Validity of IQ-Achievement Discrepancy as and Indicator of Learning

Report
The Simple View of Reading
Bruce Rosow, Ed.D.
March, 2013
1
4/8/2015
I. Setting the Stage:

National Report Card: NAEP

PISA: International Student Assessment

The Simple View of Reading
Learning to Read
Decoding
Comprehension
2
4/8/2015
NAEP Reading: National Results
NAEP
2011 to 2007
Reading
4th Grade
8th Grade
12th Grade
2009 to
2005
3
Below
Basic
33 %
33 %
24 %
26 %
26 %
27 %
Basic Proficient Advanced
33 %
34 %
42 %
43 %
36 %
38 %
4/8/2015
26 %
25 %
31 %
28 %
33 %
30 %
8%
8%
3%
3%
5%
5%
NAEP Reading: National Results
NAEP
2011 to 1992
Reading
4th Grade
8th Grade
12th Grade
2009 to
1992
4
Below
Basic
33 %
38 %
24 %
31 %
26 %
27 %
Basic Proficient Advanced
33 %
34 %
42 %
40 %
36 %
38 %
4/8/2015
26 %
22 %
31 %
26 %
33 %
30 %
8%
6%
3%
3%
5%
5%
NAEP Reading:
Massachusetts to National Scores
NAEP
Below
2011
Basic
Reading
4th Grade
17 %
vs
33 %
8th Grade
16 %
vs
24 %
5
Basic Proficient Advanced
33 %
vs
33 %
38 %
vs
42 %
4/8/2015
34 %
vs
26 %
40 %
vs 31 %
16%
vs
8%
6%
vs 3 %
NAEP Reading: Massachusetts
Over Time
NAEP
Below
2011
Basic
Reading
4th Grade
17 %
2011 to
vs
1992
26 %
8th Grade
16 %
2011 to
vs
1998
21 %
6
Basic Proficient Advanced
33 %
vs
38 %
38%
vs
42 %
4/8/2015
34 %
vs
29 %
40 %
vs 34 %
16 %
vs
7%
6%
vs 3%
NAEP Reading: National Results
NAEP
2011 high to
low SES
Below
Basic
Basic Proficient Advanced
Reading
7
4th Grade
18 %
50 %
34%
33%
35 %
15 %
13 %
2%
8th Grade
14 %
38 %
41 %
45 %
40 %
16 %
5%
1%
4/8/2015
Wide Disparity
Among Sub-groups

The NAEP and state assessments show large
achievement gaps between subgroups of
students disaggregated by race/ethnicity, and
poverty status.
At 4th grade the gap between:
White and African American students is 27 %
White and Hispanic students is 24 – 26 %.
High to Low SES students is 23 – 25 %
McCombs et al, RAND Report, 2004
8
4/8/2015
2011 Urban District Results
(Washington, D.C.) – Reading scores of fourth- and
eighth-grade students in 21 urban public school
districts on the 2011 National Assessment of
Educational Progress (NAEP) followed the national
trend by remaining mostly flat, with no significant
change from 2009.
9
4/8/2015
SAT and ACT
Since the 1960’s verbal scores on
the SAT have declined by about
.5 SD.
On the ACT, barely 50% are able
to read adequately to manage
college and work-place tasks.
10
4/8/2015
SAT



11
TAMAR LEWIN Published: NY Times September 24, 2012
For the high school class of 2012, the average
score on the critical reading section of the SAT
college entrance exam, 496, was down 1 point from
the previous year, as was the average writing
score, 488.
Also unchanged: only 43 percent of the 1.66 million
test-takers achieved the benchmark score, 1550,
that indicates readiness for college.
Among students whose parents have bachelor’s
degrees, though, 60 percent were college ready.
4/8/2015
SAT / ACT
Dr. Danielle Thompson
The state with the best scores on ACT and SAT
tests is at 42% proficiency. This means that
42% of the students who take the test make the
benchmark score. Meeting benchmark is
correlated with having a 50% chance of
obtaining a 'B' in a college course and a 75%
chance of getting a 'C.' The top state was New
Hampshire. North Dakota only has a 21%
proficiency level, Tennessee is 18%.
12
4/8/2015
Program for International Student
Assessment (PISA), 2009
http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/pisa/
http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2011/2011004_1.pdf
13
4/8/2015
PISA 2009 Reading Literacy: OECD
• U.S. average score of 500 not
measurably different from the
OECD average score of 493
o 6 OECD countries had higher
average scores.
o 14 were not measurably
different from the United
States.
o 13 had lower average scores.
SOURCE: Fleischman et al. (2010). Highlights From PISA 2009:
Performance of U.S. 15-Year-Old Students in Reading,
Mathematics, and Science Literacy in an International Context
(NCES 2011-004) .
1
PISA 2009 Reading Literacy: All
• Among all participants
o 9 had higher average
scores than the United
States.
o 16 were not measurably
different.
o 39 had lower average
scores.
SOURCE: Fleischman et al. (2010). Highlights From PISA 2009:
Performance of U.S. 15-Year-Old Students in Reading,
Mathematics, and Science Literacy in an International Context
(NCES 2011-004) .
1
Scores of U.S.
15-year-old
students on
combined
reading
literacy scale
at selected
percentiles:
2000, 2003,
and 2009
16
4/8/2015
PISA 2009 Reading Proficiency Levels

Highest proficiency level is level 6.

