EDU1005RedOwl

Report
Prepared and Presented by:
Maureen Berman
Vikki LoRusso
Wayne Loper
Case Study Research
 Definition
 Case Study Research
• involves the study of an issue explored through one or more cases
within a bounded system (i.e., a setting, a context.)
• a methodology, a type of design in qualitative research, or an object of
study, as well as a product of the inquiry.
(Creswell, 2007, p. 73)
Case Study Research (Cont’d)
 Case Study Research includes
 In-depth Study of a Single Case or Collective Case
 Bounded System – the ‘case’ selected for study has boundaries often
bounded by time and place
 Multiple Sources of Information – the use of many different sources
of information to prove ‘depth’ to the case
 Case Description – stating the “facts about the case as recorded by the
investigator. This is the first step of analysis of data in a qualitative case
study.
 Case Based Themes - the researcher analyzes the data for specific
theme’s, aggregating information into large clusters of ideas and
providing details that support the themes.
(Creswell, 2007, p. 73)
Case Study Research (Cont’d)
Bounded System
•Time—6 months of data collection
•Place—situated on a single campus
•Single Case—campus community
•The reactions of the groups on campus
Multiple Sources of Information
•Initial Interviews
Campus administrators, students, newspaper reporters
•Expanded Interviews
Campus informants and gathered observational data,
documents and audio visual materials
Case Description
•Narrative structure to describe details including edited
quotes from the informants and stating the interviewers
interpretations of the events
•Considerable time describing the setting for the case
Case Based Themes
•Denial
•Fear
•Safety
•Retriggering
•Campus planning (Preparedness)
(Creswell, 2007, pp.357-374)
Case Study Research (Cont’d)
 Types of Case Studies (Creswell, 2007, p. 74)


