nematodosis

Report
NEMATODOSIS
NEMATODOSIS at ABOMASUM
RUMINANTS in INDONESIA
Cause :
▹ Haemonchus sp.
▹ Mecistocirrus digitatus ⇨ >>> in
Indonesia
▹ Trichostrongylus sp.
▹ Ostertagia sp.
⇨ sub tropical
country
HAEMONCHIASIS
CAUSE
: Haemonchus sp.
SENSITIVE ANIMAL :
H. contortus & H. similis : sheep, goat,cattle
and other ruminants, escpecially young
ages
H. placei : escpecially cattle & other
ruminants and young ages
PREDILECTION OF THE PARASITE:
Abomasum, occasionally small intestine
ROUTE OF TRANSMISSION :
ingest of infective larvae (3
rdstg.) by grass (per oral)
PATOGENICITY :
Depend on several factors:
∙ Sufferer ages
∙ Size and body weight
∙ Duration of infection
∙ Nutrition status
∙ Haematology status
PATOGENESIS&CLINICAL SYMPTOM :
- 4 th stg larvae parasite characteristic ⇨ Blood sucking
- Mature worm destroy the mucosae when absorb the blood
(0,049 ml/ekr/hr) ⇨ anemia ⇨ decrease Hb ⇨
hypoproteinemia ⇨ increasing the permeability of the wal
blood sirculation ⇨ leakage blood watery ⇨ oedema ⇨
Bottle jaw
- Mature worm secret anticoagulant at the mucosae of injury
⇨ iritated the mucosae
- Decrease the capability: digesty, protein absorbtion– calium
and phosphor
- SELF CURE REACTION ⇨ Rx. body defense ⇨ become at
the day 10 –14 post infection
ACUTE SYMPTOM :
Heavy infection at young sheep/goat ⇨
anaemia ⇨ death
CHRONICS SYMPTOM:
۵ Anaemia
۵ Oedema : Bottle jaw / watery poke
ventral abdomen
۵ Diarrhea/constipation occasionally
۵ Variation of a desire to eat
۵ Weakness & thinness
POST MORTEM CHANGES:
- Mucosa membrane, skin & pale of visceral organ
- Watery blood/hydraemis
- Hydrothorax, hydropericard and ascites
- Hepar light brown, fragile & fattening
- The contents of abomasum were red brown, worm
>>
- Absces of mucosa, spot & ulcera & certain worms
sticking at the ulcera
DIAGNOSE :
- Clinical symptom:chronic of bottle jaw
- Fecal examination
by SEM
400 x
ELIMINATION :
~ Put the animals into a stall
~ Make a rotation for the meadow
~ Giving wormolas (phenothiazine 2,5
% inside molases)
Periodic treatment by:
* Phenothiazine single dose:
5- 40 gram/tail sheep/goat, p.o
40 – 80 gram/tail cattle, p.o
* Levamisol HCl : 7,5 mg/kg BW/p.o
2 ml/50 kg BW/i.m
* Parbendazole : 30 mg/kg BW Cattle
20 – 30 mg/kg BW sheep/goat ( ! : not for pregnant
animals)
* Doramectin/Avermectin :
1 ml/50 kg BW/im/sc
MECISTOCIRRUSIS
CAUSE : Mecistocirrus digitatus
PREDILECTION & SENSITIVE ANIMALS:
Cattle abomasum, buffalo, rare at small
ruminants
DISTRIBUTION: especially in tropical area
ROUTE OF INFECTION: Similar with
Haemonchosis
PATOGENESYS & CLINICAL SYMPTOM
:
 Larva 4 th stage characterized
parasitic, this stage quite long time
 Adult worm hematophagous
anaemia hypoproteinemia,oedema,
bottle jaw
 Decrease of BW, PCV at day 70 – 80
post infection
DIAGNOSE :
~ Clinical symptom
~ Fecal examination
ELIMINATION:
- Similar with Haemonchosis
- Preferable cattle not to be tend similar
with small ruminans
NEMATODOSIS AT THE SMALL INTESTINE OF
GOAT & SHEEP, OTHER RUMINANTS
CAUSE:
~ Strongyloides papillosus
~ Bunostomum sp.