Below level 2 students may not be able to
consistently “make valid comparisons or contrasts”
based on even a single feature in the text or
consistently “recognize the main idea in a text
unless it is prominent” in the text.

At level 4 students are described by PISA as
capable of “difficult reading tasks” and “critically
evaluating” a text.
SOURCE: Fleischman et al. (2010). Highlights From PISA 2009:
Performance of U.S. 15-Year-Old Students in Reading,
Mathematics, and Science Literacy in an International Context
(NCES 2011-004) .
1
U.S. at the OECD Average for
Key Proficiency Levels in Reading
• 18 percent scored
below level 2 (not
measurably different
from OECD).
• 30 percent scored at
or above level 4 (not
measurably different
from OECD).
SOURCE: Fleischman et al. (2010). Highlights From PISA 2009:
Performance of U.S. 15-Year-Old Students in Reading,
Mathematics, and Science Literacy in an International Context
(NCES 2011-004) .
18
Percentage distribution of 15-year-old students in
the United States and OECD countries on combined
reading literacy scale, by proficiency level: 2009
SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation
and Development (OECD), Program for
International Student Assessment (PISA), 2009.
19
4/8/2015
Average U.S. Reading Score
Unchanged From 2000


495

There was no measurable
change in the U.S.
average scores over time.
There was no measurable
difference between U.S.
and the OECD average
scores in 2000 or in 2009.
OECD averages are
based on 27 OECD
member countries that
participated in 2000 and
2009.
SOURCE: Fleischman et al. (2010). Highlights From PISA 2009:
Performance of U.S. 15-Year-Old Students in Reading,
Mathematics, and Science Literacy in an International Context
(NCES 2011-004) .
20
Dr. Danielle Thompson
The big message I took away from it was that we in
the U.S. are doing nothing. We are not learning
form the mistakes of others (e.g. Korea) or from the
success of others (e.g. Finland). And, there are
success in Korea to gain from too. The data of the
PISA tests was pretty much buried when it came out
and Thomas Friedman and Michael Mandelbaulm
talk about that in their book That Use to be Us. I
guess as a country we don't like to be seen as
21 failing.
4/8/2015
What is Good Enough?

To read comics in the newspaper, the
basic level may be enough.

To digest thoughtful essays from which
responsible citizens must understand the
issues to become informed voters, at least
a proficient level would be required.
Caccamise et al., 2005
22
4/8/2015
What is Good Enough?

To reach higher levels of academic
achievement requiring such abilities
as literary criticism and understanding
of science and technology, levels of
proficiency must be reached.
Caccamise et al., 2005
23
4/8/2015
If a child in a modern society like
ours does not learn to read..

Well enough to comprehend

Effortlessly enough to render reading
pleasurable

Fluently enough to read reflectively
and broadly across all content areas
24
4/8/2015
If a child in a modern society like
ours does not learn to read..
He/her chances for a fulfilling life, by
whatever measure- academic
success, financial success, the ability
to find interesting work, personal
autonomy, self-esteem- are
practically nil
E. Mcpike (1995)
25
4/8/2015
If a child in a modern society like
ours does not learn to read..

25% of the adult population in the US are
functionally illiterate (U.S. Dept. Labor)

In the general population between a third and
half of all adults have only very basic literacy
skills. (Carlisle, 2002)

70% or more of low SES, minority children fall
behind early and are not likely to catch up to
grade level
26
4/8/2015
The Higher Education
Income Gap (infoplease.com)
Year
9-12
Grade no
completio
n
HS
Bachelorr’ Master’s
s
Degree
Degree
Doctorate
1990
20,902
26,653
39,328
49,734
57,108
2000
25,095
34,303
56,334
68,322
80,250
2008
33,435
43,165
82,197
99,516
129,773
Women in
2009
21,937
25,000
40,100
54,000
83,762
27
4/8/2015
The Higher Education
Income Gap
Educational attainment, which created the
American middle class, is no longer rising. The
super-elite lavishes unlimited resources on its
children, while public schools are starved of
funding. This is the new Serrata. An elite
education is increasingly available only to
those already at the top. Bill Clinton and
Barack Obama enrolled their daughters in an
exclusive private school.
28 CHRYSTIA FREELAND,
4/8/2015
NY Times, October 12, 2012
The Higher Education
Income Gap
The reality is that it is those at the top,
particularly the tippy-top, of the economic
pyramid who have been most effective at
capturing government support — and at
getting others to pay for it.
CHRYSTIA FREELAND, NY Times, October 12, 2012
29
4/8/2015
The Higher Education
Income Gap
Exhibit A is the bipartisan, $700 billion rescue of Wall
Street in 2008. Exhibit B is the crony recovery. The
economists Emmanuel Saez and Thomas Piketty
found that 93 percent of the income gains from the
2009-10 recovery went to the top 1 percent of
taxpayers. The top 0.01 percent captured 37 percent
of these additional earnings, gaining an average of
$4.2 million per household.
CHRYSTIA FREELAND, NY Times, October 12, 2012
30
4/8/2015
Between 1973 and 1998


