FINAL RESEARCH POWERPOINT SK MR

Report
CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN NEW
YORK CITY CLASSROOMS
Selecting Efficient Instructional
Techniques for Culturally
Diverse Classrooms
Svetlana Khvatikova and Marva Rudder
Education 7201: Seminar in Applied Theory and Research I
Fall 2011
Table of Contents

Introduction

Statement of the Problem (slide 3)

Supporting Theorists (slide 4 and 5)

Pros (Slide 6)

Cons (Slide 7)

Instructional Strategies (Slide 8-9)

Statement of the Hypothesis (Slide 10)

Method (Slide 11)

Conclusion (Slide 12)

References (Slide 13-17)

Appendices (18-20)
Statement of the Problem
 New York City is one of the most diverse cities. All five
boroughs are filled with children from diverse
backgrounds and cultures.
 The need for teachers to relate to student’s cultural
backgrounds is important (Meachum, 2001).
 Several studies have shown, that student’s culture plays
a crucial role in the way they learn and view the world
(Lanson-Billings, 1995).
Supporting Theorists
 Lev Vygotsky :
 Affirms that learning does not take place in cognitive isolation,
but within the context of activities and social interaction likely
informed by the day-to- day contingencies of culture.
 Suggests school learning is largely informed by the interaction
between the conceptual domains of the home and the school.
 States that regardless of cultural background, the most effective
school learning occurs when learning assumptions in the home or
“spontaneous” conceptual domain, are meaningfully connected to
the assumptions encountered in the school, the “schooled”
conceptual domain.(Meacham 2001)
Supporting Theorists (continued)
 James A.Banks:
 James A. Banks points out that cultural diversity, “enriches




a nation by providing all citizens with rich opportunities to
experience other cultures and thus to become more fulfilled
as human beings. When individuals are able to participate
in a variety cultures, they are more able to benefit from the
total human experience” (Banks, 2008).
The goal of multicultural education is:
To help individuals gain greater self-understanding by
viewing themselves from the perspectives of other cultures.
To assume that with acquaintance and understanding
respect may fellow.
To provide students with cultural, ethnic, and language
alternatives.
(Banks, 2008)
PROS

Culturally relevant pedagogy has been defined:
 as a means to use students’ cultures and strengths to bridge
school achievement ( 2008; Singer 2010; Blake 1997; Jones
1985;Vijaker 2001;Wurzel, Holt 1991; McClean 1996).
 to recognize students’ home cultures, promote collaboration
among peers, hold high standards, and connect home life
with school experiences (Young 2010;Chisholm 1994;
Montgomery 2010)
 Siwatu (2007) stipulated that there is general agreement
among culturally responsive pedagogues insofar as how the
theory is used.(Ladson-Billings 1995; Silva , Langhout
2011;Morrison, Robbins 2008)
CONS
 How multicultural classroom instruction is undermining our
children's ability to read, write, and reason, multiculturalism is
quite the norm in America's elementary schools.
(Hymowitz, 1999; Morgan 2010; Zhang 2001; Schultz 2010).
 James A. Banks, argues that multicultural education is damaging
and unimportant to the students’ growth and development (Banks,
2008).
 Sleeter, argues that we should focus our attention on other
“pressing concerns, such as increasing students’ test scores (Sleeter,
2000).
 Hymowitz mentioned that Sandra Stotsky, a well-known
multiculturalists and author of a book entitled, Losing Our
Language, that instead of focusing on cultural diversity, which is
“dull and preachy” we should help students with “vocabulary
building” (Hymowitz, 1999).
Instructional Strategies: Storybooks
 According to Greif, Kim, and Klein (2006), the
increasing diversity in the U.S. school system has
led to a growing body of scholarly literature on
ways that counselors can effectively meet the
culture-related challenges posed by this change.
 Baghban (2007) indicated that many immigrant
children face dilemmas when they move to a new
country. She added that “classroom materials
relevant to the social and cultural experiences
generate interest in and enthusiasm about
learning.” (Baghban, 2007).
Examples of Storybooks
Used as instructional strategies for the implementation of cultural
relevant pedagogy into the curriculum.
Statement of the Hypothesis
 HR¹:To implement multicultural literacy instruction to
twenty first grade students, for 45 minutes per day in the
morning over a 4 week period. This will increase student’s
knowledge and understanding of cultural diversity as
measured by a comprehensive social studies test.
Method
 Participants
 Students will be chosen from two different ethnic groups consisting of
African-Americans and Russians from two different New York City
public schools in Brooklyn, N.Y. One of the schools is located in a
low- income neighborhood in Bedford Stuyvesant, with a population
of 78.8% African-Americans. The other school is located in a middle
class neighborhood near Brighton Beach, with a European population
of 72.7% of students in attendance.
 Instruments
 Student’s assessments will be measured according to their responses
to assignments without their cultural information included, and
conducting similar assignments by incorporating student’s cultural
aspects into them. This will consist of conducting a pretest, post-test,
and surveys to measure and monitor student’s progress and
achievements. In addition, consent forms will be utilized to ensure
that the students are granted permission to participate in this study
from their parents, teachers, principals, and administrators.
Conclusion
 Banks (2008), claimed that “diversity enriches
a nation and increases the ways in which its
citizens can perceive and solve personal and
public problems” (Banks, 2008).
 Vygotsky (2001), affirms that learning does
not take place in cognitive isolation, but
within the context of activities and social
interaction likely informed by the day-today contingencies of culture (Meacham,
2001).
References