~ Gaigeria pachyscelis
~ Trichostrongylus sp.
~ Cooperia sp.
~ Nemaodirus sp
PREDILECTION & SENSITIVE ANIMALS :
Small intestine of goat and other
ruminants
ROUTE OF TRANSMISSION :
Trichostrongylus sp., Cooperia sp.,
Nematodirus
Ingest of infective larvae (L3) with
ransum or
water
Bunostomum sp., Strongyloides sp. :
Ingest of infective larvae (L3) with
ransum or water (per oral), and skin
penetration (per cutan)
Gaigeria pachyscelis : L3 penetrated the
skin (p.c)
PATHOGENESIS
Larvae penetrated
In the mucosa of
SI
Iritat, inflammd wall of SI, lesi, ulcera &bleedng, diarrheae
Trichostrongylus, Nematodirus
Not hematophagous
Cooperia, G. pachyscelis, Bunostomum, Strongyloides
Hematophagous
G. pachyscelis & Bunostomum, if heavy infekct.
ANAEMIA
Bottle jaw
► G. pachyscelis, Bunostomum &
Strongyloides
Hipoproteinemia
Skin penetrated
Local reaction: inflammed, papula & skin rashl
CLINICAL SYMPTOM :
* More clear at young animals: weakness, thin,
anorexia
, anaemia, gloomy of body hair, diarrhea,
inhibited of
the growth.
* Heavy infection G. pachyscelis & Bunostomum :
bottle jaw
* Trichostrongylus at young animals & acute :
didn’t
want sucking, weakness & black scours worm
* Cooperia and Nematodirus similar with
Trichostrongylus
* Strongyloides : diarrhea, anaemia, BW &
anorexia
DIAGNOSIS :
Clin sympt
Fecal examine
ELIMINATION :
Prevention :
► to press down the worm population by doing :
- put animal in to a stable (intensive)
- make a rotation for the meadow
- high quality for the ransum
- put the ransum in a properly condition
- sanitation for the stable
- periodically treatment
Treatment :
BW
~
~
~
~
~
~
Methyridin : 180 mg/kg BW s.c
Pyrantel tartrat : 25 mg/kg BW p.o
Thiabendazol : 50 mg/kg BW
Oxfendazol : 5 mg/kg BW
Mebendazol : 15 mg/kg BW
Bephenium carbonat : 250 mg/kg
~ Phenothiazin : 20 – 30 gram/ekor
sheep
~ Neguvon : 110 mg/kg BW
~ Avermectin : 1 ml/50 kg BW
NEMATODOSIS AT PIGS PULMO
(METASTRONGYLOSIS)
CAUSE:
Metastrongylus apri
M. pudendotectus
M. salmi
⇨ seldom
PREDILECTION & SENSITIVE ANIMALS:
Pulmo (trachea, bronchus & bronchioli)
pig,wild pig, goat, deer and other
ruminans.



INTER MEDIATE HOST: Blood worm
– Octalaseum lacteum
– Allolobophora calignosa
– Lumbricus rubellus
– Eisenia foetida
ROUTE OF TRANSMISSION: Ingest the earth worm which
consist of larvae 3rd stage
[could also by chance pig ingest the 3rd stage of larvae]
Infective larva be able to still alive inside the body of the
earth worm:
– 1,5 yr inside the body of Octalaseum lacteum
– 2,5 yr inside the body of Allolobophora calignosa
– 3 yr inside the body of Lumbricus rubellus
– > 4,5 yr inside the body of Eisenia foetida
CLINICAL SYMPTOM :
- Cough & braething hard
- Inhibited of the growth
- Weakness & pale of the mucosae
►Mild infection: bronchitis & pneumonia
►Heavy infection: be able death
POST MORTEM CHANGES:
– Macroscopics :
 Red pale spot at pulmo pars inferior & occasionally
pars superior
 Decrease of the changes at the day 21 post infection
 Mild emphysema
 The area have a red color at the anterior part or at
the lowest part of the lobus of diaphragma
–Microscopics :
Young worms at the bronchioly at the day 10 20 post infection
Eosinophylia infiltration at the mucosa of
bronchi, peribronchi
Early of hyperplasia at 2-3 weeks post infection
Adult worms inside the bronchi, with eosinophyl
at the surrounding area
DIAGNOSE :
 CS/ be able confusing with Ascariasis & pig
flu
 Fecal examination ⇨eggs (consist of larvae)
ELIMINATION :
- Good condition of the system of the stall 
Earth worm cannot growth
Treatment for animals patients by :
▫ Tetramisol : 15 mg/kg BW/s.c or mixed with
ransum
▫ Levamisol HCl : 7,5 mg/kg BW/s.c
▫ Diethylcarbamacin : 22 mg/kg BW/s.c, 3 days
▫ Oxfendazol : 3mg/ kg BW for 7 days
▫ Doramectin/Avermectin : 1ml/50 kg
BW/i.m/s.c
NEMATODOSIS AT COLON &
RUMINANTS CAECUM
CAUSE :
◊ Trichuris sp.
