 F2 Cl2 Br2 I2 (At2)
2 are polyatomic


S8
P4
Common Substances


known by names other than their
systematic names
be familiar with




formulas
systematic name
common name
know whether systematic or common
name takes precedence
Common Substances
Formula
Chemical Name
Common Name
H2 O
NaCl
HCl
HNO3
H2SO4
H3PO4
CH3COOH
CaSO4
NH3
hydrogen oxide
sodium chloride
hydrogen chloride
hydrogen nitrate
hydrogen sulfate
hydrogen phosphate
acetic acid
calcium sulfate
nitrogen trihydride
water
table salt
hydrochloric acid
nitric acid
sulfuric acid
phosphoric acid
vinegar
gypsum (dry wall)
ammonia
Common Substances
Formula
Chemical Name
Common Name
H2O2
C2H5OH
CH3OH
CH4
O3
C12H22O11
KCl
NaOH
CaO
hydrogen peroxide
ethanol
methanol
methane
ozone
sucrose
potassium chloride
sodium hydroxide
calcium oxide
hydrogen peroxide
drinking alcohol
wood alcohol
natural gas
ozone
table sugar
potash
lye, caustic soda
lime
Molecular Compounds

made up of 2 non-metals bound together
with covalent bonds:
Molecular Compounds


can’t predict formula so naming is done on a
numbering system.
prefixes in front of the element name tell you
how many of that element are present in the
compound:
mono
1
hexa
6
di
2
hepta
7
tri
3
octa
8
tetra
4
nona
9
penta
5
deca
10
Molecular Compounds

N2O5
dinitrogen pentaoxide (note ending)

CO2
carbon dioxide

(no mono on first atom)
CO
carbon monoxide

Cl2O7
dichlorine heptaoxide
-ides
C
N
O
F
Si
P
S
carbide
nitride
oxide
fluoride
silicide
phosphide
sulfide
Cl
As
Se
Br
Te
I
chloride
arsenide
selenide
bromide
telluride
iodide
Molecular Compounds

tetraphosphorus decaoxide
P4O10

tetrasulfur tetranitride
S4N4

bromine monofluoride
BrF

diarsenic triselenide
As2Se3
Ionic Compounds

made up of cations and anions which
come together as a result of ionic
attraction:
Ionic Compounds

there is no molecule, rather a crystal
lattice.


chemical formula is ratio of cations to
anions in crystal; formula unit
ionic substances are recognized because
they contain a metal + non-metal
Simple Ionic Compounds




cations from groups 1 & 2, Al, Zn, Ag, Cd, NH41+
(all have only one possible charge)
anions can be anything on the chart (including
polyatomic ions)
only one formula unit possible, so name is a
repetition of the ion names:
NaCl
Na1+
Cl1-
sodium chloride
Simple Ionic Compounds



NH4NO3
Al2(CO3)3
Ag3P
NH41+NO31-
ammonium nitrate
Al3+
CO32-
Ag1+
P3-
aluminum carbonate
silver phosphide
Simple Ionic Compounds


cadmium chlorite
Cd2+
strontium nitride
Sr2+
ClO21Cd(ClO2)2
N3-
Sr3N2
Stock System



used when the cation can have more than
one possible charge
used for all other metals on the Periodic
Table.
the name of the compound includes the
charge of the cation in roman numerals, in
brackets after the cation name.
The Stock System of Nomenclature
Formula
Charge of
Cation
Charge of
Anion
Name of
Compound
SnF2
Sn2+
F1-
Tin (II) fluoride
SnF4
Sn4+
F1-
Tin (IV) fluoride
Co(ClO)3
Co3+
ClO1-
MnO2
Mn4+
O2-
US3
U6+
S2-
Cobalt (III)
hypochlorite
Manganese (IV)
oxide
Uranium (VI)
sulfide
Classical System





older system
much, much, older
largely replaced by Stock system, but is
still around.
if see name be able to give formula.
never give classical name for any
formula.
The Stock and Classical Systems of Nomenclature
Charge of Charge of
Formula
Stock Name
Cation
Anion
Classical
Name
SnF2
Sn2+
F1-
Tin (II)
fluoride
Stannous
fluoride
SnF4
Sn4+
F1-
Tin (IV)
fluoride
Stannic
fluoride
CoCl2
Co2+
Cl1-
Cobalt (II)
chloride
Cobaltous
chloride
CoCl3
Co3+
Cl1-
Cobalt (III)
chloride
Cobaltic
chloride
Cu2O
Cu1+
O2-
Copper (I)
oxide
Cuprous
oxide
CuO
Cu2+
O2-
Copper (II)
oxide
Cupric oxide
Waters of Hydration