Baghban, M. (2007). Immigration in childhood: using picture books to cope: A journal
for readers, students and teachers of history. The Social Studies, Volume 98, 71-76.
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
Banks, A. J., & Banks, A. M. C. (2010). Multicultural education: Issues and
perspectives. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ProQuest Dissertations
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
Blake, R. A. (1997). Teacher actions to infuse multiculturalism into the planned
curriculum of elementary school classes with ethnically diverse students. University of
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Buettner, L. N. (2003). How teachers' beliefs and understanding of multiculturalism
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
Chisholm, M. I. (1994). Preparing teachers for multicultural classrooms. The
Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students, Volume 14,
48-56. Retrieved from
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
Clott, A. D. (2010). Conflict behavior in the diverse classroom. Department of
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DomNwachukwu, C.S. (2005). Standards-based planning and teaching in a
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
Greif Green, J. L., Kim, S. K. B., & Klein, E. F. (2006). Using storybooks to
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 Hymowitz, K. S. (1999). Multicultural illiteracy. The Public Interest.
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Montgomery, C. M. (2009). Caught between regulations and meaning: Fifth
grade students and their teachers respond to multicultural children's literature.
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Morgan, H. (2010). Improving schooling for cultural minorities: The right
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Schultz, S. (2010). Judging a book by its cover: An evaluation tool for the
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 Sleeter, C. E. (2000). Creating and empowering multicultural
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Appendices
Appendix A: Parent/Guardian Consent Form
Dear Parent/Guardian,
I (Svetlana Khvatikova) and my colleague (Marva Rudder) are studying at Brooklyn College where we
are earning our Master’s Degree in Elementary Education. We are currently enrolled in a research course
for the Fall 2011 semester, which requires us to conduct a study in a real classroom setting. We are asking
for your permission to allow your child to participate in a confidential research study dealing with our
thesis research paper topic which focuses on incorporating multicultural pedagogy in the classroom. Our
research study is to implement multicultural instruction by working with students at least three times a
week, for a period of forty-five minutes per day for approximately four weeks. Our lessons will filter
through the Literacy and/or Social Studies lesson units of instruction. Our goal is to increase student’s
knowledge on cultural diversity in the classroom. We will measure student’s knowledge by conducting
a pretest and a post-test to measure the student’s success rates and overall understanding of the material.
The pretests assess student’s knowledge and understanding of their cultural background. We will be
conducting lessons across the spectrum on the introduction of various topics and their effects on students’
academic success rates with and without the additions of cultural aspects. Finally, after the completion of
our lessons we will conduct a posttest to evaluate student’s overall progress.
If you have any questions or concerns regarding this matter please feel free to contact us.
Thank you,
Svetlana Khvatikova and Marva Rudder
Please check, write student’s name, and sign:
(_____) I give my child _______________________________permission to participate in this research
study.
(_____) I do not want my child _________________________________ to participate in this study.
Parent Signature: X______________________________________________________
Appendix B: Teacher Consent Form
Dear Teacher,
I (Svetlana Khvatikova) and my colleague (Marva Rudder) are studying at
Brooklyn College where we are earning our Master’s Degree in Elementary Education. We
are currently enrolled in a research course for the Fall 2011 semester, which requires us to
conduct a study in a real classroom setting. We are asking for your permission to allow your
class to participate in a confidential research study dealing with our thesis research paper
topic which focuses on incorporating multicultural pedagogy in the classroom.
Our research study is to implement multicultural instruction by working with
students at least three times a week, for a period of forty-five minutes per day for
approximately four weeks. Our lessons will filter through the Literacy and/or Social Studies
lesson units of instruction. Our goal is to increase student’s knowledge on cultural diversity
in the classroom. We will measure student’s knowledge by conducting a pretest and a posttest to measure the student’s success rates and overall understanding of the material.
The pretests assess student’s knowledge and understanding of their cultural
background. We will be conducting lessons across the spectrum on the introduction of
various topics and their effects on students’ academic success rates with and without the
additions of cultural aspects. Finally, after the completion of our lessons we will conduct a
posttest to evaluate student’s overall progress.
If you have any questions or concerns regarding this matter please feel free to contact us.
Thank you,
Svetlana Khvatikova and Marva Rudder
Appendix C: Principal/Administrator Consent
Form
Dear Principal/Administrator,
I (Svetlana Khvatikova) and my colleague (Marva Rudder) are studying at
Brooklyn College where we are earning our Master’s Degree in Elementary Education. We
are currently enrolled in a research course for the Fall 2011 semester, which requires us to
conduct a study in a real classroom setting. We are asking for your permission to allow your
school to participate in a confidential research study dealing with our thesis research paper
topic which focuses on incorporating multicultural pedagogy in the classroom.
Our research study is to implement multicultural instruction by working with
students at least three times a week, for a period of forty-five minutes per day for
approximately four weeks. Our lessons will filter through the Literacy and/or Social Studies
lesson units of instruction. Our goal is to increase student’s knowledge on cultural diversity
in the classroom. We will measure student’s knowledge by conducting a pretest and a posttest to measure the student’s success rates and overall understanding of the material.
The pretests assess student’s knowledge and understanding of their cultural
background. We will be conducting lessons across the spectrum on the introduction of
various topics and their effects on students’ academic success rates with and without the
additions of cultural aspects. Finally, after the completion of our lessons we will conduct a
posttest to evaluate student’s overall progress.
If you have any questions or concerns regarding this matter please feel free to contact us.
Thank you,
Svetlana Khvatikova and Marva Rudder

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