Introduction to the Joint Military Appreciation Process (JMAP) References ADFP 5.0.1 – Joint Military Appreciation Process (JMAP) ADDP 5.0 – Joint Planning ADDP 2.0 – Intelligence ADDP 3.0 – Campaigns & Operations ADDP 4.2 – Support to Ops (Log) Aim To create a basic familiarity with the Joint Military Appreciation Process (JMAP) doctrine. 4 Key Takeaways 1. JMAP is the only “Joint” planning process 2. Requires Commander’s input at all stages 3. Requires constant Joint Intelligence Preparation of the Operational Environment (JIPOE) updates to remain current 4. Needs the input of all staff functions to be successful Preliminary Scoping (PS) Provides context for the conduct of the JIPOE and JMAP. Should normally cover: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Commander’s initial guidance Strategic level direction Intelligence update Status of current operations Time constraints and planning considerations Force preparation and capability requirements JIPOE: Steps Analysis of the Operational environment 1. 2. Define the Operational Environment Describe the Operational Environment Effects Analysis of the Adversary 3. 4. Evaluate the Threat (inc En COG Matrix) Determine Adversary Courses of Action (COA) What is JMAP? Logical decision-making process that incorporates all staff functions towards developing the most appropriate plans Basis for joint planning within the ADF – (Immediate and Deliberate) Interoperable with allied forces - Joint Operation Planning Process (JOPP) (US) The Estimate Process (UK) - Military Decision Making Process (MDMP) (USMC) - Operational Level JMAP is predominantly used at the Operational level and covers: – – – – – – Creation of Areas of Operation (JFAOs) Courses Of Action (COAs) Force Assignment Logistic Feasibility/Sustainability Command and Control Risk Management – The Concept Of Operations (CONOPS) Mission Analysis (MA) Mission Analysis ensures that: • Commander and planning staff clearly understand the Superior Commander’s intent, one and two levels up. • Planning is focused within the boundaries of that intent. • The mission and tasks are identified that are essential to successfully satisfy the superior Commander’s intent and achieve the end state. Mission Analysis: Steps 1. Review the situation 2. Identify and analyse Superior Commander’s intent and develop own mission 3. Identify and analyse tasks 4. Determine freedom of action 5. Identify critical facts and assumptions 6. Draft Commander’s guidance MA Step 1: Review the Situation Critical to the formulation of the Mission: • Review the operational environment and environment effects (JIPOE) • Review lessons learned • Review own forces (COG Analysis) • Analyse time factors MA Step 2: Identify and Analyse Superior Commander’s Intent and develop own mission What guidance has been given by the Superior Commander/Government – Other Governments Usually articulated by Purpose, Method and Endstate Purpose: To restore Whiteland Sovereignty Method: Overwhelming Force by air and sea to remove Red from Whiteland Endstate: Red unable/unwilling to obtain Whiteland by military action MA Step 2: Identify and Analyse Superior Commander’s Intent and develop own mission Who? What? Where? When? Why? Eg. Someone is to do something in a certain area by a time in order to achieve something. Example Mission Who What Where When Why Blue Force are to defeat Red Force military operations in AO Bell from 01 Jun 2014 in order to maintain Blue sovereignty MA Step 3: Identify Tasks Specified: - Protect Blueland interests (and Essential) E - Ensure Safety of Blueland personnel and AFN - Prevent Enemy Fighter Deployment E Implied: - Force preparation and concentration - Conduct Air Defence of JFAO - Deploy SF to White IsIand - Conduct Rear Area Security (RAS) E E E MA Step 4: Determine Freedom of Action LIMITATIONS Constraints: (Things we have no control over) • Weather • Time • Distance Restrictions: (Placed by higher authority – may be changed) • Adherence to the Rules of Engagement (ROE) • Minimise collateral damage • Notice To Move (NTM) of units MA Step 4: Determine Freedom of Action RISK Most operational risks cannot be eliminated entirely. Measured against the operational requirements and mission. Expressed in terms of a trade-off continuum = cost-benefit analysis. Risk can usually be effectively reduced – risk mitigation. [But what is the cost?] MA Step 5: Identify Critical Facts and Assumptions Facts: • Red Forces have invaded White Island • Red strike aircraft have range to