water molecules physically attached to
ionic and molecular substances.
name and formula recognizes their
presence.
Waters of Hydration

gypsum typically attracts 4 water molecules per
formula unit:
CaSO4 · 4 H2O

name the substance then use a numbering
prefix followed by subscript hydrate:
calcium sulfate tetrahydrate
Naming Hydrated Compounds
Formula
Name of Compound
P2O5 · 10 H2O
diphosphorus pentaoxide decahydrate
Na2CO3 · H2O
sodium carbonate monohydrate
Using Ion Charge to Predict
Formulas
a) K1+, Br1-
KBr
b) Ca2+, Cl1CaCl2
c) Li1+, H1LiH
d) Fe3+, OH1Fe(OH)3
e) Ca2+, ClO41Ca(ClO4)2
f) Hg2+ , O2g) K1+ , PO43h) Pb4+, O2i) NH41+ , SO42j) Mg2+, BO33-
HgO
K3PO4
PbO2
(NH4)2SO4
Mg3(BO3)2
Using Formulas to Predict Ion
Charge
a) ZnSO4
Zn2+ SO42b) Mg(NO3)2
Mg2+ NO31c) FeO
Fe2+ O2d) LiHCO3
Li1+ HCO31e) Hg2Cl2
Hg22+ Cl1-
f) KSCN
K1+ SCN1g) Na2SeO3
Na1+ SeO32h) Al2(Cr2O7)3
Al3+ Cr2O72i) MgC2O4
Mg2+ C2O42j) SrH2
Sr2+ H1-
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
NH3
Fe(NO3)2
SO2
MgBr2
GeCl4
N2
AlPO4
C2H5OH
Li2CrO4
KH
CuCr2O7
NH4NO3
ammonia
Fe2+ NO31sulfur dioxide
Mg2+ Br1Ge4+ Cl1nitrogen
Al3+ PO43ethanol
Li1+ CrO42K1+ H1Cu2+ Cr2O72NH41+ NO31-
iron (II) nitrate
magnesium bromide
germanium (IV) chloride
aluminum phosphate
lithium chromate
potassium hydride
copper (II) dichromate
ammonium nitrate
13)
14)
15)
16)
17)
18)
19)
20)
21)
22)
23)
24)
CO2
carbon dioxide
P2O5  6 H2O diphosphorus pentaoxide hexahydrate
PbO
Pb2+ O2lead (II) oxide
BaS
Ba2+ S2barium sulfide
S8
sulfur
Mo(NO3)7
Mo7+ NO31- molybdenum (VII) nitrate
BaH2
Ba2+ H1barium hydride
CaSO4  4 H2O
Ca2+ SO42- calcium sulfate tetrahydrate
O2
oxygen
Al2O3
Al3+ O2aluminum oxide
PCl3
phosphorus trichloride
CuSO3
Cu2+ SO32copper (II) sulfite
1) sodium fluoride
2) potassium carbonate
3) aluminum sulfide
4) calcium bromide
5) chlorine heptafluoride
6) silver oxide
7) ammonium sulfide
8) barium hydroxide
9) phosphorus
10) mercurous chloride
11) tin (II) nitrate
12) potassium bisulfite
Na1+ F1K1+ CO32Al3+ S2Ca2+ Br1Ag1+ O2NH41+ S2Ba2+ OH1Hg22+ Cl1Sn2+ NO31K1+ HSO31-
NaF
K2CO3
Al2S3
CaBr2
ClF7
Ag2O
(NH4)2S
Ba(OH)2
P4
Hg2Cl2
Sn(NO3)2
KHSO3
13)
14)
15)
16)
17)
18)
19)
20)
21)
22)
23)
24)
calcium carbonate
ammonium sulfite
iron (II) hydroxide
uranium (VI) nitrate
ozone
lithium dichromate
hydrogen nitrate
barium bicarbonate
nitrogen dioxide
carbon monoxide
methanol
ammonium oxalate
Ca2+ CO32- CaCO3
NH41+ SO32- (NH4)2SO3
Fe2+ OH1Fe(OH)2
U6+ NO31U(NO3)6
O3
Li1+ Cr2O72- Li2Cr2O7
H1+ NO31HNO3
Ba2+ HCO31- Ba(HCO3)2
NO2
CO
CH3OH
NH41+ C2O42- (NH4)2C2O4
Organic Nomenclature

