RADIO MUHABURA: A HATE RADIO?

Report
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
The Muhabura is an extinct volcano situated
on the border of Rwanda and Uganda, at an
altitude of 4,127 meters, latitude of 1°22’55.81’’
South and longitude of 29°40’41.52’’ East. It is
the most Northern Rwandan volcano with at
its South-West six other extinct volcanos:
Gahinga,
Mukurumubi,
Nyamuragira,
Sabyinyo, Bisoke and Karisimbi.
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
Muhabura – Muhavura – Umuhabuura (guhabuura) :
« celui qui est visible de loin », « celui qui sert de point de
repère », « le phare », « who is leading the way ».
Ikiruunga (kuruunga) : volcano, huge person, swarm of
flies or bees.
Ikiruumba (kjuruumba) : volcano, sterile plant,
unproductive field, plante ou champ stérile, bon à rien,
good-for-nothing.
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
Les anciens Rwandais affirmaient : « Muri
Muhabuura hajya abazimu b ababaandwa
baapfuuye ari aabeere », « Dans le Muhabura, sont
installés les esprits des adeptes du culte de
Ryaangoombe, lesquels sont sans souillure ».
Ryaangoombe était une sorte de magicien
ambulant originaire du Kitara cya Muliro, dans
l’ouest de l’Ouganda, actuellement le Toro, au
nord du Lac Edouard, Rwicanzige, « Celui qui tue
les sauterelles ». C’est aussi au Toro que bon
nombre de réfugiés Tutsi rwandais se sont réfugiés
dès l’année 1959, en attendant de revenir vers la
mère patrie, sur les pas de… Ryaangoombe.
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
According to Anicet KAREGE, Radio Muhabura
took the name of a RPF newspaper working in
Bujumbura for the mobilisation of young diaspora
Tutsi recruits and RPF propaganda.
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
1990-1994 : 85 newspapers, radios and propaganda
organs, 51 (63%) of which were pro-RPF.
33 à 44% illettrés (illiterates), presse écrite peu
développée, caricatures (cartoons)+
1991 : 29% of the families had a radio receiver (27%
in countryside, 59% in towns)
THE RADIO IS THE BEST TOOL FOR
HITTING THE PROPAGANDA’S TARGET.
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
RADIO RWANDA (State radio: ORINFOR) :
5 KW (1960), 50 KW (1963 : Deutsche Welle, Kinyinya), new
building in Kigali (1968, German funds) ;
In 1992 : Jean-Marie Vianney Higiro (MDR) is appointed
director as a democratic step.
RADIO MUHABURA (rebel clandestine RPF radio):
First transmission in March 1991, 28 months before RTLM.
RTLM SA (Radio Télévision Libre des Mille collines) :
Private radio : first idea in 1992, expérimental transmissions
in July 1993, operational in August 1993.
Created in reaction to the propaganda of Radio Muhabura
and to the control of Radio Rwanda by the opposition party
MDR in 1992
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
The Tutsi businessman Valens Kajeguhakwa, alias
« VEKA » (V. K.), alias « Avenue Château Wales »,
belongs to the « chers compagnons, amis et frères » of
RPF.
« VK » used 50 million BEF from his account at the
« Banque du Luxembourg » for financing RPF in 19901991, including the purchase of a radio transmitter.
VK took refuge in the USA in 2001.
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
On the 2nd of July 1992, BBC-Monitoring (BBC-M)
service in Karen-Nairobi-KENYA monitored Radio
Muhabura on 6.400 Khz (near the 49 meters short
wave « tropical band »).
ALL THE DATA (AUDIO RECORDINGS AND
TRANSCRITS)
OF
THE
BBC-M
ARE
AUTOMATICALLY COPIED FOR THE US FBIS (CIA)
BECAUSE OF THE UKUSA AGREEMENT (1943).
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
Short waves, modulated amplitude (AM), no SSB/BLU.
Initialy on 6.400 Khz (tropical band).
Then in the range 6.200 to 6.400 Khz (ideally with a 12
meters vertical antenna at 12 meters from the ground!)
Interférences on the radio frequencies of the BBC
giving a bad S.I.N.P.O.
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
GMT
0400 – 0530
1000 – 1135
1715 – 2005
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
« This is Radio Muhabuura.
Radio Muhabuura, the voice that
repatriates the voice of the RPF
Inkootanyi ».