Distinguished by the size of the bounded case
Does the case involve:
• An individual
• Several individuals
• A group
• An entire program
• An activity
Distinguished by the intent of the case analysis
•
Single Instrumental Case Study –the focus is on the specific issue and
a bounded case is selected to illustrate the issue. (i.e., the gunman case
study) (Stake, 1995, as cited in Creswell, 2007, p. 74)
•
Collective Case Study –the focus is on an issue but multiple case
studies are examined to illustrate the issue
•
Intrinsic Case Study –the focus is on the case because it presents an
unusual or unique situation (Stake, 1995, as cited in Creswell, 2007, p. 74)
Case Study Research (Cont’d)
 Procedures for Conducting a Case Study (Stake, 1995, Creswell, 2007, pp. 74-75)
 Determine appropriateness
• clearly definable boundaries that seeks to provide an in depth understanding of the case(s)
 Identify the case or cases
• single or collective, multi-sited or with-in site,
 Data collection
• very extensive, drawing on multiple sources of information (observations, interviews,
documents, audiovisual materials)
 Type of data analysis
• Holistic Analysis – examine the entire case and present the description, themes, and
interpretations related to the whole case (Yin, 2003, as cited in Creswell, 2007, p. 75)
• Embedded Analysis – select one analytic aspect of the case for presentation (i. e., The gunman
case study involved tracing the campus response to a gunman for two weeks immediately
following the near tragedy on campus.) (Stake, 1995, as cited in Creswell, 2007, p. 75)
• Detailed Description – stating the facts as recorded by the investigator (Stake, 1995, as cited in
Creswell, 2007, p. 75)
• Analysis of Themes - analyzes the data for specific themes aggregating information into large
clusters of ideas and providing details that support the themes not to generalize about the case
but to better understand the complexity of the case (Yin, 2003, as cited in Creswell, 2007, p. 75)
Case Study Research (Cont’d)
 Procedures for Conducting a Case Study (Cont’d)
 Interpretive phase: Identifying the meaning of the case
• Direct Interpretation - look at a single instance and draw meaning from it
without looking for multiple instances of it: pulling the data apart (analysis) and
putting it back together (synthesis) in a meaningful way
• Establish Patterns – establish patterns and looks for a correspondence between
two or more categories which can be displayed in a table format to establish a
small number of categories
• Develop Naturalistic Generalizations – from analyzing the data,
generalizations that people can learn from the case either for themselves or to
apply to a population of cases an investigator undertakes a case study to make the
case understandable
(Stake, 1995, as stated in Creswell, 2007, p. 163)
Case Study Research (Cont’d)
Challenges in Developing a Case Study
• Identifying the Case or Issue
• Is the Issue Worth Studying?
• Has the Issue any Value?
• What Type of Case Study Will You Conduct?
• Single or Multiple Cases?
• What Is the Most Useful and Promising?
• Data Collection
• Establish a Rationale
• Is Enough Information Available?
• Boundaries
• How Will You Bound Your Case Study?
(Creswell, 2007, pp. 75-76)
Case Study Research (Cont’d)
Challenges in Developing a Case Study
• What Is the Intent of Your Study?
• Will it Generate Theory?
• Will it Be Analytic in Nature?
• Will it Display Cross Case Comparisons?
• Will it Display Within Case Comparisons?
(Creswell, 2007, pp. 75-76)
Case Study Research (Cont’d)
Case Study Structure
• Overall Rhetorical Structure
• Short Descriptive Opening Statement
• Identify the Issue, Purpose and Method
• Extensive Body of Uncontested Data
• Presentation of Key Ideas
• Investigation of the Issues
• Assertions
• Closing Statement
• Embedded Rhetorical Structure
• What Specific Structures Does the
Researcher Use to Present the Study?
Approach
Proper Balance
(Stake, 1995, as cited in Creswell, 2007, pp. 195-196)
Research Approach Comparison
 A Case Study Versus a Narrative Study
(Creswell, 2007, pp. 225-226)
Case Study
Narrative Study
Research
Approach
Clearly Identifiable Case is Examined
often Illustrating the Complexity of an
Issue
The Life of a Single Individual
Purpose
Statement
Bounded, Single or Collective Case,
Event, Process, Program, Individual
Stories, Epiphanies, Lived
Experiences, Chronology
Questions
What Happened? Differing Approaches,
Intents and Structures
What Stories Can be Told and
What Theories Relate to this
Individual’s Life
Data Collection
Documents, Records, Interviews,
Observation
and Artifacts
Documents, Interviews,
Observations and Archived
Materials
Data Analysis and Describe the Case and Context, Establish
Representation
Themes and Patterns, Develop
Naturalistic Generalizations
Describe Experiences, Identify
Stories, and Interpret the Larger
Meaning
Written Report
Present Narration Focusing on
Process, Theories, and Features
of the Life
Present In-Depth Picture Using
Narrative, Tables, and Figures
Research Approach Comparison
 A Case Study Versus a Phenomenological Study
(Creswell, 2007, pp. 225-227)
Case Study
Phenomenological Study
Research
Approach
Clearly Identifiable Case is Examined
often Illustrating the Complexity of an
Issue
Examine a psychological concept, a
phenomenon.
Purpose
Statement
Bounded, Single or Collective Case,
Event, Process, Program, Individual
Describe; Experiences; Meaning; Essence
Questions
What Happened? Differing
Approaches, Intents and Structures
What was experienced? How did they
experience it? What meaning did they
ascribe to it?
Data Collection
Documents, Records, Interviews,
Observation
and Artifacts
Extensive interviews with five to twenty-five
people. Often, multiple interviews with the
same individuals.
Data Analysis
and
Representation
Describe the Case and Context,
Establish Themes and Patterns,
Develop Naturalistic Generalizations
Analyze for significant meanings and
statements. Look for significant statements
or quotes about their meanings.
Written Report
Present In-Depth Picture Using
Narrative, Tables, and Figures
Cluster into broader theme. Describe what
(textual) they experienced; how (structural)
they experienced. Combine the two to
describe the essence of their experience.
Research Approach Comparison
 A Case Study Versus a Grounded Theory Study
(Creswell, 2007, pp. 225-, 227-228)
Case Study
Grounded Theory Study
Research
Problem
Clearly Identifiable Case is Examined
often Illustrating the Complexity of an
Issue
Moves beyond a description of a
phenomenon, develops a theory of practice
Purpose
Statement
Bounded, Single or Collective Case,
Event, Process, Program, Individual
Generate; Develop; Propositions; Process;
Substantive theory
Questions
What Happened? Differing
Approaches, Intents and Structures
What theory explains the phenomenon?
What were those experiences? What
caused them? What strategies did they use
to cope with them? What were the
consequences of their strategies? What
specific interaction issues and larger
conditions influenced their strategies?
Data Collection
Documents, Records, Interviews,
Observation
and Artifacts
Conduct interviews with between 20-30
people.
Data Analysis
and
Representation
Describe the Case and Context,
Establish Themes and Patterns,
Develop Naturalistic Generalizations
Procedure for developing categories of info (open
coding); interconnecting the categories (axial
coding); building a story that connects the
categories (selective coding); ends with a discursive
set of theoretical propositions.
(Strauss & Corbin, 1990, as cited in Creswell, p. 228)
Written Report
Present In-Depth Picture Using
Narrative, Tables, and Figures
Discusses the relationship of the theory to other
existing knowledge and implications of the theory
for future research and practice.
(May, 1986, as cited in Creswell, p. 190)
Research Approach Comparison
 A Case Study Versus an Ethnographical Study
(Creswell, 2007, pp. 225, 228-229)
Case Study
Ethnographical Study
Research Problem
Clearly Identifiable Case is Examined
often Illustrating the Complexity of an
Issue
Generating a theory grounded in the data.
Purpose Statement
Bounded, Single or Collective Case,
Event, Process, Program, Individual
Culture-sharing group; Culture behavior
and language; Culture portrait; Cultural
themes
Questions
What Happened? Differing
Approaches, Intents and Structures
How did this incident produce predictable
role performance within affected groups?
Data Collection
Documents, Records, Interviews,
Observation
and Artifacts
Extended time interviews and observations.
1) Build rapport with community
participation; 2) Observe over time
predictable activities, behavior of roles 3)
rely on interview, observations, newspaper
accounts.
Data Analysis and
Representation
Describe the Case and Context,
Establish Themes and Patterns,
Develop Naturalistic Generalizations
Written Report
Present In-Depth Picture Using
Narrative, Tables, and Figures
Interpret and make sense of the findings
to see how the culture works. Then
present narrative presentation enhanced
with tables, figures and sketches.
The report is a summary of the analysis and
interpretation.
References
Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education (6th ed.).
New York: Routledge.
Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five
approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

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