In skilled blue-collar, clerical, and related
professions the percentage of workers who were
high school dropouts fell by two thirds while the
percentage of workers with some college or a
college degree more than doubled.
In less-skilled blue-collar service the percentage of
workers who were high school dropouts fell by
nearly half while the percentage of workers with
some college or a college degree tripled
Reading Next Report, 2004
31
4/8/2015
Changing Literacy Demands
The 25 fastest growing professions
have far greater than average literacy
demands, while the 25 fastest
declining professions have lower than
average literacy demands.
Barton, 2000 as cited in the Reading Next
Report, 2004
32
4/8/2015
Juvenile Detainees:

Illiteracy is perhaps the strongest common
denominator among individuals in
corrections (Kidder, 1990)

The average reading level nationally for
ninth grade youth in correctional facilities
is fourth grade (Project Read; 1978).
33
4/8/2015
Juvenile Detainees:
While poor reading skills and poor academic performance
are not direct causes of criminal activity, adolescents who
have deficits in these areas are disproportionately
represented in correctional institutions. Some studies have
explored the correlation between illiteracy and criminal
behavior. They have found that individuals with a low
literacy level are at greater risk for criminal behavior and
incarceration (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1997).
34
4/8/2015
Vermont Juvenile Detainees:
CHSVT

Typically, 50 % of the students under the age of
22 have a prior special education history.

Typically 60- 75% of the students under the age
of 21 enrolled in CHSVT are not functionally
literate.

This year the number of enrolled students was
486.
Mary Koen, CHSVT, 2005
35
4/8/2015
Juvenile Detainees:

36
In order to reduce crime rates and
recidivism of students with disabilities and
ethnic minorities in juvenile corrections,
correctional educators need to incorporate
programs that place a strong emphasis on
literacy development. Advocates for
correctional education believe that
education prevents crime (Pell, 1997).
4/8/2015
Reading is the Reason That Most
“LD” Children Are Identified

At least 85% of the “LD” population are on
IEP’s for serious reading problems and
related issues with spoken and written
language

Most of these children are identified for
services after 3rd grade
37
4/8/2015
“LD” Identification in the WNESU
Eligible for
SPED in
the
WNESU
VT Dept of
Ed.
2003
38
Elementary Bellows
School
Falls
Average
Middle
School
10.9 %
4/8/2015
28 %
Bellows
Falls UHSD
#27
24.2 %
The Importance of
Early Intervention
There was striking continuity in
emergent literacy skills from pre-K
to kindergarten. Individual
differences were set by age four
and quite stable thereafter.
Lonigan, 2003
39
4/8/2015
Meaningful Differences
A majority of children who are judged
to have a reading disability at grade
2 continue to have this classification
at grade eight.
Scarborough (1998)
40
4/8/2015
Meaningful Differences
Only about 5-10% of children who read
satisfactorily in the primary grades ever
stumble later, and 65-75% of children
designated as reading disabled early on
continue to read poorly throughout their
school careers (and beyond).
Scarborough, 2001. Cited in Carlisle, 2002
41
4/8/2015
Children Don’t Catch Up…

Once children fall behind, they are
likely to stay behind and the gap is
likely to widen





42
C. Juel, 1994 (Harvard Graduate School of
Education)
J. Torgesen, K. Stanovich, F. Vellutino (NICHD)
A. Biemiller (Toronto)
R. Good, E. Kame’enui, D. Simmons (U. of Oregon)
S. Shaywitz and J. Fletcher (Connecticut Longitudinal
Study)
4/8/2015
Reading Trajectories Are
Established Early
43
4/8/2015
Traditional Reading Tests Identify
Children Too Late
44
4/8/2015
Established Reading Trajectories Are
Difficult to Change
45
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In other words…
Once behind, children who are poor
readers do not catch up, unless we
intervene specifically and intensively
enough to match their need for
systematic, direct, explicit instruction.
Moats, 2004
46
4/8/2015
Children who are poor readers do
not catch up
If we do not catch students early (by 2nd grade at the
latest), improvement in their relative standing is much
less likely and costs much more. Although many reading
disabilities can be remediated or ameliorated by the end
of first grade with systematic, explicit, phonics-emphasis
instruction (Ryder, Tunmer, & Greaney, 2008; Mathes,
Denton, Fletcher, Anthony, Francis, & Schatschneider,
2005) intensive effort on the part of teachers and
students is required to achieve modest gains once
students are beyond kindergarten and first grade.
Moats, fall, 2012
47
4/8/2015
Children who are poor readers do
not catch up
Morris, Lovett, Wolf, Sevcik, Stinbach, Frijters, & Shapiro
(2012) recently showed that high school poor readers
can improve .5 standard deviations in reading after
expert, intensive, closely monitored, theoretically sound,
comprehensive, integrated instruction was delivered for
70 hours. The teachers in these studies were experts in
the subject matter, were well trained in the methodology
and remedial strategies, and worked with well-defined
populations of students.
Moats, fall, 2012
48
4/8/2015
Children who are poor readers do
not catch up
Aspects of reading instruction promoted by the CCSS
(reading of harder, complex texts; reading aloud; reading
in the content areas; writing arguments) may be
appropriate for older students who already know how to
read and write, but may serve only to frustrate lessskilled students if the text is impossible for them to read
independently and if insufficient attention is devoted to
building the requisite language skills that enable
improvement.
Moats, fall, 2012
49
4/8/2015
Remediation verses Prevention
Torgesen et al., 2003
120
100
80
Accuracy
Rate
60
40
20
0
50
30%ile
10 %ile
2nd %ile
4/8/2015
Prevent
Most Children Can Learn to Read

Nationally, if core classroom instruction conformed
to empirically proven best practice, only about 6%
or less of children should be expected to
experience reading problems requiring secondary
intervention.
Denton and Mathes, 2003

Incidence of “below basic” reading was 5% in the
1st grade regular classrooms where the codebased program was well implemented; very few
children had severe reading problems.
51
Foorman and Moats, 2003
4/8/2015
What Do We Know?