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
Mid-1991: Southern Uganda.
Moved to Bujumbura-Burundi in 1992-1993, under the
protection and financial aid of Tutsi dictator Pierre
Buyoya. Presence of 400 Inkotanyi in Bujumbura.
Closed begin October 1993 on order of newly elected
Hutu President Melchior Ndadaye, who has been
murdered a little bit later, on 21 October 1993.
Reappeared on the hights of Mulindi RPF HQ in
November 1993.
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
After the « Coup d’Etat » of 4 April 1994, Radio
Muhabura regularly changed its position for
security reasons.
In April-May 1994, mainly in Byumba.
End June 1994, probably in the Centre Christus in
Kigali, according to testimonies.
9 July 1994: closure of Radio Muhabura.
15 July 1994: reopening of Radio Rwanda with the
same Radio Muhabura team, on 6,055 Khz.
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
Till mid-1992, Radio was heared everywhere in
Rwanda, excepted in the South (Nduga).
After moving to Buja, all the Rwandan territory
was covered.
Easily recorded in Nairobi, even by the radio opera
tors in Canada (Club Ondes Courtes du
Québec).
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
ENGLISH
KINYARWANDA
FRENCH
SWAHILI
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
1/ MUGONGA Emmanuel
2/ RUTAYISIRE Wilson aka « Shabani » (Rwanda,
1994), aka « Khadafi » (Congo, 1996-1997)
3/ KARAKE Mweusi
4/ MUGABE Jean-Pierre
5/ « KAMANZI Ntabiri »
6/ MUKIMBIRI Jean
7/ RUTAZIBWA Privat
8/ MUSONERA Gaspard
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
9/ MUZINGA Emmanuel
10/ MUGABO Callixte
11/ BUTERA Pierre-Célestin
12/ HIKIRIMANA Jean-Baptiste
13/ KADES – KADEA - KARERA
Jean-Baptiste
14/ MIGAMBI Ferdinand
15/ NKUNDWA Claude
16/ KABAVU Emmanuel
17/ NDAMBAJE -NDAYAMBAJE
Wilson
18/ NYILIMBWA Gérard
19/ Nicodème X
20/ TATU Jean-Baptiste
21/ MWENE BUKUNGU
22/ KAYIBANDA Louise
23/ HABINEZA Jean-Paul
24/ « PAUL »
25/ MANZI « Bucumi » Sudi Fadi
(radio-technician?)
26/ SEHENE (François?)
27/ MAZIMPAKA Ernest
28/ NKAKA Raphaël
29/RUZIRAGUTEBA Idriss (real
name: MBONIMANA Silas)
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
Foreign radios news.
Spy network of RPF-Inkotanyi (internal
RPF cells).
After end December 1993: the 3rd Bn
RPA/RPF at the CND in Kigali
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
ALEXIS Monique, ARUN KUMAR BANERJI, BAKUNDA ISAHU
BANYAKU LUAP EPOTU, CYICARO Pierre-Célestin, BOOH BOOH
Jacques-Roger, BURANGA Anicet, CHEUZEVILLE Hervé, CONOIR
Yvan, DE BOISDEFFRE Pierre, DE BROCQUEVILLE Huguette, COMBY
Jean, DEGUINE Hervé, DE SOUTER Serge, ERNY Pierre, GASANA
James Kwizera, GUICHAOUA André, GULSETH Hege Løvdal,
KABAGEMA Edouard, KANYABASHI Joseph, KAREGE Anicet,
KAREMANO Charles, KINTU Remigius, LINGUYENEZA Vénuste
(Mgr), MADSEN Wayne, MARYSSE Stefaan, MARTINEZ Luis,
MBONIMPA Melchior, MFIZI Christophe, MIHIGO Igor Wabo,
MPAMBARA
Ines,
MPAYIMANA
Philippe,
MUKAMUGANGA
Madeleine, MUSABYIMANA Gaspard, NDAHAYO Eugène, NDUWAYO
Léonard,
