REBELLION & REFORMUPPER & LOWER CANADA 1815-1855 Chapter 1 & 2- Class Notes Rebellions of Upper & Lower Canada British North America Responsible Government UNIT OBJECTIVES: Identify the geography, way of life, concerns & interests of the peoples of Upper (U/C) & Lower Canada (L/C); Explain the concepts of “responsible” and “representative” government; Identify & explain the concepts of political protest, reform, rebellion, & resolution; Account for the events leading up to and including the rebellions in the U/C & L/C; Compare and contrast the concerns of the peoples of U/C & L/C; MORE UNIT OBJECTIVES: Examine the roles of Mackenzie, Papineau, Howe, Fontaine, Baldwin, Durham, & Elgin in the rebellions & aftermath; Compare & contract the Constitutional Act of 1791 & Act of Union, 1841; Explain & assess the Durham Report & its recommendations Compare & contrast the governments of the 18 th & 19 th centuries with Canada today Formative Evaluation: Will be ongoing an include C.A.R.E.S connections and assessments , various exit slips, and critical thinking diagrams Summative Evaluation: Unit will be concluded by a an essay-format test that draws off these learning objectives.....the week of March 2 nd Creating a T-Chart Organizer: We will create an on going T-Chart to help organize your notes- other Graphic Organizers will all be offered as we move along! T-Chart: Compare & Contrast /Similarities & Differences Concepts compared are Upper Canada (UC) & Lower Canada (LC) Similarities & Differences: 1. Geography- Human & Physical 2. Government-U/C & L/C 3. People- Way of Life & Background 4. Concerns- Political/Social/Economic 5. Family Compact & Chateau Clique 6. Reformers- Papineau & Mackenzie 7. Aftermath I. GEOGRAPHY OF UPPER AND LOWER CANADA Borders what is now New Brunswick; northeast area of United States; & Great lakes Upper Canada- Southern Ontario Lower Canada- Quebec and Newfoundland Remember- “Up” the river and “down” the river Upper and Lower Canada both British Colonies Created by Constitutional Act, 1791 Lower Canada mainly French speaking “Canadiens” Upper Canada mainly English speaking people MAP OF UPPER & LOWER CANADA Copy Diagram- next page….. unless you still have your Map of Canada from Term 1that I told you to keep! II. GOVERNMENT IN UPPER & LOWER CANADACONSTITUTIONAL ACT, 1791 Copy Diagram- next page. GOVERNMENT IN UPPER CANADA CONTINUED..... Governor-British appointed Legislative Council- English-speaking merchants & land owners; friends of Governor; appointed not elected; veto power Legislative Assembly- voted by citizens- (male property owners) government was representative Two political parties dominated: Family Compact- Wealthy British Tories (conservatives) Reformers- Intellectuals & professionals GOVERNMENT IN LOWER CANADA Governor-British appointed Legislative Council- ALL English-speaking merchants and seigneurs; friends of Governor; appointed not elected; veto power Legislative Assembly voted by citizensrepresentative Two political parties dominated - Chateau Clique, Parti Canadien (Parti Patriote) Chateau Clique- Wealthy British and French who supported British rule; true power brokers Parti Canadien- Wealthy and poor French; early separatists; intellectuals & professionals; unhappy with power GOVERNMENT OF UPPER & LOWER CANADA- SUMMARY Government of Lower Canada Established by Constitutional act in 1791 Power limited by governors and councils Members of legislative councils were voted in for life English concerns were usually different from French concerns The group with the most power was Chateau Clique Believed that power should be in hands of a few capable people Wanted the Roman Catholic church to stay power Government of Upper Canada In 1830 government remained the same as the constitutional act in 1791 Two political groups the Tories and the Reformers Appointed Legislative council to Executive council Elected the Legislative Assembly The group with the most power was the Family Compact III. People, Way of Life, Concerns PEOPLE OF LOWER CANADA? Lower Canada • Population increased from: 250 000 in 1806 to 717 000 in 1841 (under 3x’s) •Very high birth rates among French speaking population •In addition British and American immigrants settled the eastern townships that had been set aside for English speaking farmers •Britain, British rule and traditions were a direct threat to their cultural