Enhancing Functional Behavior Assessments and Behavior

Enhancing Functional Behavior
Assessments and Behavior
Intervention Plans
Ripley-Ohio-Dearborn Special Education
Training Objectives
To ensure all schools in the cooperative
know when to conduct functional behavior
assessments (FBAs)
2. To improve the quality and usefulness of the
FBAs created by school personnel
3. To present new FBA and BIP data collection
4. To teach educators how to better link FBAs
to Behavior Intervention Plans (BIPs) and
5. To provide educators with tools for
improving outcomes for student behavior.
Training Agenda
The Foundations of FBA
Data collection, forms, and summarizing
FBA findings
Examples and scenarios conducting FBAs
Linking the FBA to BIP
Writing the BIP
Linking FBA, BIP, and IEP
Examples and scenarios writing FBAs and
The Foundations of FBA
- When to do an FBA  When Do I HAVE to conduct an FBA (or
review current FBA)?
1. As part of a Manifestation Determination
2. Before an initial evaluation for Emotional
3. After 3 days of suspension if student is a special
education student
◦ To be a legal FBA, it has to “use data to
identify patterns in the student behavior and
the purpose or function of the behavior for
a student.”
The Foundations of FBA
- When to do an FBA 
When should I ALWAYS have a current FBA?
◦ FBAs should be conducted or reviewed when a
student’s behavior is
Precluding the teacher from teaching
Preventing other students from learning
Frequent Noncompliance
Verbally or physically aggressive
Results in property destruction
The Foundations of FBA
- When to do an FBA 
When else should I consider an FBA?
◦ When the functions of a problem behavior are unknown
◦ When the current behavior intervention plan is not
improving behavior or primary behavior concerns change
◦ When the student’s behavior impedes his or her learning
◦ When the student fails to make progress toward behavior
goals in the IEP
◦ As part of the school’s PBIS for regular education students
who exhibit the same behaviors which would result in an
FBA being conducted for special education students
◦ When the primary concerns are anxiety, depression,
inattention, hyperactivity, or other non-aggressive
behaviors that impede learning
The Foundations of FBA
- The components of an FBA 
The purpose of an FBA is to:
◦ Identify target behavior(s)
◦ Describe the target behavior clearly and
◦ Identify antecedents that make target behavior
more likely to occur
◦ Identify consequences that reinforce target
◦ Identify setting events that influence behavior
◦ Identify individual variables that influence
◦ Inform the BIP by targeting positive replacement
behaviors and other interventions
The Foundations of FBA
- The components of an FBA 
The Function of Behavior is its:
The Foundations of FBA
Antecedents – are the triggers that “set the
behavior off”
◦ They precede the behavior’s occurrence.
◦ Antecedents include:
 Environmental Variables (e.g., time of day, room
arrangement, visual or auditory stimuli)
 Instructional Variables (e.g., task difficulty, subject mater,
type of task
 Social Variables (e.g., number of people, specific people
present, proximity to others)
 Transition Variables (e.g., changes in routine, transitions
between tasks or settings)
The Foundations of FBA
Consequences of behavior are the events
that follow a behavior that make it more
likely or less likely it will occur again in
the future.
◦ Consequences follow the target behavior
◦ Consequences fall in four categories
Obtainment of desirable activity or reward
Escape or avoid
The Foundations of FBA
- The components of an FBA  How many functions of behavior are there?
1. Positive reinforced functions (behaviors that serve
to increase access to a positive reinforcement):
Social attention
Access to desirable activities
Access to tangible reward
2. Negative reinforced functions (behaviors that serve
to avoid or escape negative stimuli or situations)
3. Sensory Stimulating (both positive and negative)
Self-injurious behaviors, sometimes
The Foundations of FBA
- The components of an FBA 
Positive Reinforced Functions
◦ Attention – When the student becomes the
focus of a situation; draws attention to self;
may be attention from peer, teacher or both
 Examples?
◦ Obtain preferred activity or tangible reward –
The student’s behavior functions to get to a
desired activity or to prevent a desirable
activity from being stopped.
 Examples?
The Foundations of FBA
- The components of an FBA 
Negative Reinforced Functions
◦ Escape/ Avoidance – The students behavior functions
to delay having to do an undesirable task; escape a
consequence, or leave an undesirable or aversive
 Examples?
Sensory Stimulating Functions
◦ The behavior fulfills a positive or negative
reinforcement without outside stimuli. It may feel
good (positive reinforcement) or reduce or remove a
negative sensation (negative reinforcement)
 Examples?