Too many students are not reading proficiently.
Many students are identified for poor reading
in the intermediate grades or later.
Many students who are struggling readers go
unidentified.
Being unable to read with skill increases the
risk of a host of educational, vocational and
social problems.
52
4/8/2015
II. The Reading Brain

Brain growth in young children

The Simple View of Reading

The PDP Model for Reading
Phonological Processor
Orthographic Processor
Meaning Processor
Context Processor
53
4/8/2015
What Do We Know About Brain
Development?



54
Most neural cells are formed in the first 4
months of gestation.
Neural cell migration is only ½ complete at
birth.
Brain weight at:
birth = 400 g
11 months = 850 g
3 years old = 1100 g
4/8/2015
Neurons Connect at Synapses

The forming of synaptic connections begins
at about 7 weeks after conception and
continues throughout life, but especially in
the first two years.

Neurons that are hooked up but not used
may die (cell pruning). Thus, synaptic
connectivity is greatly shaped by
experience.
Berninger and Richards, 2002
55
4/8/2015
Two Neurons
56
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Brain Plasticity
in Response to Instruction
Brain growth after birth is mainly
attributed to the branching and
sprouting of dendrites, the “magic
trees of mind” in response to
experience.
Diamond & Hopson 1998.
57
4/8/2015
Brain Plasticity
in Response to Instruction
Experience changes dendrites in
specific ways. In older adults the
density of dendritic branching was
correlated with years of education.
(Berninger and Richards, 2002)
58
4/8/2015
The Simple View of Reading
R=DXC
Reading does not equal the sum of
decoding and comprehension, for neither
decoding in the absence of
comprehension, nor comprehension in the
absence of decoding, leads to any amount
of reading.
Gough, Hoover and Peterson, (1990)
59
4/8/2015
The Simple View of Reading
R= D
X
C
Learning to Read
Reading to Learn
Decoding Fluency
Vocabulary
Phonological
Processing
Print Knowledge
60
Oral Language
Semantics
Syntax
World Knowledge
4/8/2015
Reading = Decoding X Comprehension
Comprehension Monitoring
Strategies Instruction
Oral Language Development
Vocabulary Knowledge
Reading Fluency
Phonics, Word Study, and Spelling
Letter Name Knowledge
Phonemic Awareness+
Reading = Decoding X Comprehension
Tunmer, W. E. & Chapman, J. W. (2012)
The SVR is based on the idea that the
children’s fundamental task in learning to
read is to discover how print maps onto
their existing spoken language.
Reading = Decoding X Comprehension
Tunmer, W. E. & Chapman, J. W. (2012)
The process of learning to derive meaning
from print can therefore be adversely
affected in one of two ways, or both:
1. The child’s spoken language system
may be deficient in various ways, or
2. the process by which print is connected
to the child’s spoken language system
may be defective.
What Characterizes a Poor
Reader?


Specific weaknesses in phonological
processing, letter knowledge, and alphabetic
understanding predict reading outcomes, K-2
“Lower level” processing difficulties with the
alphabetic code:





64
phoneme awareness, phonological memory
letter naming speed
knowledge of sound-symbol correspondences
accuracy and fluency of word recognition
Vocabulary, knowledge of literate language (as
children get older)
4/8/2015
Let’s Learn How to Read
Together we will experience what
emergent reading is about by putting
ourselves in the shoes of a beginning
reader and taking the alphabetic system
out for a walk.
This experience comes to you care of Dr.
Louisa Moats.
Areas of the Brain
66
4/8/2015
Four Part Processing System for
Reading
Context
Processor
Meaning
Processor
vocabulary
speech
sound system
letter memory
phonics
Phonological
Processor
speech output
67
background information
sentence context
Orthographic
Processor
writing output
4/8/2015
reading input
The Phonological Processor
How many speech sounds in:
eighth ___
squawked _____
Reverse the speech sounds to make a new word
zone ____
toga ____
What’s the third speech sound in:
exact ____
68
extra ______
4/8/2015
Phonological Sensitivity
The most powerful predictors of later reading
and writing skills …turned out to be those
requiring phonological awareness,
specifically the analytic ability to manipulate
phonemes in words.
Lieberman et al., 1989
69
4/8/2015
The Phonological Processor:
Broca’s Area; the Inferior Frontal Gurus
The Inferior Frontal
Gyrus
Broadmann Areas 6/44
Associated with:
 phonological recoding
during reading
 phonological memory and
 syntactical processing
**F 15.11
70
4/8/2015
Inferior Frontal Gyrus Deficits:
Three different symptoms
Broca’s Aphasia: disrupted speech including:

articulation that is slow and non-fluent

mispronounced words

great difficulty saying function words

Much stronger receptive than expressive
language.
71
4/8/2015
Inferior Frontal Gyrus Deficits:
Anomia

IF poor perception THEN poor quality of
representation or coding.

IF poor coding THEN poor durability in
storage.