NGIRABATWARE
Augustin,
NSENGIMANA Nkiko,
NTILIKINA Faustin, NTISONI Lambertus, OVERDULVE C.M.,
PEROUSE DE MONTCLOS Marc-Antoine, POMERLEAU Yvon,
UMURAZA Chantal, VERNA Gérard…
20100522, ICTR Defense Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
DES FORGES LIEBHAFSKY Alison (ALDF), OMAAR Rakiya, CHATAIN Jean,
MELVERN Linda R., épouse Phil Green, DIALLO Tafsir, NDAHIRO Alfred,
RUTAZIBWA Privat, PRUNIER Gérard, KUPERMAN Alan J., HYDEN Goran, LESLIE
Michael, OQUNDIMU Folu F., DE ZEEUW Jeroen, KUMAR Krishna, LORD Kristin
M., ADEKUNLE Julius O., LEHMANN Ingrid A, PRICE Monroe E., THOMPSON
Mark, DUPAQUIER Jean-François, KABANDA Marcel, NGARAMBE Joseph,
GOUREVITCH Philip, WALLIS Andrew, CASTONGAY Jacques, MAS Monique,
HUGHES Nick, RITTNER Carol, ROTH John K., WHITWORTH Wendy, BOWEN
Roger W, ADELMAN Howard, SUHRKE Astri, DOWNING John, HUSBAND Charles,
GUILLEBAUD « Meg » Margaret, KELLOW Christine L., STEEVES H. Leslie, GATWA
Tharcisse, STRAUS Scott, KIRSCHKE Linda, CHALK Frank, CAPLAN Gérald,
DOYLE Mark, DOWDEN Richard, DAHINDEN Philippe, KAMANZI Ntabiri,
DESROSIERS Marie-Eve, PONTZEELE Sophie, DOS SANTOS Silva Alexandre,
SAYLOR Kathryn C., SCHIMMER Russell, SELLSTRÖM Tor, WOHLGEMUTH
Lennart, MITCHELL Jolyon, MINEAR Larry, KENT Randolph C., ORTH Rick,
COHEN Jared, KELLOW Christine L., STEEVES H. Leslie, CHRETIEN-GONI JeanPierre, DALLAIRE Roméo...
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
NAHIMANA Ferdinand, NGEZE Hassan, BARAYAGWIZA Jean-Bosco (ICTR-99-52-T).
BAGILISHEMA Ignace (ICTR-95-1A-T).
KAYISHEMA Clément & Co.
NYIRAMASUHUKO Pauline, NTAHOBALI Arsène Shalom, NSABIMANA Sylvain,
NTEZIRYAYO Alphonse, KANYABASHI Joseph, NDAYAMBAJE Elie (ICTR-98-42-T).
BIZIMUNGU
Casimir,
MUGENZI
Justin,
BICAMUMPAKA
Jérôme-Clément,
MUGIRANEZA Prosper (ICTR-99-50-T).
KAJELIJELI Juvénal (ICTR-98-44A-T).
NDINDILIYIMANA Augustin, BIZIMUNGU Augustin, NZUWONEMEYE François-Xavier,
SAGAHUTU Innocent (ICTR-2000-56-T).
SEMANZA Laurent (ICTR-97-20-T).
NTAGERURA André (ICTR-99-46-I).
MUSEMA Alfred (ICTR-96-13).
KAREMERA Edouard, NZIZORERA Joseph, NGIRUMPATSE Mathieu…
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
1/ CONTRA-PROPAGANDA AGAINST THE « HABYARIMANA
REGIME » OR « CLIQUE » AND AGAINST THE AD INTERIM
RWANDAN GOVERNMENT (ABATABAZI).
2/ INCITATION TO VIOLENCE, WAR, RETALIATION.
3/ CAMOUFLAGE OF BOTH RPF’S STRATEGY AND WAR CRIMES.
4/ COMPLICITY OF MURDER BY NON ASSISTANCE TO CITIZENS
IN DANGER.
5/ SYSTEMATIC CRITIC OF BOTH INTERVENTION
INACTIVITY OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY.
OR
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
"(…) Last night, Radio Rwanda aired a very worrying communiqué. The
communiqué points out that both the prefects of Kigali and Kigali town
were going to go ahead with the publication [of names] of young people
who are said to have joined the armed wing of the Rwandan Patriotic
Front. The reason put forward was that the population must be given the
list of names of the families of RPA soldiers. We do not understand why.