The Foundations of FBA
Setting Events
◦ Setting Events are different than antecedents because
alone, they do not elicit the target behavior. Rather, they
augment the likelihood the antecedent will trigger the
behavior (e.g., a noisy classroom may not trigger a verbal
outburst, but it may make it more likely a student will
react negatively to a difficult task demand)
Setting Events may have happened long before the
antecedents (e.g., lack of sleep the night before)
 Setting Events may include the following:
Changes in sleep
Medication changes
Satiation of rewards (e.g., he just ate so food rewards
become less rewarding)
The Foundations of FBA
Individual Variables are those personal
characteristics that influence a students behaviors.
◦ Individual variables to consider when conducting an
FBA include:
Skills deficits – individual variables where the student does
not have the knowledge or ability to perform a particular
task or behavior. Skill deficits may be instructional related
(e.g., the student has not been taught how to perform a
particular behavior) or may be disability /deficit related (e.g.,
cognitive, language, impulsivity, social skills).
Performance Deficits – The student “knows how” to
perform the desired behavior, but does not consistently do
Personal preferences – individual variables explaining which
items/activities are positive and negative reinforcements.
The New ROD FBA-BIP forms
Frequently Asked Questions about FBA-BIP form use:
Q – When do you use this form?
A – Use it just as you would use the old form. Consent has to be
obtained if new data collection is being done or if this is the first time
it is being completed. Always use this for (1) ED evaluations, (2)
following 3 days suspension for Special Education students, and (3) as
part of a Manifestation Determination
Q – Who completes the FBA-BIP?
A – It should be completed by a team comprised of multiple school
personnel, the parent, and the student.
Q – Can this be used for non-special education students?
A – Yes, but be sure to get consent first.
Q – Where is the FBA-BIP located?
A – It, along with the data collection resources, is located under
resources on the ROD website (rodspecialeducation.org) and a ROD:
FBA.BIP Folder will be given to each school.
The New ROD FBA-BIP forms
Frequently Asked Questions about FBA-BIP form use:
Q – Does a new FBA have to be done every time the Behavior Plan changes?
A– No, it should be reviewed frequently, at least annually, but it does not have
to be redone every time the behavior plan changes.
Q – If we do a FBA and/or BIP, does it have to be uploaded into the student’s
A – Yes. The FBA and BIP should be documented in the Behavior
considerations section of the IEP. It should also be referenced in the present
levels of performance, and the discussion the CCC had of the FBA and/or
behavior plan should be summarized in the notes section of the IEP.
Q – How often should the behavior plan be updated?
A – At least annually at the ACR and whenever the student’s behavior is not
adequately being addressed by the provisions of the IEP.
Q – How do I add this information to the IEP in IIEP?
A – There are instructions for cutting and pasting the Behavior plan into IEP if
you fill it out electronically. Those instructions are found in the ROD: FBA.BIP
folder or on rodspecialeducation.org under resources .You may choose to
manually type this in if you completed the forms in pen. Also, follow the IIEP
procedures for uploading a document into the student record and attach the
FBA, data sources, an BIP into IIEP.
The New ROD FBA form
Description of Target Behavior
Up to three behaviors on this. Use objective
language so it can be quantified easily.
You do not have to choose 3 behaviors
Description of Present Levels
For each target behavior, establish the
present levels, or current functioning.
You don’t have to mark something for all
the present levels columns.
The New ROD FBA form
(overview) - continued
Indicate Data Collection method
◦ This is different than the previous data collection methods.
The previous ones (1) Motivation Assessment Scale, and
(2) interviews are still options, but the FBA team has more
and different data sources to choose from.
◦ It is important that at least one primary data source is
used and at least two sources are used. For complicated
issues, more data sources and multiple observations or
may be needed. The different data sources can be found
under the ROD: FBA.BIP resources on
rodspecialeducation.org or in the ROD: FBA.BIP folder at
your school.
◦ Indicate which data sources were used then attach them
to the end of the FBA
The New ROD FBA form
(overview) - continued
Antecedents, consequences, and
skill/performance deficits
◦ For each target behavior and based on the data
collection, complete the matrix.
◦ Remember
 antecedent = trigger
 Consequence does not just mean negative consequences
Indicate setting events
◦ There may not be setting events
◦ Setting events aren’t “triggers,” but they do precede
the behavior
◦ Setting events themselves don’t trigger a behavior, but
they change how trigger’s are handled by the student
The New ROD FBA form
(overview) - continued
Hypothesized functions of target
◦ Possible functions include:
Tangible reward
Access to desirable activity
Sensory stimulation
◦ Behaviors can have multiple functions
The New ROD FBA form
(overview) - continued
FBA signatures
◦ Who created the FBA?
◦ If the FBA was reviewed, date reviewed can
be noted on the bottom of page 3.