IF poor durability in storage THEN poor
retrieval.
Smith, Simmons and Kameenui, 1998
72
4/8/2015
Inferior Frontal Gyrus Deficits:
Three different symptoms
Anomia: the inability to retrieve words.

In Ancient Egypt they wrote in hydraulics.
Areas of the dessert were cultivated by
irritation.

Sir Francis Drake circumcised the world with
a 100-foot clipper.
From Anguished English. Richard Lederer, 1989
73
4/8/2015
Inferior Frontal Gyrus Deficits:
Three different symptoms
Carlson (2004) lists these symptoms
in a hierarchy beginning with:
 articulation difficulties, then
 anomia (losing the programs for
individual words), and finally
 grammatical processing.
74
4/8/2015
Four Part Processing System for
Reading
Context
Processor
Meaning
Processor
vocabulary
speech
sound system
letter memory
phonics
Phonological
Processor
speech output
75
background information
sentence context
Orthographic
Processor
writing output
4/8/2015
reading input
The Orthographic Processor
Nottinghamshire
Panjalamcoorchy
Swami Chetanananda
76
4/8/2015
The Orthographic Processor
gerentomorphosis
Karivaradharajan
Adams, 1990
77
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The Orthographic Processor
The Ventral System
78
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The Orthographic Processor
The Ventral System
“Moving anteriorly though the ventral system, subregions respond to word and word-like stimuli in a
progressively abstracted and linguistic manner.”
(Sandak et al., p. 275)
The most posterior (extrstriatal) components are
activated very early responding ‘indiscriminately’
to letters and letter strings.
79
4/8/2015
The Orthographic Processor
The Ventral System
The pattern recognition components of the VWFA
respond more actively to orthographically regular
pseudowords as well as real words.
Extending anteriorly (forward) into the middle and
inferior temporal gyri (MTG, ITG) these regions
processes semantic information and are most
sensitive to real words compared to pseudowords or letter strings possibly signifying the
activation of semantic processes.
80
4/8/2015
The Orthographic Processor
81
4/8/2015
Four Part Processing System for
Reading
Context
Processor
Meaning
Processor
vocabulary
speech
sound system
letter memory
phonics
Phonological
Processor
speech output
82
background information
sentence context
Orthographic
Processor
writing output
4/8/2015
reading input
The Angular Gyrus in the
The Dorsal Stream
Sandak at al. found that the angular
gyrus in the dorsal system and middle-
inferior temporal gyri in the ventral
system appear to have abstract lexico-
semantic functions.
(Sandak et al., 2004. p 284)
83
4/8/2015
Parallel Processing: The Phonological
and Meaning Processors
Soda wicket woof tucker shirt
court, end whinny retched a
cordage offer groin murder, pick
dinner window an sore debtor
pore oil worming worse lion
inner bet.
84
Ladle Rat Rotten Hut
Cited in Adams, 1990
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Four Part Processing System for
Reading
Context
Processor
Meaning
Processor
vocabulary
speech
sound system
letter memory
phonics
Phonological
Processor
speech output
85
background information
sentence context
Orthographic
Processor
writing output
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reading input
The Meaning & Contextual Processors
Disambiguate Headline News
Child’s Stool Great for Use in Garden
Stud Tires Out
Drunk Gets Nine Months in Violin Case
Iraqi Head Seeks Arms
86
C/O Pinker, 1994
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Brain: Functional Neuroanatomy

Each processing system operates in a
distinct region of the left brain.

Rapid communication among regions is
essential.