In the recent past, such pretexts have launched large-scale programmed
massacres. Clearly, once more, the regime is again looking for scapegoats
(...)". "It can not be denied that not only young people but also men,
women, the aged and children have regularly left the country, fleeing
massacres orchestrated by the administration" (...). "Citizens are
massacred, then it is alleged that they had joined the RPA. This was the
case in Muhigira, Murambi and elsewhere. And now they want to turn on
the families of the dead so as to inflict death. What a misery! Moreover,
the young men who have joined the ranks of the RPA are adults, of sound
mind, and in a state of law. If there is a case for legal proceedings against
them, it should be conducted against them individually and not against
their relatives (...). A word to the wise is enough".
Radio Muhabura, 19921015, 1715 GMT, French.
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
"The RPF believes that it has been clearly understood as to why it
resumed fighting two days ago. Therefore, in the interest of the two
parties in the conflict, the RPF declares an immediate cease-fire, which
the Rwandese government forces must also respect immediately" (...)
"The RPF wishes to remind that it resumed fighting due to the following
reasons. One, the continuous display of lack of respect for the peace
process by President Habyarimana and his likes in Kigali government.
Two, the continuous attacks on RPA positions by the Rwandese
government forces, as attested to by the NMOG (...). Three, continuous
intimidation, violence and massacres instigated by President
Habyarimana himself and his clique in power, using all the state
institutions at their disposal. Four, the presence of foreign troops,
contrary to the cease-fire agreement, and continuous involvement of
these foreign troops in direct support of the dictatorial and sectarian
regime".
Radio Muhabura, 19930210, 1715 GMT, English.
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
"We hereby deny what has been broadcast. As you heard, yesterday,
Wednesday 10th February 1993, the RPF announced it had stopped
fighting. It also called on the Rwandan government to stop fighting. Sadly,
however, government troops continue to attack the RPF's newly-acquired
positions with the intention of reoccupying them. This proves that the
Rwandan government does not intend to stop fighting, and clearly shows that
the fighting cannot cease because RPF troops cannot fail to respond while
they are being attacked" (...) "Why should the government worry about the
RPF remaining in the positions it currently holds if the government
genuinely wants talks leading to peace, instead of its usual practice of saying
one thing and doing another?" (...) "The Defense Ministry, in conjunction
with Rwandan radio, is claiming that the RPF kills citizens wherever it goes.
We tell you again that this is a lie fabricated by the government to distort the
RPF's image. The lie is baseless. To kill innocent citizens is a shameful crime
the RPF could not dare to commit. It would also be contrary to its aims. Ever
since taking up arms, the RPF has wanted to protect citizens who were being
killed by the MRND regime. How can it now start killing those it is supposed
to protect? Instead, it needs to join them in fighting the bad government of
the MRND" (...) "But if the government troops continue to fight in the
hope of recovering the positions recently occupied by the RPF, it is clear
that the war will never end".
Radio Muhabura, 19930211, 1715 GMT, Kinyarwanda.
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
"We wish to deny the report that President Habyarimana has visited his
soldiers in Ruhengeri. President Habyarimana is a good liar. Yesterday,
12th February 1993 [WRONG,Radio Rwanda, the 13th, 1115 GMT], you
heard yet another of his ploys to the effect that he visited his troops in
the town of Ruhengeri. You also heard a speech he is reported to have
made there. Actually, he never set foot there. The ploy is another in the
series of lies the Defense Ministry has been broadcasting, according to
which their troops are in control of the town of Ruhengeri. In fact, even
since the war resumed, the Inkotanyi have been in control of the town by
continuing to surround it. It is true that President Habyarimana tried to
visit his troops yesterday in Ruhengeri, but he failed. His helicopter
tried to land in the town three times, but each attempt was
failed by the fire of RPF troops. He was lucky that his helicopter
was not hit".
Radio Muhabura, 19930213, 1735 GMT, French.
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
"Three delegates of the UN commission for the defense of human rights"
have visited the area controlled by the Rwandan Patriotic Front. The
objective of the visit was to verify the Kigali government's statements
claiming that the RPF had massacred civilians in the areas it vacated on
17th march, notably in Ngarama. During their visit, [names indistinct]
met some Rwandan Patriotic Army officers, including the RPA C-in-C,
Paul Kagame, who told tem the accusations by Kigali were
baseless. The dictatorial regime, he added, habitually massacred
innocents, even in the regions far away from the combat zones. The RPA
C-in-C recalled the cases of Kibilira, Kanzenze and Bugesera and
Bigogwe. On the claim that the RPF illegally confined Rwandan citizens
on Ugandan territory, Paul Kagame said the RPF did not practise [words
indistinct] and had no reason to deport people. Referring to the Ngarama
affairs, the RPA C-in-C [Paul Kagame] termed it a scandalous lie meant to
tarnish the RPF after the publication on 8th March of an overwhelming
report on the Kigali human rights performance in Rwanda (...)".