◊ Oesophagustomum sp.
◊ Chabertia sp.
Trichuriasis
HABITAT & SENSITIVE ANIMALS :
CAECUM of goat, sheep,cattle, dog , cat, pig,camel.
ROUTE OF TRANSMISSION :
Ingest the infektive eggs (stg. II) with ransum or water
PATHOGENESIS, CLINICAL SYMPTOM & P.A :
 Sheep, pig, cattle  natural infection  CS/ rare
 Adult worms cause of acute inflammed or chronics (sesitys)
 PA/ : sesitys, necrosys haemorrhagia, oedema of mucosae &
adult worms >>.
(200- 300 worms) : diarrhea,
haemorrhagia, anaemia, if 6000 – 13000 : decrease of
BW, weakness, inhibited of the growth ⇨ death

Acute
infection
OESOPHAGUSTOMIASIS
CAUSE : Oesophagustomum sp. (=Nodular worm)
PREDILECTION & SENSITIVE ANIMALS: Colon & Caecum,
sensitive animals :
O. columbianum: Sheep,Goat,Deer
O.venulosum: Sheep, Goat, Camel
O. radiatum: Cattle
O. dentatum: Pig
ROUTE OF TRANSMISSION :
Ingest of infected larvae (L3).
PATHOGENESIS, C.S& P.A :
- Pathogen : O. venulosum & O. columbianum
- Occurs attacks by ages : 4 – 24 months
- Young sheep & adult sheep which attacks with larvae migrated ⇨ didn’t have
reaction of the body
- Sensitive animals: larvae come in to the sub mucosae of lamina propria intestine
Rx.local inflammed surrounding. Larvae, collecting the cell of EO, Lymphocyte,
MO & Giant   NODULES :
Central nodules : Caseosa & calcification
Outside`nodules : Capsules dan fibroblast
Larvae can survive up to 3 months  died
Chabertiasis
Cause: Chabertia sp
 PREDILECTION &SENSITIVE ANIMALS:
COLON (sheep, cattle, goat)
* ROUTE OF TRANSMISSION: ingest eggs
which coming out with faeces, hatch 24 hrs
latter and growth to be infected larvae

GK/ :
- Nodule >>> → rupture → peritonitis.
- Diarrehea with mucus & black green colors (6 days p.i &
similar with larvae that leave from the nodule).
- Chronics : watery diarrhea  dehydration,dry skin,
hunchbacked pars posterior of the body, stiff and dirty.