strike over White Island • UN has indicated they will not become involved Assumptions: (to be turned into facts through CCIR process) • • • • The international community will support our operations No third party direct involvement on either side USA will provide us with CIS, Intelligence and Log support Red soldiers are susceptible to IO (PSYOPS) MA Step 6: Commander’s Guidance At the final stage of Mission Analysis, the Commander is briefed and then delivers formal guidance for the following JMAP steps. This guidance can be given by the Commander or provided by planning staff for commander’s approval. COA Dev: Steps 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Confirm Centre of Gravity (COG) Review COG analysis Develop broad COA Develop decisive points (DP) Develop lines of operation (LOO) Develop detailed COA Test COA COA Dev Step 1: Confirm COG Definition: A characteristic, capability or locality from which a military force, nation, alliance or other grouping derives its freedom of action, strength or will to fight. COA Dev Step 2: Review COG Analysis CR CV CV CC1 CR CR COG CC2 CV CV CR CC3 CV CR CV CV CV CR CV COA Dev Step 2: Review COG Analysis CR CV CV CC1 CR CR COG CC2 CV CV CR CC3 CV CR CV CV CV CR CV COA Dev Step 3: Develop Broad COAs Broad COAs are now created: – Direct Approach (Comd guidance) – Indirect Approach (Comd guidance) – Review of Adversary’s: Most Likely COA (JIPOE) Most Dangerous COA (JIPOE) – Review of wider aims and intent (WNGO) – Commander’s Guidance COA Dev Step 4: Develop Decisive Points (DP) Definition: A geographic place, key event, critical factor, or function that, when acted upon, allows a commander to gain a marked advantage over an adversary or contribute materially to achieving success. DPs are created from the amalgamation of like tasks (in time or space) elicited from: – Specified, implied & essential tasks – Blue actions to attack Red COG – Blue actions to protect own COG COA Dev Step 4: Develop Decisive Points (DP) • A DP will articulate: – A purpose, – Outcome, – Task, or – Effect • Expressed in past tense • Must be measurable in terms of time, space or magnitude • Does not negate the requirement to achieve Specified Tasks COA Dev Step 5: Develop Lines of Operation DP1 - RED FREEDOM OF UNOBSERVED MANOEUVRE DENIED DP2 - FORCE CONCENTRATION AND PREPARATION COMPLETED DP3 - RED SLOC TO WHITE ISLAND DENIED DP 1 DP 2 DP 4 TIME C O G ENDSTATE DP 3 OPERATIONAL DP4 – RED ALOC TO WHITE ISLAND DENIED COA Dev Step 6: Develop Detailed COA PREPARATION DEPLOYMENT DETERRENCE 1 2 3 SUSTAIN 4 DP 1 CDP DP 2 CDP DP 4 DP 5 TIME ENDSTATE DP 3 C O G OPERATIONAL DP 6 SYNCHRONISATION MATRIX BLUE Red Action Phase 3 Main Effort Deterrence Phase Main Effort Time B A T T L E S P A C E D to D +3 Deep Increase ISR - P3C/SSK/SF/JORN Close Recce White Is, covert SF deployment to WI, 1 x FFG port visit. Increase ISR - P3C Rear Force preparation and concentration, logistic stockpiling, reduce NTM/NFS 1 2,3 1 Tasks Specified: Sustainability Increased stock build-up, POL to airbase and agreed point Deductions DP 3,4 achieved Implied: Essential: COA Dev Step 7: Test COA Test each COA developed for: • Suitability • Feasibility - Time Space Means Limitations • Acceptability • Sustainability • Distinguishability Course Of Action Analysis COA Analysis identifies the advantages and disadvantages of each COA developed in the previous step of the JMAP. The key to COA Analysis is the war game process which validates each COA to determine workability, strengths and weaknesses. The output is a number of improved and viable COA. COA Analysis: Steps 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. War game set-up Determine war game start state Select war game method Select war game recording method Conduct war game Decision & CONOPS Development This is the final step in the JMAP. It involves the COMD making a decision on which COA is to be developed into a CONOPS. The approved CONOPS forms the basis for developing the OPORD. Synchronisation The JMAP has been used by the Planning Group to create the CONOPS. After it is approved by CDF, the main plan is synchronised with supporting plans. The OPORD (with annexes) is issued and the CJTF prepares to execute. 4 Key Takeaways 1. JMAP is the only “Joint” planning process 2. Requires Commander’s input at all stages 3. Requires constant Joint Intelligence Preparation of the Operational Environment (JIPOE) updates to remain current 4. Needs the input of all staff functions to be successful Questions?