existence Habitant: (French) tenant farmer; rent land; poor Seigneur: (French) land owner; wealthy and powerful Merchant: (English) business owner; fur & timber industry; wealthy and powerful Professionals: (French & English) doctors, lawyers, etc.; middle class; seeking democracy CONCERNS IN LOWER CANADA British merchants wanted to increase taxes for canals, harbors and roads for merchant use - few roads were built to help farmers Increased immigration from Great Britain began to threaten French culture and language 1832, immigrant ship brought disease cholera, killed 5500 Legislative assembly(French -speaking) hard to make laws 1836- crops failed- Canadians face starvation 1837- economic depression- English merchants blamed PEOPLE OF UPPER CANADA. Upper Canada • Before 1812 Loyalists- Pro British settled upper Canada • After 1812 a wave of settlers from great Great Britain Great Migration took their place- from Ireland, Wales, Scotland, England • Brought virtues of limiting absolute power and importance of parliament democracy in making decisions • Population increased from: 71 000 in 1806 to 432 000 in 1841 (almost 6x’s) • Pioneer homestead start from scratch and forced native inland – new farms evolved • Most inhabitants were subsistence farmers meaning they only farm for their family • Main towns- Kingston & York-was renamed Toronto • Need for transportation – roads, canals CONCERNS IN UPPER CANADA Responsible government was the major concern! Continued immigration to increase the English presence in Canada New immigrants from Great Britain bringing values of parliamentary democracy Reduction in the role of Church of England in taxes and affairs Reducing the power of values of traditionalism and conservatism Stronger voice for Elected Assembly Reduce voice for the Family Compact No veto powers PEOPLES' HISTORY OF CANADA REBELLION & REFORM- EPISODE 7 The Angry Men: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yEwZsar9W8k https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wHvMJGZzc28 1. What role did William Lyon Mackenzie King, Louis Joseph Papineau, & Joseph Howe play in the movement for reform in B.N.A. Colonies during the 1830`s? 2. What did Mackenzie mean by the term Family Compact? Why did he oppose it? 3. Did this type of group exist in other B.N.A. colonies as well? B-ritish N-orth A-merica IV. POLITICAL PROBLEMS & REBELLION: FAMILY COMPACT Small group of powerful people in Upper Canada As well as friends and supporters known as Tories Didn’t want US government to be part of Canadian government Defended tradition and conservative values Believed power should be in the hands of few capable people (themselves) They had power to stop any laws passed by the legislative assembly Believed Church of England should have power Loyal to Great Britain concept of monarchy rule MACKENZIE & UPPER CANADA William Lyon Mackenzie led the Reformers against the Family Compact Did not support the Constitution Act of 1791 Believed in responsible govt. Demanded 2 constitutional reforms Elected Legislative Council Executive council responsible to Assembly Reformers were against Clergy Reserves, Land grants to the oligarchies, Influence of the Church of England Power of the Banks ARMED REBELLION OF UPPER CANADA William Lyon Mackenzie turned people against government in Northern Toronto Used newspaper Colonial Advocate to challenge government Radicals wanted upper Canada like the American government December 5, 1837 Mackenzie led 800 men down Yonge street in Toronto In the United States Sir Francis bond head tried to raise an army to liberate upper Canada giving 120 hectares of land for whoever would join him Caught for breaking legal neutrality between Canada and the US- jailed 11 months PAPINEAU & LOWER CANADA Louis-Joseph Papineau was Legislative Assembly member & leader- and wealthy seigneur official who led the Parti Patriote reformers Had strong support of French land owning and political elite Strong supporter of the old French order in Lower Canada- also Republican style government Led cultural conflict between French & English dominated the Assembly, Councils Created the 92 Resolutions- making government more respectful of cultural differences Started revolt in 1837 & 1838 Papineau fled to USA, then France, returned & Pardoned in 1845 THE UNREST IN LOWER CANADA French and English speaking merchants wanted different