- Constipation because of the amount of worms >>> food
appetite ↓↓ cachexia, BW ↓↓ & extended with died
PA/ :
- Emaciation & body fat <<<
- Be found nodules >> at small intestine, colon & caecum,and
worms at cacing di colon & caecum
- Reddish of mucosae
- Nodules green colors – yellow, cause of something like as a
cheese
NEMATODOSIS
ASCARIASIS
ASCARIASIS AT PIGS
Cause : Ascaris suum
Predilections and host: small intestine of pigs (main host), cattle,
goat, sheep, dog and human
Route of transmission:
1. Per oral (by ingest infective eggs)
2. Prenatal (through placenta⇨ v. umbilicalis
foetus)
3. Nipples which contaminated by infective eggs
Pathogenesis and PA/ :
- Larvae : larvae migrations ⇨ tissues organ
damaged
- At hepar:
Acute :
1. bleeding surround v. intralobularis ⇨ eosinophyl
infiltration
⇨ absorbtion and regeneration
2. Sticky of the hepar cells: the lobus sticky each
others with increase of fibroblast
Chronics :
1. Hepatitis interstitial focal chronics
2. if recovered ⇨ fibrocys (white spots) ⇨ milk spot
liver
at the pulmo:
1. Laesi of the tissues cause of toxin
2. Mild bleeding at alveoli and bronchioli ⇨
destroyed of alveoli epithels, oedema, and eosinophyl infiltration
surround the pulmo
3. Heavy infections ⇨ bronchioly obstruction
- Adult worms: at the small intestine:
1. Adult worms ingest the content of intestines and destroy the
mucosa of intestine
2. Heavy infection ⇨ obstruction of intestinal duct ⇨ annoying
peristaltics of intestine & intestine perforations ⇨ peritonitis
3. Migration to the gastrium ⇨ vomite
4. Migration to the gall ducts ⇨ icterus
Clinical symptom:
- Heavy infection at young pig:
1.pneumonia ⇨ coughing + exudate
2. sudden die
Others general symptom:
1. Drooping of tail and ears
2. Decrease of food appetite
3. Difficulties in obtaining oxygen
4. Repeatedly rub the body on to the stable wall
5. Thiness
6. Diarrhea
7. Very weak animals ⇨ die
- Mild infections ⇨ cough and inhibited of the bodies growth
- Heavy infections at the young pigs after has
been weaned:
1.Heavy pneumonia ⇨ cough + exudate
2. Adult worms could be cause of die
3. Occasionally stiffness ⇨ paralysis
4. Obstruction of the gall ducts ⇨ GIT disturbances
5. Seldom accompany with secondary infections : pneumonia
lobair an pig influenza
- Heavy infections st the young pigs:
1. Short winded
2. Die cause of hepar functions disturbance
3. Adult worms migration to the gastrium ⇨ vomite, thiness,
puff out and oedema
4. Icterus and anaemia
Diagnose :
1. Clinical symptom
2. Fecal examinations
3. Post mortem operating
Disease elimination:
1. Take care of the healthy stabble especially suckled pigs mother
2. To take a bath for pigs mother before partus
3. To give anthelmintic for animals patients, especially before
mating and at the middle of pregnant periods
4. Improvement the management of animal husbandry
5. Treatment of animal patients by:
Piperazin : 120 mg/kg BW po ⇨ drug of choice
Phenotiazin : 400 mg/kg BW po
Thiabendazole : 0.1 – 0,4 % amount of feed animal
Avermectin : 1 ml/50 kg BW, im, sc
ASCARIASIS AT CATTLE FAMILIES
CAUSE : Toxocara vitulorum
ROUTE OF TRANSMISSION :
~ Through milk by early 3 wks lactation
→ milk born transmission
~ Per oral (ingest infective eggs)
~ prenatal infection
PATHOGENESIS :
Nyata terlihat at young cattle post natal infection & which
born from infected mothers (prenatal infection)
CLINICAL SYMPTOM :
 Diarrhea, thiness
 The respiration smelt butiric acid, anorexia
 Weakness & bisa tjd anemia
DIAGNOSE :
 Fecal examination from the young cattle
(3-6 mths)
 Milk examination from the mothers induk
menyusui (early 3 wks)
 Operated post mortem at the young cattle
ELIMINATION :
1. Pregnant cattle could be free from from worms, Tx/ anthelmintic before
kawin → mid pregnant → post partus
2. Young cattle ages by 2 wks, which infected → treated
Treatment and prevention :
Piperazin (drug of choice) : 220 mg/kg BW/po
Fenbendazole (Panacur) : 7.5 mg/kg BW
Infected by T.vitulorum larvae at status dorman
Mechanisms :
1.
In activated parasite endocrine system → inhibited release the product
suspension of hatching eggs at ecdysis periods
2.
