UNIT7-Sports and Television

Report
SPORTS AND
TELEVISION
OVERVIEW
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SPORTS BROADCASTING ORIGINS
SPORTS’ ROLE ON TV PROGRAMMING
BOXING ERA, 1946-1962
ABC NEW STRATEGIES, 1960s
COLOR TV AND PRO FOOTBALL
MONDAY NIGHT FOOTBALL
SPORT SHOWS – SPORT NETWORKS
TV IMPACT ON SPORTS
SPORTS TV BROADCASTING
ORIGINS
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1939 NBC WXBS STATION EXPERIMENTAL
BROADCAST BASEBALL, TENNIS AND
COLLEGE FOOTBALL
1940 INCLUDED BASKETBALL, HOCKEY,
TRACK & FIELD
1941 BROADCAST CANCELLED
TELECAST SHORTCOMINGS: AUDIENCE,
TECHNICAL DIFFICULTIES, LACK OF
SPONSORS, SCREEN RESOLUTION
LIMITATIONS, RADIO HEGEMONY.
BOXING ERA 1945-1960
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WWII AND COLD WAR VALUES
LOUIS, MARCIANO, ROBINSON
LIMITATIONS: OUTCOME, VIEWERS’
EXPECTATIONS
RACE/ETHNIC CHANGES IN
PROFESSIONAL FIGHTERS
OVERSATURATION, VIOLENCE
TIES WITH ORGANIZED CRIME
PROFESSIONAL FOOTBALL
1945-1960
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1946 BERT BELL, NEW NFL COMMISSIONER.
1945 ALL-AMERICAN FOOTBALL
CONFERENCE, A NEW PRO LEAGUE FORMED
BY ARCH WARD, SPORTS WRITER IN
CHICAGO.
AAFC= STRONG COMPETITION WITH THE
NFL, BETTER SALARIES, ALL-STAR GAME
WARD’S IDEA, A GAME IN DECEMBER
BETWEEN THE TWO LEAGUES’ CHAMPIONS
PRO FOOTBALL 1945-1960
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AAFC STAR: PAUL BROWN, COACH
SUCCESS WITH MASILLON H.S., OHIO STATE.
REVOLUTIONIZE FOOTBALL COACHING:
PLAY BOOKS FOR PLAYERS, FILM ANALYSIS,
PLAY-BY-PLAY BREAKDOWN, RADIO
RECEIVER IN QB’S HELMET, FULL TIME
ASSISTANT COACHES, PRESS BOX
ANALYSIS, UNLIMITED SUBSTITUTIONS,
UNLIMITED RESERVES WITH ‘TAXI SQUAD’
TACTICS.
PRO FOOTBALL 1945-1960
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PAUL BROWN, ECONOMIC SUCCESS
1950 NFL ABSORBED THREE TEAMS
FROM THE AAFC.
UNLIMITED SUBS, UNLIMITED
RESERVES, BROWN STRATEGIES=
HIGHER QUALITY IN GAMES
NFL 1950s ATTENDANCE RISE FROM
25,000 TO 40,000 AVG
PRO FOOTBALL
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SPECIALIZATION= FASTER AND MORE
ATTRACTIVE STYLE
1951 FIRST BROADCASTING
CONTRACT WITH DuMONT NETWORK
1956 CBS $1 MILLION TV CONTRACT
NATIONAL RULES: LOCAL BLACKOUTS,
ONE GAME-WEEK
PRO FOOTBALL, ROZELLE ERA
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1959 BELL DIED
1959 AMERICAN FOOTBALL LEAGUE, 8
TEAMS IN DIRECT ECONOMIC
COMPETITION WITH THE NFL
AFL, LAMAR HUNT, TEXAS
MILLIONAIRE, 20s, DALLAS-BASED
TEAM REJECTED BY THE NFL. KANSAS
CITY FRANCHISE.
NFL, ROZELLE ERA
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PETE ROZELLE, MARKETING AND P.R.
TRAINING, PUBLIC RELATIONS FIRM,
LOS ANGELES RAMS PUBLICIST. 1957
L.A. RAMS GENERAL MANAGER
FOOTBALL MERCHANDISE LINE,
PRODUCTS WITH THE RAMS LOGO
(HATS, CUPS, T-SHIRTS) TEAM-LOGO
BUSINESS.
NFL, ROZELLE ERA
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1960 ROZELLE, NEW NFL
COMMISSIONER. MOVED THE NFL HQ
TO MANHATTAN.
