What do we know about feedback and learning?

Report
Feedback to students:
What do we know about
feedback and learning?
Steve Barkley
Grading as feedback
How are grades a form of feedback?
Brookhart's:
Which Do You Believe?
Grades should
reflect achievement
of intended learning
outcomes.
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strongly agree
agree
disagree
strongly disagree
Brookhart's:
Which Do You Believe?
The primary audience
for messages conveyed
in grades are students
and parents.
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strongly agree
agree
disagree
strongly disagree
Brookhart's:
Which Do You Believe?
Grades should reflect a
particular student's
individual academic
achievement only.
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strongly agree
agree
disagree
strongly disagree
Brookhart's:
Which Do You Believe?
Grading policies
should be set up to
support student
motivation to learn.
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strongly agree
agree
disagree
strongly disagree
Brookhart's:
Which Do You Believe?
Grades should be
based on a student's
standing among
classmates.
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strongly agree
agree
disagree
strongly disagree
Brookhart's:
Which Do You Believe?
When students receive
"poor grades" for their
performance, they are
motivated to do better
next time.
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strongly agree
agree
disagree
strongly disagree
Brookhart's:
Which Do You Believe?
A grade should reflect
the student's achievement, work habits on
responsibilities like
homework, class
participation, and
behavior.
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strongly agree
agree
disagree
strongly disagree
Assessment is the Bridge Between
Teaching and Learning
Dylan Wiliam
http://www.youtube.com
/watch?v=jtlLp_ZsyvQ
Formative Assessment
Provides…
Teachers with direction for
instruction
Students with knowledge to
advance toward learning goal
Reporting Information
Growth and Progress
Information
• Change in
achievement of
learning goals
within subject area
over time…used to
report progress
Learning Skills
Information
• Information from
observing student
behaviors that
promote learning
(like effort and
work habits).
Grading Information
• Information from
summative
classroom
assessments used
to communicate
achievement of
intended learning
goals against
standards
Dylan Wiliam’s five key strategies for
assessing student learning:
1. For each important new concept or assignment, teachers
should make the learning expectations clear and share with
students the criteria for successfully meeting those
expectations. This information should be provided on a daily
basis and revisited at the end of each class to evaluate
progress toward these goals.
2. Use data from classroom discussions, student answers and
learning tasks to revise lessons and activities. Teachers can
use various techniques that engage all students in discussion
and use revealed evidence of student thinking and
understanding as they plan future.
Dylan Wiliam’s five key strategies
for assessing student learning:
3. Provide feedback that clearly and explicitly identifies what
needs to be improved in order to move learners forward and
promote students’ understanding of concepts. To best meet
students’ immediate learning needs, teachers should use this
evidence to adapt instruction in real time.
4. Encourage students to serve as instructional and learning
resources for one another on a daily basis.
5. Encourage students to take responsibility for their own
learning.
http://www.apa.org/education/k12/classroom-data.aspx?item=3#
Feedback is the current that flows between the
teacher and the learner
leading to the
desired outcomes
Teaching
Learning
Assessment
Assessment and Feedback
http://www.apa.org/education/k12/classroom-data.aspx?item=2#
Don’t think that feedback itself is enough to make an assessment
formative. Although providing feedback is a necessary first step,
an assessment only becomes formative when the information fed
back to the learner is used by the learner to improve future
performance. Therefore only feedback that is potentially useful to
the learner is formative. For example, if a teacher says, “That’s
very creative,” the student does not know why her product is
creative, or how to make future products creative. An exception
to this occurs when the teacher has already provided the criteria
for what a “creative” response looks like.
Top Two Study Strategies
• Practice Test
• Distributive practice
http://www.aft.org/pdfs/americaneducator/fall2013/Dunlosky.pdf
Inside the Black Box
Raising Standards Through
Classroom Assessment
Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam
Feedback to any pupil should
be about the particular
qualities of his or her work,
with advice on what he or she
can do to improve, and should
avoid comparisons with other
pupils.
For formative assessment to
be productive, pupils should be
trained in self-assessment so
that they can understand the
main purposes of their learning
and thereby grasp what they
need to do to achieve.
http://weaeducation.typepad.co.uk/files/blackbox-1.pdf
Making Suggestions
Phrase Positively
Clear and Specific
Congruent
Pay-off
Compliment
Praise
Approval
Approval
H.I.P.
Personalize
Cite the Specifics
Students Using Feedback
1.
Reflecting can improve your
performance on your future
assessments by helping you
identify what you did well
and where you can improve.
2.
Without reflection, you keep
doing things in the same way
and never improve.
http://evidencenet.pbworks.com/f/guide+for+students+FINAL.pdf
Helping Students
Reflect on Feedback
What are the main points in this feedback?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
What things attracted positive feedback?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
What things attracted negative feedback?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
How can I use this feedback in a future assessment?
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
The use of technology can
enhance student
engagement with feedback.
Returning feedback online
enables students to receive
feedback in a legible format,
and to engage with it in
privacy. Electronic templates
aligned with assessment
criteria and comment banks
enable feedback to be
generated in a consistent
and equitable way.
http://evidencenet.pbworks.co
m/f/guide+for+academic+staff
+FINAL.pdf

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