Blocking transcription material DNA gen template for perkembangan
berikutnya
STATUS DORMAN → inhibited at 8–14 hr
prepartus
↓
Penetration aktivation of fibrose tissue by larvae enzym
for softening melunakkan tissue → L3
ENZYME PHENOMENA
Because of prolactine hormon activity → they need Ca
>> → immunosuppresive
Prostaglandine hormone → immunosupp resive against
immune respons → by infec tions mothers become
sensitive
Vet.publ.health aspect  zoonosis
ASCARIASIS AT DOG
CAUSE: Toxocara canis
PREDILECTION OF ADULT WORM : Small Intestine
CARA PENULARAN :
- Per oral infection (ingests the infective eggs )
- Prenatal infection (through placenta)
- Trans mammary infection = Lactogenic infection
- Paratenic host → infective eggs ingests by i.h
paratenic (rat, mouse) → L3 inside the muscle →
ingests by host → L3 occur to be adult worm within 3
weeks without migration again
PATHOGENICITY & CLINICAL SYMPTOM :
Puppies more sensitive & suffers than adult worm:
Clinical symptom :
 Diarrhea, vomite
 Vomites materials → go into the pulmo →
asphixia
 Puppies : inhibited of the growth,distended,
vomite & diarrhea moreover constipation, death : 2-3
wks
DIAGNOSE :
Clinical symptom → fecal examination → eggs
albumin sheet
albumin sheet
DISEASE ELIMINATION :
- Avoid mother & child from the sources of disease
- Given a good quality of feed
- Throw away the faces to the special area, if necessary can be
burn
- Sanitation the stable
- Treatment with Piperazin for the child by ages 2,3,4 &
8 wks & treated the mother by 3 or 4 mg post partum
- to the dogs which don’t know the histosry (baru
beli) :
3 – 6 mths: treated 2 x , repeated 1 wks
> 6 mths: treated 1 x
Anthelmintics :
Piperazine adipate : 100 mg/kg BW/po
Mebendazole 10 mg/kg BW/2 dd/ for 2 days
ASCARIASIS AT HORSES FAMILIES
CAUSE :
Parascaris equorum = Ascaris megalocephala
PREDILECTION & HOST:
Small intestine of horse, zebra & cattle
TRANSMISSION :
Ingest by infektive eggs
PATHOGENESIS,CLINICal SYMPTOM & PA/ :
 Espec. at young horses by ages less than 6 mths
 Heavy infection → catarrhalis enteritis → CS/ :
putrisid smelt diarrhea & pale faecal.
 Others CS/: Weakness, thiness → BW drops.
heavy infection: heavy colic, tachycardia, freq. resp.,
high febris & died after bbrp. hr. post infection
 Aktive worms → migration to the gall duct →
obstruction
PA/: ruptur ileum & peritoneum consist of intetine
suspension & worm
DIAGNOSE :
Selain clinical symptom, feces examination → eggs
albumin sheet
ELIMINATION :
- To maintain and keep the stable clean & treat
the young horses by ages 1 mth & seterusnya
every 4 – 6 mths by piperazine 100 mg/kg BW
- Pakan diletakkan palungan
- Tempat pembuangan tinja → fermentasi → utk.
pupuk → telur mati
THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF
GASTROINTESTINAL NEMATODA
By Geographics : continous occur at the warm and mild
climate areas
Oesophagustomum sp. & Trichuris sp. Well growing at the
temperature 10 - 25°C, wet environment, highly rainfal
Chabertia sp.: cold environment
DIAGNOSE
- Clinical symptom → fecal examination
- Post mortem examinations
ELIMINATION OF THE DISEASES
 Avoid the feed & water from poisined of L3
 Give a high quality ransum
 Avoid from the crowded population
 Separate the young animals from the adults
 Stable sanitation
 Make a rotation for the meadow by interval 30 – 90 dys
 Considerations to using the anthelmintics :
~ Toxic against all stages for all worms
~ Easy to use
~ Cheapest cost & easy to got
~ Save for the host
Check up & regularly treatment by :
 Methyridine: 200 mg/kgs BW/sc
 Thiabendazole: 50 mg/kgs BW/po
 Oxyfendazole: 10 mg/kgs BW/po
 Avermectin: 1 mg/kgs BW/sc/im

to be continous next week 

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