Inquiry-Based Learning Cory Laverty @ your Education Library What is Inquiry? • Originates with John Dewey’s philosophy that education begins with the curiosity of the learner. • Focuses on guiding students through research process. • Driven by questions of interest rather than general topics. • Involves teacher-librarian/ teacher team to model and build inquiry and information literacy skills. • Coaches students as they go. • Assesses progress in developing inquiry skills as well as understanding of content. Sketch a concept or mind map of inquiry skills you’ve seen in the classroom or discussed in your program. Why Use Inquiry? Provides opportunity for best teaching and learning strategies: • Small-group participation in various contexts. • Reality-based authentic learning problems. • Interdisciplinary and multicultural approaches. • Engages learner through their interests. • Foundation for lifelong learning. • Develop a culture of asking questions. • Alternative assessments. • Home-school partnerships. • Constructivist approach. • Stimulating classroom environment NCTE 21st- Century Standards for Literacy • Develop proficiency with technology. • Build relationships to pose and solve problems collaboratively and cross-culturally. • Design and share information for global communities. • Manage, analyze and synthesize information. • Create, critique, analyze, and evaluate multi-media texts. • Attend to ethical responsibilities. National Council of Teachers of English. (2008). Towards a definition of 21st-century literacies. David Warlick: Redefining Literacy Redefining Literacy: The 3Rs become the 4Es Reading Writing Arithmetic Ethics Exposing knowledge Expressing ideas Employing information Ethical use Information is power and property: assess, respect, and maintain it Warlick, D.F. (2004). Redefining literacy for the 21st century. Worthington, OH: Linworth. Decode info. esp. multimedia Construct digital libraries Competing content Be compelling Use multimedia Use numbers to solve problems Use software to manipulate info. Ontario Model for Inquiry Learning Ontario School Library Association. (2010). Together for learning: School libraries and the emergence of the learning commons: A vision for the 21st century. Toronto: OSLA. Inquiry Learning Outcomes Inquiry Skills to Research “Cocooning”: Civics Stage 1: Exploring The problem of no question: • What information are you looking for? Copying of facts leads to patchwork information and no interpretation. • Problem with the notion of "knowledge telling" (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1985) that dominates broad inquiry tasks. Bereiter, C. & Scardamalia, M. (1985). Cognitive coping strategies and the problem of “inert knowledge”. In S. F. Chipman, J. W. Segal, & R. Glaser (Eds.), Thinking and learning skills: Research and open questions (vol. 2, pp. 65-80). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Creating Good Questions Activity: In one minute, brainstorm questions around cocooning. Use 5Ws prompts: who – what – when – where – why - how How to sort and group questions? • Use Bloom’s if you want to focus on more critical thinking. • Great Question Press for ideas on re-stating questions. Teaching Strategy: • Model process using think-aloud • Students brainstorm for questions in groups, sort, prioritize • Student applies to individual topic and gets peer feedback Creating Good Questions Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Remember Understand Apply Analyze Evaluate Create list summarize classify order rank combine describe interpret experiment explain assess plan outline illustrate calculate differentiate conclude compose label paraphrase solve organize compare design state explain relate interpret predict mash-up demonstrate integrate hypothesize identify Stage 2: Investigating Where do you send students for information? An assignment should name appropriate reference types and students should be shown how to find them. Teaching Strategy: • Work with teacher-librarian to introduce resources appropriate to topics • TDSB website as model: http://www.tdsb.on.ca/libraries/cat.asp?schoolNo=9 • Knowledge Ontario databases for all Ontario schools • Video-streaming resource for all Ontario schools: Learn360 and Access Learning • Searching the Web: search methods: what would you teach? Teaching Web Searching Download web searching guide at Education Library Use Google search lessons for sequential learning Watch How Search Works in You Tube Make concept map of resources on the web Introduce Google Scholar, Google Books, Google Earth Test all operators and compare searches on web and between resources. Stage 3: Processing Notetaking: Think Literacy documents and handout on EL website; understanding plagiarism – You Quote It, You Note It Evaluation of sources Search cocooning in Wikipedia and on the web. What methods would you use to evaluate results? Organization of ideas: graphic organizers in SMART Ideas Documentation of sources BibMe and Citation Machine Copyright Evaluating Websites • • • • How to evaluate information? Meaning? Select 3 websites and a create list of evaluation criteria. Class creates evaluation checklist. How to decide what are good criteria (purpose of the task – what is good/useful information) • Test your criteria by ranking 5 sites. • In groups, take on specific role (author, bias, content) and compare ranking of sites across groups. • Include criteria for inclusion on inquiry project. Stage 4: Creating Creating: digital tools Your recommendations? Assessment: diagnostic – formative – summative Presenting: PowerPoint/Prezi does not offer evidence of critical thinking Consider addition of annotated bibliography and interactive presentations Sharing and Creative Commons New Skills? Draw a ring around what your existing concept map. Add an outer layer showing what additional skills you would teach or how you would teach a skill differently. Please leave the maps here. Inquiry in the Future? What will inquiry look like in the future? The medium is the message? The machine is us. The message is us. Advertised: World-wide information and collaboration. We can be experts in everything. Reality: Multimodal texts where everyone is an author. Cognitive demands need to be recognized by teachers and students.