Reading problems can originate in one
or several systems.
All systems must be educated.
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Decoding
Susan Brady (2012)
To understand the content of text, whether a
story or an informational piece, one must be
able to access the words in print. Ultimately a
skilled reader achieves a huge sight word
vocabulary—meaning that the words, whether
regular or not, are recognized quickly and
without effort. To reach that goal, the reader
has to understand how the writing code works,
as that is how the sounds in spoken words are
represented in writing.
Decoding
Susan Brady (2012)
Children who learn the code system
quickly and well generally become strong
readers, engage in wider reading, and
have more opportunities to increase word
recognition, vocabulary, world knowledge,
and understanding of text features.
Decoding
Susan Brady (2012)
Those who struggle to learn the code too
often fail to catch up, experience many
fewer of the benefits skilled reading
affords, and are likely to have reading
comprehension problems
(e.g., Wagner & Ridgewell, 2009).
Decoding
Susan Brady (2012)
Competence in decoding involves further
knowledge that pertains to vowel syllable
patterns, multisyllabic words, and
understanding of morphological structures.
This knowledge serves expansion of word
recognition skills across grades.
Word Study:
Sequence of Instruction
The sequence begins with aspects of
teaching phonological awareness and
letter-sound correspondences in the early
primary years and then proceeds to
instruction of common syllable patterns.
Morpheme patterns are introduced in later
grades.
Marcia Henry, (1997)
Beyond PA and Phonics:
Teach Word Study
The student must learn that words
can be broken down in several
ways; That words are made of letters
that have sounds; and that words are
made up of syllables and
morphemes.
Marcia Henry (1988)
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Decoding
Susan Brady (2012)
Every time a student encounters a word that
has not been seen before in print
(estimated in one upper-elementary grade
to occur approximately 10,000 times
(Nagy & Anderson,1984)), decoding
prowess constitutes the major factor in
students’ ability to accurately identify the
word.
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Emergent Decoding: Tangel & Blackman, 1999
“Train” students to Read and Spell
1. KLMPARP
4. TRAN, JRAN
2. J, G, CH, R
5. TRANE, TRAYN
3. JRA, TAN, HAN
6. TRAIN
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Silly Bulls: Grabbing bull by horns
The Vowel is the Glue in a Syllable
1. prcpn,
swd,
nnsns
dmtr,
2. p♠rc♠p♠n♠,
s♠♠w♠♠d,
♠d♠m♠t♠r, n♠ns♠ns♠
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Why Teach Syllables?
To remember vowel spellings:
written, writing
grapple, maple
To “chunk” unfamiliar words quickly:
ac com plish
re in car na tion
To distinguish similar words:
hopping, hoping
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sloping, slopping
Syllabification Simulation
Once upon a gymbeff,
a taundy rapsig
named Gub found a tix
of pertollic asquees.
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Syllabification Simulation
Once u pon a gym beff,
a taun dy rap sig
named Gub found a tix
of per tol lic as quees.
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Teach Syllable Accent
 Use Homographs (same Writing):
 ob ject / ob ject
con duct / conduct
 Schwa Vowel Detective:
ton, cot ton // pen, o pen // pet, car pet
age, im age // tain, cap tain // ten, rot ten
• Call Your Dog!
100
re PUG nant
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Lesson 4, Comic Conduct
Exercise #6: Identical Twins
subject (noun)- Recess is my favourite subject in school.
subject (verb)- We subject you to the study of homographs
to learn about syllable accent.
object (noun)- That weird looking object is your brother’s
head.
object (verb)- I object to this use of my brother’s head and
feel that we are heading in the wrong direction.
Lesson 2, Closed Up:
Exercise #8: Schwash Your Mouth
pen
ton
ban
est
fort
lop
son
happen
carton
turban
slimmest
effort
gallop
lesson
pet
gel
gus
tom
ten
lon
den
trumpet
angel
fungus
custom
kitten
gallon
sudden
Teach Syllable Accent
Call Your Dog!
re PUG nant
PACH y derm
CAN ta lope
mal O do rous
hip po POT a mus
an thro po MOR phic
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Teach Syllable Accent Patterns.
payment
absorb
projector
attract
ascribing
interrupt
disconnected
defendant
uninstructed
educate constitute
irrigate
promenade
ineptitude
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Upper Grade Content Reading
A transversal is a line that intersects two
or more coplanar lines in different
points. In the next diagram, t is a
transversal of h and k.
At first the dragonfly nymph will feed on
the many microscopic creatures that
live in the pond.
Upper Grade Content Reading
Latin and Norman Influence
A transversal is a line that intersects two or
more coplanar lines in different points.
In the diagram, t is a transversal of h and k.
At first the dragonfly nymph will feed on the
many microscopic creatures that live in
the pond.
Upper Grade Content Reading
Add Greek Influence
A transversal is a line that intersects two or
more coplanar lines in different points.
In the diagram, t is a transversal of h and k.
At first the dragonfly nymph will feed on the
many microscopic creatures that live in
the pond.
Principles for Instruction

Developmental Sequence
- Simple and Common
- to More Complex and Specialized.

Transparency
- perfect vs. perform

Productivity
- reject, project, inject, abject, object, …
- brontosaurus, Tyrannosaurus, Cryptosaurus,
spherosaurus, Brookosaurus, Idaosaurus…
English Is a “Deep” Alphabetic
System
We spell by sound and by meaning:

wanted, hummed, pitched

boys, dishes,

compress, compression

medic, medicine, medicinal
In spite of changes in pronunciation,
morphemes are often spelled consistently.
metal / metallic
heal / health
sign / signal
reside / residence
soft / soften
music / musician
child / children
critic / criticize
In spite of changes in pronunciation,
morphemes are often spelled consistently.
metal / metallic
heal / health
sign / signal
reside / residence
soft / soften
music / musician
child / children
critic / criticize
The Meaning Processor
 dejection
 construct
 rejection
 instruction
 objection
 in
 injector
 obstruction
 projector
 re
destructible
construction
Parking Lot Method
1. Transcription and Parking Spots
poplay / probably
Parking Lot Method
1. Transcription and Parking Spots
poplay / probably
__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
/p
r
ŏ
b
ә
b
l
Ē/
Parking Lot Method
2. Park the letters
poplay / probably
p __
o __ __ p
l ay
/p
ŏ b
l Ē/
l y
r
ә
b
3. Identify the boo-boos
Parking Lot Method
1. Transcription and Parking Spots
maniths / mammoths
Parking Lot Method
1. Transcription and Parking Spots
maniths / mammoths
__ __ __ __ __ __
/m
ă
m
ә
Ө
s /
Parking Lot Method
2. Park the letters
maniths / mammoths
m a n
i th s
/m ă m ә Ө s /
mm o
3. Identify the boo-boos
Parking Lot Method
1. Transcription and Parking Spots
imeditly / immediately
Parking Lot Method
1. Transcription and Parking Spots
imeditly / immediately
__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
/ә m
Ē
d
Ē
ә
t
l
Ē /
Parking Lot Method
2. Park the letters
imeditly / immediately
i m e d i __ t l y
/ә m Ē d Ē ә t l y/
im
ate
3. Identify the boo-boos
The Simple View of Reading
R= D
X
C
Learning to Read
Reading to Learn
Decoding Fluency
Vocabulary
Phonological
Processing
Print Knowledge
122
Oral Language
Semantics
Syntax
World Knowledge
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Reading = Decoding X Comprehension
Tunmer, W. E. & Chapman, J. W. (2012)
Studies report that D and C each made significant
independent contributions to the variance in R
(e.g., Aaron et al., 2008; Hoover & Gough, 1990; Sabatini,
Sawaki, Shore, & Scarborough, 2010; Vellutino et al., 2007).
Research has further shown that the amount of shared
variance between D and C increases with grade level,
with correlation coefficients in the later grades ranging
from about .30 to .70 (Hoover & Tunmer, 1993; Keenan,
Betjemann, & Olson, 2008).
Reading = Decoding X Comprehension
Tunmer, W. E. & Chapman, J. W. (2012)
Tunmer and Hoover (1993) argued that the
substantial amount of shared variance between
D and C in the later grades is most likely a
consequence of the reciprocally facilitating
relationships between reading achievement and
the two constituent components of reading, a
pattern referred to as positive (rich-get-richer)
Matthew effects (Stanovich, 1986).
Oral Language: Vocabulary