Radio Muhabura, 19930414, 1815 GMT, French.
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
"Reports confirmed by concrete evidence say the army
command and politicians are doing everything
possible to kill or transfer soldiers who kept peace in
their areas. We have examples. There is Major Michel
Havugiyaremye in Rwamagana, whom they want to
kill because he did not support the plan to cause
chaos in this area. There are also Major Cyiza, Major
Ngayaberura and Major Kambanda, also threatened
because they refused to shed blood in their areas".
Radio Muhabura, 19940411, 0415 GMT, Kinyarwanda.
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
"Les journalistes ont aussi demandé son opinion
sur les accusations que le FPR tuait aussi des civils.
Le général-major Paul Kagame a catégoriquement
rejeté l'accusation. Il a indiqué que le FPR ne tuait
pas de civils au cours de ses opérations. Il a aussi
indiqué que les miliciens armés envoyés au combat
pour appuyer les forces armées gouvernementales
étaient, bien évidemment de la vulgaire chair à
canon ["common fodder", sic; en réalité
"common cannon fodder", en bon anglais].
Radio Muhabura, 19940518, 1815 GMT, French.
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
1/ Une banque de données est indispensable pour que tout un
chacun puisse objectivement savoir ce qui s’est réellement dit sur
Radio Muhabura.
2/ La banque de donnée des transcrits de médias radios
concernant le Rwanda contient actuellement 397 transcrits
d’enregistrements de Radio Muhabura, soit 40% de l’ensemble
des transcrits de diverses radios déjà analysés, et correspondant à
un total estimé de 11 heures d’enregistrement.
3/ Cette radio rebelle était un outil au service de la stratégie de
prise exclusive du pouvoir par le mouvement politico-militaire
RPF-Inkotanyi: « PARA TOMAR EL PODER » (Don Fernando
Andreu Merelles, Juzgado 4, Audiencia Nacional, Madrid).
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
4/ Depuis la mise en place du TPIR, il y a un blocage
systématique de l’accès aux enregistrements audio de Radio
Muhabura, enregistrements faits à Nairobi – Kairen par le
BBC-Monitoring et copié pour le FBIS (CIA) et le US State
Department. C’est l’Administration américaine (USSD) qui
a fourni les documents au Bureau du Procureur.
5/ L’analyse des transcrits de Radio Muhabura, obtenus par
examen des publications officielles de la BBC-Monitoring
(SWL) et de la CIA (FBIS-IV) révèle que Radio Muhabura
s’est fait le relai systématique de la position inflexible du
FPR : diabolisation du régime du Président Juvénal
Habyarimana, escamotage systématique de la vérité,
diabolisation du gouvernement intérimaire, division des
Rwandais entre eux, camouflage des crimes du FPR, refus
de cessez-le-feu, manipulation des consciences.
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
6/ If ICTR COVERS-UP THE TRUTH ABOUT WHAT
HAS REALLY SAID ON RADIO MUHABURA
ANTENNAS, THAT MEANS THAT ICTR HAS A POLICY
OF LYING.
7/ WE WANT TO KNOW THE TRUTH ABOUT THIS
REBEL CLANDESTINE RADIO MUHABURA. IF NOT,
THERE HAS BEEN AND THERE WILL BE NO FAIR
TRIAL IN ARUSHA.
8/ AFTER HAVING COPIED THE FBIS-IV (CIA) AND
THE BBC-M TRANSCRIPTS, NEXT STEP WILL BE TO
TAKE CONTACTS WITH BOTH BRITISH MI-5 AND US
STATE DEPARTMENT.
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.
ALL TOGETHER, LET US FURTHER
FIGHT FOR TRUTH, JUSTICE, PEACE
AND RECONCILIATION FOR ALL
OUR RWANDAN BROTHERS AND
SISTERS. WE WANT FAIR TRIALS FOR
EVERYBODY: IT IS A QUESTION OF
HUMANITY AND CHARITY.
Thank You.
20100522, ICTR Defence Symposium, Brussels, PUTS J.-P., MD.

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