3 types of organic compounds important
for this class:



aliphatic hydrocarbons - chains
cyclic hydrocarbons - rings
aromatic hydrocarbons - benzene rings
Organic Nomenclature
Naming hydrocarbons involves looking at 3
aspects:
1.
2.
3.
Number of carbons linked in a continuous
chain.
The presence of single, double or triple
bonds in the carbon chain.
The presence of structures other than
hydrogen attached to the main carbon
chain (functional groups).
1. Length of Carbon Chain

1
2
3
4
5
6
how many carbons are bonded in a chain gives
the prefix of the name:
methethpropbutpenthex-
7
8
9
10
11
12
heptoctnondecundecdodec-
1. Length of Carbon Chain

other prefixes include:
13
14
15
20
25
tridectetradecpentadeceicospentacos-
30
40
50
100
triaconttetracontpentaconthect-
2. Family Background



carbon atoms make 4 chemical bonds.
carbon atoms can be linked to each other
by one pair of electrons (single bond), two
pair (double bond), or three pair (triple
bond).
the presence of double or triple bonds on
the carbon chain changes the chemical
family.
2. Family Background

alkanes



all carbons are connected by single bonds
the suffix –ane is added to the name of the
compound
the general formula is CnH2n+2
hexane

alkenes



the carbon chain contains at least one
double bond
the suffix –ene is added to the name of the
compound
the general formula is CnH2n
propene

alkynes



the carbon chain contains at least one triple
bond
the suffix –yne is added to the name of the
compound
the general formula is CnH2n-2
propyne
Isomers



is defined as the structure associated with
a chemical formula.
for many organic compounds it is possible
to have more than one isomer for a given
formula.
the simplest isomers are alkenes and
alkynes where the double or triple bond
can have more than one location:
C4H8

1-butene

2-butene

number the carbons from the end closest to the
multiple bond:
Isomers


1- hexene
the double bond is located closest to the
left-hand side, so that is where numbering
starts.
Isomers


2-hexene
the double bond is closer to the right-hand
side, so numbering begins there.
Isomers

1-hexene

1-hexene

these two are the same molecule.
C4H6

1-butyne

2-butyne
Functional Groups



hydrocarbon chains
halogens
alcohols
Functional Groups

Hydrocarbon chains are carbon chains
attached to the main chain:
this is called
methylbutane
Functional Groups




Prefixes are used to indicate the number
of carbons in the chain:
1 carbon - methyl2 carbons - ethyl3 carbons - propyl-
Functional Groups


when it is possible to attach the
hydrocarbon in more than 1 place
numbering is used:
2-methylpentane
Functional Groups

3-methylpentane

4-methyl-2-pentene
Functional Groups

2,3-dimethylpentane
Functional Groups

3,4-dimethyl-2-pentene
Functional Groups

2,4-dimethyl-3-ethylpentane
Functional Groups
Functional Groups


Halogens - group 17 elements attached
to the carbon chain:
1-fluoro-3-chloropentane
Functional Groups

1-fluoro-1,1-diiodo-5,5,5-trichloro2-pentyne
Functional Groups


Alcohols - are formed when –OH groups
are attached to the main chain:
1-pentanol
Functional Groups

2-penten-1-ol
Cyclic and Aromatic
Hydrocarbons

cyclopropane
Cyclic and Aromatic
Hydrocarbons

cyclohexane
Cyclic and Aromatic
Hydrocarbons

cyclohexene

2-chloro-4-fluorocyclohexene
Cyclic and Aromatic
Hydrocarbons

benzene
Cyclic and Aromatic
Hydrocarbons

benzene
Cyclic and Aromatic
Hydrocarbons

phenol
Cyclic and Aromatic
Hydrocarbons

toluene
Cyclic and Aromatic
Hydrocarbons

dichlorobenzene

ortho-
meta-
para-

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