Vocabulary is associated with good text
comprehension, but there is evidence for a
relation with word reading as well.
Harm and Seidenberg (2004) suggest a
direct link from the written to the semantic
representation exists for familiar words in
their connectionist model.
Cain & Oakhill (2006)
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Reading = Decoding X Comprehension
Tunmer, W. E. & Chapman, J. W. (2012)
As children become better readers, both the amount
and difficulty of the material they read increases. This
in turn leads to:




greater practice opportunities for building fluency and
facilitating implicit learning of letter–sound patterns (which
improves D; see Tunmer & Nicholson, 2011),
growth in vocabulary knowledge,
ability to comprehend more syntactically complex sentences,
development of richer and more elaborate knowledge bases
(which improves C).
Reading = Decoding X Comprehension
Tunmer, W. E. & Chapman, J. W. (2012)
The correlation between C and R increases with
grade level whereas that between D and R
tends to decrease (Hoover & Tunmer, 1993).
The relationship between C and R gradually
becomes the dominant one because in the early
stages of learning to read the ability to
recognize the words of text limits the ability to
derive meaning from text.
Reading =
Decoding
X
Comprehension
Regardless of instructional orientation, be
it whole language or skills inculcation,
there is a broad base of agreement that
the most important goal of reading
education is to develop readers who can
derive meaning from texts.
Pressley, 1997
Meaningful from the Start
A comprehensive reading program attends to
meaning from the start. Oral language
development, vocabulary development, the
steady building of background knowledge,
extensive exposure to quality children’s
literature, discussion and retelling and
dramatization of stories should begin with
the earliest years of schooling.
Moats, 1998
What About
Comprehension Instruction?
Most older struggling readers can
read words accurately, but they
do not comprehend what they
read.
Reading Next, 2004
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The State of Reading
Comprehension Instruction
Despite the best efforts of teachers and the
seeming attentiveness of students, students
often fail to understand the ideas presented in
their textbooks. In particular, students often are
unable to connect the ideas they have
encountered to information that is presented
later.
Beck, 1998
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The State of Reading
Comprehension Instruction
It’s about the Boston Tea Party, and it’s
about a whole bunch of, like, they were
bringing loads over and it was rotten,
and all that, so they went back and got
more loads and dumped all the tea into
the water and stuff like that.
8th Grade Student quoted in Beck, 2001
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Strategies Instruction
Teachers frequently assessed
comprehension by asking students
comprehension questions. However,
they did not actually teach students
how to comprehend.
in Pressley, 1997
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The Construction Integration Model

Discourse processing occurs in a series of
cycles.

In each cycle there is a construction phase
and an integration phase.