things for lower Canada Merchants wanted to improve roads, canals and harbours Immigration caused problems Chateau Clique was encouraging immigration from great Britain In 1832 and immigrant ship brought a deadly disease, cholera The disease 5500 victims THE ARMED REBELLION IN LOWER CANADA British Army versus Patriote Army (Rebels) Began on November 23, 1837 at St. Denis; rebel victory Rebels built a fortress at St. Charles to fight the British but lost there and later at Saint-Eustache – Baker's Farm – Lacolle – Odelltown & Beauharnois Papineau fled to U.S After all the fighting 12 were hanged 58 were sent to Australia and 12 hundred were set free. THE ARMED REBELLION IN UPPER AND LOWER CANADA Lower Canada An a r m ed c o nf l i c t b et w een l o w er C a na da a nd t h e B r i t i s h Co l o ni a l, p o w er o f t ha t p r o v i nc e T h e p o l i t i c a l l ea der w a s J o s ep h P a p i nea T h e Ca na di ans w er e r ea dy t o f i gh t o n N o v em b er 1 8 3 7 B r i t i s h t r o o p s c h a r ged a nd t h e R eb el l i o ns l o s t T h e l a r ges t b a t t l e w a s h el d a t S t . E u s t a c h o n D ec em b er 1 4 , 1837 T h e R eb el l ea der , D r . J . Q . Ch eni er a l o ng w i t h r eb el s di ed T h e B r i t i s h r o b b ed a nd b u r ned t h ei r v i l l a ge Upper Canada R eb el l i o n a ga i ns t t h e B r i t i s h c o l o ni a l go v er nm ent i n 1 8 3 7 a nd 1838 Af t er t h e w a r o f 1 8 1 2 f a m i l y c o m p a c t o w ned m o s t l a nd “ Cr o w n R es er v es” a nd “ P r o t es t ant Cl er gy ” T h e l o w er Ca na da b r o k e o u t i n a u t u mn 1 8 3 7 B o nd H ea d s ent a l l B r i t i s h t r o o p s t o help s u p p res s i t S h o r t F i gh t ( l es s t h a n 3 0 m i nu t es ) t h e b a t t l e f i ni s h ed a nd t h e r eb el f o r c es r et r ea t ed 1 8 6 0 ’ s f o r m er r eb el s c o m p ens at ed b y t h e Ca na di an go v er nm ent PEOPLES' HISTORY OF CANADA REBELLION & REFORM- EPISODE 7 Horrible Year: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yEwZsar9W8k https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wHvMJGZzc28 1. What were the two competing parties in Montreal in the 1830’s? 2. Why did the struggle between them frequently take a violent form? 3. What cause the cholera outbreak in 1832? 4. What methods did local authorities take to control the disease? THE AFTERMATH- LORD DURHAM & HIS REPORT- ACT OF UNION AFTERMATH OF THE REBELLION Lower Canada became even worse than before the rebellion Upper Canada afraid to speak out because moderate reformers were branded as rebels Prime minister decided to send Lord Durham as Governor General Upper Canada was very short and disorganized London government was concerned about Rebellion Bond Head was recalled in 1837 he was replaced with Sir George Arthur Lord Durham was assigned to report grievances among the colonists and find a way to appease them Lord Durham’s report led to the union of Upper and Lower Canada into the province of Canada in 1840 LORD DURHAM AND HIS REPORT John George Lambton (Lord Durham) sent to Quebec City as governor general. Suggested solutions for rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada. Wrote “report on Affairs of British Canada” also known as Durham report "[In Lower Canada] I expected to find a contest between a government and its people: I found two nations warring in the bosom of a single state" Lord Durham Recommended assimilating the French Canadians — whom he called "a people with no literature and no history" Named “Radical Jack” in British House of Commons because of radical policies. Upper and Lower Canada unite and become one colony, called United Provin ce of Canada - would unite English speaking people, would give them majority in gov’t New colony should have responsible government - Local powers handled by colony: Imperial powers written, Governor advised by Executive Council only . THE ACT OF UNION, 1841 LORD DURHAM’S REPORT Two Major recommendations in his report are: 1. The two colonies should become one called the United Province of Canada 2.The United Colony should have a responsible government The British imperial powers(?) should be sent out in writing. All other legal power(?) Would be handled by the colonies Executive council and would be advised The governor stayed neutral but signed things by the executive council The executive council was not