Linking the FBA to BIP
The ROD BIP form
◦ I. Target behaviors (from FBA)
◦ II. Hypothesized functions of target behaviors
(from FBA)
Linking the FBA to BIP
◦ III. Replacement Behavior(s)
 We will not be successful if our interventions only
target decreasing negative behaviors
 We have to increase positive
 We have to first TEACH positive behaviors then
 Replacement behaviors should fit into one of the following:
1. Alternative Behaviors serve the same function as target
behaviors but are more acceptable (e.g., removing self to
calming area for escape vs. flipping a desk)
2. Incompatible Behaviors that cannot occur at the same
time as target behaviors (e.g., reinforce student sitting at
desk to address running around the room)
Linking the FBA to BIP
IV Intervention Strategies
You don’t have to write out every detail of the
interventions used in the BIP. Summarize them and
note the purpose of the interventions (e.g., reward
system to increase on-task behaviors will be used; or consequences
to follow school-wide PBIS plan) However, if detailed intervention
plans are needed, these may need to be created separately from
the BIP.
◦ Replacement Behaviors
 Token rewards for increasing use of positive behaviors
 Teaching, modeling, coaching the acquisition and use of
replacement behaviors
Linking the FBA to BIP
IV Intervention Strategies (continued)
◦ Interventions for Setting Events and Triggers
 Modifications to environment (e.g., setting by
teacher desk)
 Curriculum accommodations or modifications (e.g.,
read instructions to student)
 Transition interventions (e.g., visual schedule;
previewing transitions and expectations)
 For setting events that occur at home, home-school
communication interventions (e.g., call ahead from
parent if morning or evening was rough)
Linking the FBA to BIP
IV Intervention Strategies (continued)
◦ Consequences
 Should be based on the hypothesized functions of
target behavior and interventions should be tailored
to block the student’s access to those desirable
reinforces attached to target behaviors.
 Don’t allow escape for negatively reinforced behaviors (e.g.,
student tantrums to get out of work, the student has to
finish work when they stop the tantrum. Or, student
tantrums and thus does not earn positive reinforcement in
token economy.
 Block access to positively reinforced behaviors
 Ignore attention seeking behaviors
Linking the FBA to BIP
IV Intervention Strategies (continued)
◦ Consequences (continued)
 If you use negative reinforcement (i.e., do abc, or
you’ll face xyz consequence), make sure the student
has the ability to do abc.
 List steps
 1st occurrence = ignore , 2nd occurrence = warning, of
negative consequence, 3rd, occurrence = loss of privilege,
points, or activity.
Linking the FBA to BIP
IV Intervention Strategies (continued)
◦ Crisis Plan
 Does this target behavior need a crisis plan or
severe clause? Most target behaviors wont
 If it does, state the plan or reference the safety plan that will
be created/used so that the anyone who reviews this BIP
knows what to do in case of an emergency.
Linking the FBA to BIP
V Progress Monitoring
How will you keep track of this BIP?
What data will you use?
Who is responsible for this BIP?
When will the plan be revised?
Linking the FBA to BIP
VI Signature line
◦ This should be the team of people who are
responsible for this student. It should NOT
fall on the special education teacher, solely, for
developing and implementing the BIP.
Adding the BIP to IIEP
Behavior concerns should be addressed in
the IEP in this order:
1. Progress Monitoring Data /Present Levels of
Academic and functional Performances
Do not write that social/emotional functioning are
appropriate, if they are not.
Add meaningful statement to present levels
summarizing how the student’s behavior affects his
or her involvement and progress in general
education curriculum
This can be cut and pasted from the ROD: FBA.BIP.
Refer to the Uploading ROD: FBA.BIP Instruction
document located in the resource tab of
rodpsecialed.org or in the FBA.BIP folder.
Adding the BIP to IIEP
Special Considerations
The behavior of the student impedes his or
her learning or that of others
This is where the FBA and BIP are located
in the IEP
Special Considerations is a sub-tab under the IEP
Answer the question: “Does the behavior impede
his or her learning or learning of others?”
Data for this is to be uploaded from the ROD:
FBA.BIP. Refer to the Uploading ROD: FBA.BIP
Instruction document located in the resource tab
of rodpsecialed.org or in the FBA.BIP folder.
Adding the BIP to IIEP
3. Annual Goals
Linked to BIP
This should be based on the ROD: FBA.BIP. Refer
to the Uploading ROD: FBA.BIP Instruction
document located in the resource tab of
rodpsecialed.org or in the FBA.BIP folder
4. Accommodations/Services and Other
Linked to BIP
5. Written Notes and Other Relevant Factors
Did the CCC discuss / review FBA and BIP? Were
changes made?
This new form should begin to be used
starting December 1st, 2014.
Questions should be directed to Alex
Brewer, Missy Jones, or your ROD assigned
School Psychologist, Consultant, or Social
All Forms and training material can be
located under resources on
rodspecialeducation.org or at your building
in the ROD: FBA.BIP folder by December 1,

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