Cameras

Report
MIDN 1/C Hansen, MIDN 1/C Fincher, MIDN 1/C Keith,
MIDN 1/C Noyola, MIDN 1/C Topp
Advisor: CAPT Nicholson, USN
Problem Statement
To design an autonomous underwater
vehicle to compete in the annual
Association of Unmanned Vehicle
Systems International and Office of Naval
Research AUV competition in San Diego.
Background
 Competition
• 6th year competing
• Placed highly in recent competitions
 Current Strengths
• Navigation by dead reckoning using DVL
 Current Weaknesses
• No mission devices (grabber, launcher,
etc.)
• Sensors are not fully integrated
Competition
• 15th Annual Robosub
Competition
• This year’s theme: The
Ides of March
• Consists of a series of
underwater obstacles
• Points awarded for
completion of
obstacles (partial credit
discretionary)
• It is not required that
you attempt every
obstacle
Research
• Other Team Projects (Top Three)
1)
2)
3)
Team Sonia ETS
Cornell
University of Florida
• Experience of former team
members and our advisor
Parts List
Reused Parts
SeaCon Conectors
Quantity
Cost
11
$
Total
110
Wireless Network
Components
Daylight Readable
Laptops
2
$
3,379.95
Keller America
Leverage Pressure
Sensor
1
$
200.00
Technodyne Model
300 Thrusters
6
$
2,804.88
NiMH Batteries
6
$
28.95
Reused Parts
$
1210.00
$
379.96
$
$
6,759.90
200.00
$ 16,829.28
$
1
$
Teledyne DVL
1
$ 28,100.00
$ 28,100.00
Filter and A/D Board
4
$
17.76
$
71.04
Multi-Current Smart
Charger
4
$
29.95
$
119.80
Underwater Switch
for Divers
1
$
55.53
$
55.53
$
Cost
Total
PNI TCM2.6 Compass
2
$
1,679.00
$
3,358.00
Router
2
$
150.00
$
300.00
Buoy and Tether
1
$
COGNEX IS5400-C
Color Sensor
2
$
7,210.00
IS Right Angle Ethernet
Cable
4
$
180.00
$
720.00
IS Right Angle Power
Cable
4
$
170.00
$
680.00
Power Distribution
Circuit
4
$
83.00
$
332.00
$
245.10
$
245.10
$
36.95
$
73.90
30
$
30
$ 14,420.00
173.7
ALP-365 Acoustic
Locator Flexi-Pinger
999.00
Quantity
999.00
Power Circuit Parts
Xbee Pro 60mW series
2
Total Old Materials (estimate)
$75,000
Parts List
New Parts
Quantity
Cost
Total
Wires
Caswell 1/8”
Stainless Shafts
5
$
2.75
Caswell Rotary
Seals
12
$
2.00
$
12.00
$
13.75
$
24.00
$
10
$ 123.75 x1
$ 134.55 x1
$
258.30
$
25
$
25
95.00
$
95.00
Fiberglass
(Frame)
$
145
Torpedo System
$
30
Dropper System
New SeaCon
Connectors
2
Pelican 1120
Case
1
Pelican 1450
Case
1
$
Total New Materials (estimate)
Total Materials (estimate)
$615
$75,615
Functiona
l Block
Diagram
Demonstration Plan

Follow Path
•
•

Buoys
•
•

Actuator triggered by the cameras
Use the cameras to fine tune the position
PVC
•
•

Navigate through gates using Dead Reckoning
Implement cameras for primary navigation
Bins
•
•