picked from the government but was chosen by leaders of other groups (legislative assembly) this is called “Responsible government” Members of the executive council would stay in the council if half of the legislative assembly supports them Personal Information 1792-1840 Arrived in Quebec city as a governor general of British north America in 1838 Interested in education the poor THE ACT OF UNION, 1841 Aim: create single government, establish English as official language Was first step toward Confederation Canada was split as Canada West (Upper Canada) and Canada East (Lower Canada, Ontario) In 1847, Lord Elgin became governor Executive Council/Cabinet got most power and are responsible to Legislative Assembly Many members formed political parties to achieve power. Nova Scotia:1847, New Brunswick: 1854, Newfoundland:1855, Prince Edward Island: 1851. Received responsible gov’t in these years. II. GOVERNMENT IN UNITED CANADA- ACT OF UNION, 1840 Copy Diagram- next page THE ACT OF UNION (1841) Since the Rebellion wanted a better and responsible government British passed a law called the Act of Union British government acted on one of Lord Durham’s recommendations The act of union joined in Upper and Lower Canada as the united province The two aims of the British were to control the two colonies of Canada into one and give the English people control of the newly named colony and to have a new colony with a responsible government They also established English as the official language of government PEOPLES' HISTORY OF CANADA REBELLION & REFORM- EPISODE 7 Union of the Canadas: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yEwZsar9W8k https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wHvMJGZzc28 1. What two recommendations did Lord Durham make for the colonies? 2. What was the disagreement between Haliburton & Howe? How did the settle their differences? 3. What problem did Lafontaine face and how did Baldwin help him solve it? REBELLIONS UPPER AND LOWER CANADA 1837 & 1838 Key Events In Canadian History Which influenced The Nation We Have Today SUMMARY: Upper Canada William Lyon Mackenzie The Reformers Vs. Family Compact Lower Canada Louis Joseph Papineau The Patriots Vs. Chateau Clique Protesting against the Oligarchies control Desired a Responsible Government Wanted less Church control Assembly had to approve taxes or no collection would occur LORD DURHAM’S REPORT Durham's Recommendations to unite Upper and Lower Canada to make the French a minority to assimilate or anglicize the French majority in Lower Canada to grant responsible government Consequences of Durham's Recommendations Upper and Lower Canada were united in 1840 Responsible government was granted in 1848 leading to Confederation in 1867 Created the roots of today’s French ‘separatism’ REBELLIONS LOSSES BILL 1849 Reformers controlled the Assembly, their bill sought to compensate those in what had been Lower Canada for damages that resulted from the rebellions. was controversial because the Tories objected that many of the claimants were former rebels who were against the Crown. was well received by French Canadians, but British elements opposed it so strongly that they attacked Elgin and burned the parliament building down in Montreal CONFEDERATION 1867 The Province of Canada, (Ontario & Quebec) New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island- 1867 A system based on British Parliament Proposed limited central government balanced by provincial power “Rep by pop” House of Commons and the Senate represented regions Called for a two-chamber (bicameral) parliament, including a (appointed) senate and a (elected) house of commons. GOVERNMENT IN CANADABRITISH NORTH AMERICA ACT, 1867 (CANADA ACT, 1867) Copy Diagram- next page POST UNIT ESSAY TEST QUESTIONS: Copy down the following questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What was the Act of Union and how did it help to unite the Canada? Who was Lord Durham? Why is he significant in Canadian History? How did his report help form the identity and culture of Canada? Why was their unrest in Upper and Lower Canada? How did this unrest lead to the Rebellions of 1837 -38? What was the government in Upper Canada? What was the government in Lower Canada? Were they similar? Different? How so? Compare and contrast government as established by the Constitutional Act, Act of Union, and BNA. THE END!