Bottom up and top down.
Kintsch, 1988
A Procedure
The procedure is actually quite simple. First you
arrange things into different groups depending
on their makeup. Of course, one pile may be
sufficient depending on how much there is to
do. If you have to go somewhere else due to
lack of facilities, that is the next step; otherwise
you are pretty well set. It’s better to do too few
things at once than too many.
A Medical Resident
Arrives for Work
Angie rushed through the doors of the old brick
building. She almost ran straight into a shadow
gazer talking grim-faced with a blade. With a
quick apology, she brushed past them for the
pup rounds. She had to know if things were
zero delta with yesterday’s first hit. After all,
what looked like a soapbox derby had turned
into a bounce-back. No matter what happened
overnight. It would make a great story to tell
her father, the rear admiral.
The Construction Integration Model
Comprehension consists of building a mental
structure based both on information in the
text and on information in memory. Initial
information lays a foundation, and
subsequent sentences are mapped onto the
foundation to reflect both local relations and
the topic structure.
Gernsbacher, 1990
The Construction Integration Model
Poor comprehenders develop too many
unconnected substructures rather than
a fully integrated mental representation.
Too many substructures are built that do
not really connect to the real structure of
the text.
Whitney, 1998
Scrambling the Order
of Sentences in a Story
74%
72%
70%
68%
regular
scrambled
66%
64%
62%
60%
High
Low
Walter Kintsch (2005)
Both top-down and bottom-up processes
are integral parts of perception,
problem-solving, and comprehension.
The question for theorists is not topdown or bottom-up, but how do these
processes interact to produce fluent
comprehension?
C includes the component processes of:
Tunmer, W. E. & Chapman, J. W. (2012)
Locating individual words in lexical memory,
Determining the intended meaning of individual
words (most of which are polysemous in English),
Assigning appropriate syntactic structures to
sentences,
Deriving meaning from individually structured
sentences, and
Building meaningful discourse on the basis of
sentential meaning.
Oral Language: Vocabulary
Children begin to learn words by their first
birthday, and by their second they hoover
them up at a rate of one every two hours. By
the time they enter school children command
13,000 words, and then the pace picks up,
because new words rain down on them from
both speech and print. A typical high-school
graduate knows about 60,000 words; a
literate adult, perhaps twice that number.
Steven Pinker (1999)
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Area of Convergence #1
Vocabulary differences among students is
extensive, grows over time, and becomes
apparent early.
Smith (1941) reported that high achieving
third graders had vocabularies that were
about equal to those of low-achieving
twelfth graders.
Baker, Simmons and Kameenui, 1998 (pp 188-189)
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Vocabulary Instruction
We can directly access the meanings
of only the words we already know.
The referents of new words can be
verbally explained only in terms of
old words.
Adams, 1990 (p 205)
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Vocabulary Instruction
This can be done either explicitly, by
presenting their definitions, or implicitly,
by setting them in a context of old
words that effectively constrain their
meanings.
Adams, 1990 (p 205)
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Vocabulary Instruction
Students who knew more word meanings prior
to studying unknown words learned the
meanings of more new words after studying.
Prior knowledge contributes more to
vocabulary learning than memorization
strategies.
146
Griswold, (1987), cited in Baker et al. (1998 p 196)
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Vocabulary Instruction
There is no evidence that any single method or
comprehensive program seriously decreases
the vocabulary gap that exists between
students with poor vocabularies and those
with rich vocabularies.
Carlisle, 2002 (p 185)
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Fast Mapping vs.
Extended Mapping

Fast mapping: learning a cursory meaning
of a new word quickly through an initial
exposure.

Extended Mapping: Full understanding of
a word’s meaning in various contexts and
connotative associations. EM sometimes
takes years and many experiences with a
word.
Carey (1978) cited in Baker et al. (1998, p 195)
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Fast Mapping vs.
Extended Mapping

School-aged children may be working on
as many as 1,600 word mappings
simultaneously. So, if a student learns the
meaning of 8 new vocabulary words per
day, the majority of those words are
learned only at a very basic level of
understanding.
Carey (1978) cited in Baker et al. (1998, p 195)
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Inflexible Word Learning Strategies


Acquiring the meaning of words begins with a
rough formulation of word meaning followed
by empty slots reserved for additional
information.
Students with poor vocabularies had
difficulties adjusting their model of word
meaning when they acquired new information
about the meaning of a word.
Van Daalen-Kapteijns et al. cited in Baker et al. (1998, p 197)
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Words are Slippery Customers
Trying to expand children’s vocabularies by
teaching them words one by one, ten by
ten, or even 100 by 100 would appear to
be an exercise in futility. Vocabulary
instruction ought, instead to teach skills
and strategies that would help children
become independent word learners.
Nagy and Anderson (1984) cited in Baker et al. (1998,
p 199)
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Top Down:
Knowledge of Text Structure
Narrative
Story Grammars
Expository
Sequence
Descriptive
Enumeration
Compare / Contrast
Problem / Solution / Effect
Strategies Instruction:
Knowledge of Text Structure
Text structure and student
knowledge of text structure are
highly related to reading
comprehension.
Dickson, Simmons & Kameenui, 1998
Strategies Instruction:
Knowledge of Text Structure
A reader uses a particular arrangement of
ideas and information (the structure of a
text) as a kind of framework into which
individual events or pieces of information
are fit. Without knowledge of the structure
of a written text, a reader’s understanding
may be fragmented and poorly organized,
and recall of the text is jeopardized.
Carlisle, 2002
The Dragonfly:
Life in Two Worlds
For butterflies, bees, and many other insects,
metamorphosis means a change from a
slow-moving larva that does little but eat
and store energy to a winged creature that
can fly through the air to find a mate and a
new home. But for the dragonfly,
metamorphosis brings an even more
amazing change. In the course of its life,
this insect lives in two completely different
worlds.
The Dragonfly:
Life in Two Worlds
META MORPHO SIS
(change) (shape / form) (N)
Dragonfly
Many Insects
Butterflies / bees
From: larva
Eats, stores energy
To: winged flier
Find mate & home
BUT
More Amazing
From: 1 World
To: A different
world
Reading Strategies
In the Content Areas
The idea is that content-area teachers
emphasize the reading and writing
practices that are specific to their subjects
so students are encouraged to read and
write like historians, scientists,
mathematicians, and other subject-area
experts.
Reading Next, 2004
Circling the Wagons
Adolescents entering the adult world in
the 21st century will read and write
more than at any time in human
history. They will need advanced
levels of literacy to perform their jobs,
run their households, act as citizens,
and conduct their personal lives.
Circling the Wagons
They will need literacy to cope with
the flood of information they will
find everywhere they turn. They
will need literacy to feed their
imaginations so they can create
the world of the future.
Position Statement from the International Reading
Association, 1999
The Simple View of Reading
Bruce Rosow, Ed.D.
March, 2013
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