Use cameras to identify correct buoy
Use cameras to fine tune position
Gates
•
•

Navigate with Dead Reckoning
Implement cameras for primary navigation
Pick up the PVC and surface
Return PVC to original position and resurface
Surfacing through Octagon
•
•
Utilize SONAR (passive) to identify correct octagon
Utilize SONAR (passive) to navigate to correct octagon
Responsibility Breakdown
Cameras
Fincher
Code
Frame
Actuators
Wiring
P
S
P
S
P
S
P
S
Hansen
P
Keith
Noyola
Topp
SONAR
S
P
Key:
P = Primary
S = Secondary
Frame and Actuators
MIDN 1/C Hansen
MIDN 1/C Noyola
Frame Design
• Increase adaptability
• Allow more room for
actuators
• Allow for future
modifications
Grabber Design
Figure 1: Pin design
Figure 2: Wheel design
Figure 3: Target to be picked up
Torpedo Design
Figure 5: Torperdo launcher
Figure 4: Torpedo targets
Dropper Design
Figure 6: Dropper design
Figure 7: Dropper targets (Bins)
Wiring
MIDN 1/C Hansen
Wiring Example
*Kill Switch Board*
Thrusters
(wire #1
from each)
Fwd Down
Aft Down
Port
To Camera
Box Light
(#5)
Stbd
Kill Switch Relay
Kill Switch Power
Wiring Example
Software
MIDN 1/C Topp
Background: Navigation
• Programmed in C & run in Linux
• In the past, the groups have relied heavily on
waypoint navigation.
– Essentially, the groups would enter a specific
point based on the fix of the vehicle & would have
the vehicle navigate to the point.
• Previous groups have attempted to use
camera navigation but have been
unsuccessful.
• Our goal is to successfully implement camera
vision into our system navigation.
Basics of the Code
• Essentially, we use a shared memory function to
store all of the necessary variables
– This allows variables to be called up in several different
programs & be stored to one common function.
• Ex: In the “maneuver.c” program, there is a switch function
based on case numbers
–
–
–
–
case 0 = maintain position
case 1 = waypoint navigation
case 2 = camera navigation
case 3 = SONAR navigation
• In the “forward camera.c” program, if a buoy or a bin is
detected, the following line of code is executed:
– shm_struc->positionControlMode = 2;
• This stores “2” as the positionControlMode variable through the
shared memory function. This variable can then be recalled in
the “maneuver.c” program, activating camera navigation.
Waypoint Navigation
• Historically, this has been the most reliable
method of navigation for the vehicle.
• Takes a reading from the DVL (using
compass and speed over ground) and
navigates the AUV to the desired
waypoint.
• Will use this for most obstacles except the
buoy and bins obstacle.
Buoy Obstacle
• The officials will release a certain order of
colors to hit.
• A menu pops up prompting the user to
choose a color.
• The choice of color stores variables xRed,
yRed, etc.
• Camera vision navigation is then
implemented to navigate to desired buoy.
Camera Vision: Basics
• The forward camera outputs a certain string
of numbers:
– 1 = passing, 0= fail
– [row, col] of the centroid of the detected object
– Color as the equivalent integer to ascii character
•
•
•
•
Red = 114
Green = 103
Yellow = 121
No Match = 78
Camera Vision Pseudocode
Example
• If the camera detects an object (output = 1)
– shm_struc->positionControlMode = 2;
which switches to camera vision navigation
– We then read the x coordinate for the centroid and
store it in variable xRed/xGreen/xYellow
– The depth of the object is given at the competition, so
it will be preprogrammed into the system.
– We then calculated the pixels/degree of the
camera
•
•
•
•
# columns = 640
FOV = 15°
Pixels/degree = # columns/FOV
Pixels/degree = 42.7 pixels/1 degree
Camera Vision Navigation
Logic
• We then implemented the following line of
code:
– shm_struc->ord_head = 42.7/xRed;
• This line takes pixels per degree and divides
it by the pixel position of the object
• The output ord_head is a degree value to be
implemented in the camera vision navigation
portion of the code.
• This portion of coding simply orders Romulus
to navigate to the ordered heading.
Camera Vision Navigation
• After the camera hits the correct buoy, it
switches back to waypoint navigation to
move on to the next obstacle.
Camera Vision: Fail Check
• I have added a “timeout” feature to the
code. Essentially, if the robot has switched
to camera navigation, after 1 minute of not
finding a buoy or a bin it will switch back to
waypoint navigation.
Bins
• This uses essentially the same logic as
buoys but instead of color, the downward
camera will output variables corresponding
to shapes.
• The code will then execute the appropriate
sequence in order to drop the projectile
into the correct bin.
Cameras
MIDN 1/C Fincher
Cameras
Cognex 5400C
• Onboard processing
• In-Sight Explorer software
• C-mount lens
Buoys
• Forward camera
• Find curved edge first
• Find color next
– Bank of three colors
• Pass depends on both fixtures
• Trouble with thresholding
Bins
• Downward camera
• PatMax
• Thresholding
– Contrast
– Rotation
– Scale
SONAR
MIDN 1/C Keith
Passive SONAR
• Competition Requirements
• ORE Multi-Beacon
• SONAR Operation Basics
– Four Omni-Directional Hydrophone’s
– Data Processing Circuit
– Code
SONAR & The Competition
• Two 9’ diameter
octagon shaped
surfacing areas
• One of the pinger’s is
turned on before each
competition run
• Goal is to surface
completely inside the
correct Octagon
• Practice and
Competition Pinger
going at the same
time
ORE 4330B Multi-Beacon
• Transponder/Responder
modes
• Same ‘pinger’ used in the
competition
• Set to frequency between
22kHz and 30kHz
• Requires Driving
Mechanism
Multi-Beacon Circuit
Hydrophones
• Reson TC4013
omni-directional
hydrophone
• Output….
SONAR Data Processing
Circuit
•
•
•
•
•
AD605 Variable Gain Amplifier
Multiple feedback active band
pass filter
Voltage Divider and
Comparator with Hysteresis
Digital Signal processing
microcontroller
Three simultaneous outputs
• RS232 UART
• Serial Peripheral Bus
(SPI) 64K Serial Memory
• 10-Bit Quad DAC
SONAR Code
• Written in C
• Two programs
– Sonar.c program gets the Azimuth, Elevation,
Status, and tells which pinger is being
detected
– Navigationcenter.c filters multiple sensor data
to determine most likely position
Special Thanks to
Project Advisor
Captain Nicholson, USN
Systems TSD
Rickover Machine Shop
Rickover Hydro Lab

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