DRAMATIC CHANGE IN TV RIGHTS,
“SINGLE PACKAGE” POLICY: ALL TV
RIGHTS-ALL TEAMS-INCOME DIVIDED
EQUALLY, OPPOSED BY GIANTS,
BEARS AND RAMS
NFL ROZELLE ERA
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ROZELLE: MORE INCOME FROM TV IF ALL
TEAMS BARGAIN TOGETHER. TV MARKET,
NFL FUTURE.
1961 U.S. CONGRESS PASSED THE “SPORTS
ANTITRUST BROADCAST ACT”, ALLOWING
ROZELLE’S SINGLE PACKAGE POLICY
1964-65 SECRET BID-OPEN CEREMONY, CBS
WON ($14,000,000 A YEAR).
ABC NEW STRATEGIES
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ABC: EDGE FROM NEW SPORTS BROADCASTING
STYLE; 1960 CONTRACT WITH THE AFL
ROONE P. ARLEDGE, 1960 FOOTBALL GAMES
PRODUCER; SHOW BIZZ
PRINCIPLE: EVENT AS IMPORTANT AS OUTCOME
GAME SETTING AMBIENCE. MULTIPLE
PERSPECTIVES, CLOSE UPS, CHEERLEADERS,
OVER ENTHUSIASTIC FANS
ARLEDGE PRODUCTIONS
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CROWD AS IMPORTANT AS PLAYERS
SEX APPEAL IN STANDS/SIDELINES
TV-NEW BROADCASTING STYLE
FANS CONTEST FOR “SCREEN-TIME”
BANNERS, CUSTOMS, LEGENDS
MONUMENTAL TAKES, IN GAME
ADVERTISING
ARLEDGE PRINCIPLE
BRING
THE VIEWER
TO THE EVENT.
NOT THE EVENT TO
THE VIEWER.
ABC SPORTS PRODUCTIONS
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COVERAGE BEFORE, DURING, AFTER
SLOW MOTION, INSTANT REPLAY,
LONG SHOTS, CLOSE UPS, VIEWER
ATTENTION, SPLIT-SCREEN
INDUCED CONTROVERSY
CROWD-CARNIVAL-TAKES
PLAYERS STATISTICS: PRESENT
EXTRAORDINARY DIMENSIONS
ABC WIDE WORLD OF SPORTS
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1961 BEGINNING, SPORTS-ONLY SHOW
FIRST IN STOP-ACTION FILMING
VARIETY-SHOW-ON-SPORTS
CONTROVERSY SELLS, HATE-LOVE FIGURES
(MUHAMMAD ALI, JOE NAMATH, BATTLE OF
THE SEXES, ETC)
WINTER SPORTS, TROPICAL LOCATIONS,
BIZARRE EVENTS
EVENT AS IMPORTANT AS OUTCOME
ABC MONDAY NIGHT FOOTBALL
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ARLEDGE SECOND CREATION, 1970
CONTROVERSIAL BROADCASTING, NO TO
NFL “ANNOUNCER-APPROVAL”
HOWARD COSELL, NY FORMER BOXINGVOICE, PROMOTE-CRITICIZE-PROVOKE“TELL IT LIKE IT IS”
TRANSITION IN BROADCAST ANNOUNCERS
FROM THE “GOLDEN THROAT” MODEL
(BLOW-BY-BLOW PLAY CALLER) TO “MOST
HATED ANNOUNCER” NEW STYLE.
COLOR TV AND PRO FOOTBALL
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1959 PETE ROZELLE, NFL COMMISSI.
TV RIGHTS CONTRACTS-AUCTIONS
1964 CBS-NFL, NBC-AFL
NBC $, AFL COULD COMPETE W/NAT.
LEAGUE
ARTIFICIAL TURFS, TEAM LOGOS-END ZONE
TV-MADE UNIFORMS, NAMES, LOGOS,
COLORS. 1967 SUPER BOWL I
ARLEDGE’S IMPACT ON TV
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1970s NBC, CBS ADOPTED ABC STRAT.
1970s-1970s TV $ IN SPORTS BOOM
PRO FOOTBALL, MOST POPULAR
SPORT-ENTERTAINMENT
PROFESSIONAL SPORTS ADOPTED
NEW RULES TO INCREASE TV RATINGS
SPORTS BECAME TV PRODUCTIONS
TELEVISION IMPACT ON SPORTS
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TRANSFORMATION OF TEAM SPORTS
IN RULES, SCHEDULES,
TRANSFORMATION OF
“CHAMPIONSHIP-RULES”
SUBORDINATION OF SPORTS TO
MEDIA INTERESTS
MORE PEOPLE PREFER TO WATCH
THAN TO PLAY

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