Warm Up:

Warm Up:
What do you think of when you hear
“Mongolia” or “Mongolians”?
Read: Observations of Mongol
Using your textbooks answer the
following questions:
Define nomadism.
Describe the religious beliefs of the Mongols.
Where were the Mongols able to conquer?
Why were the Mongols able to conquer such
a vast territory?
5. Describe the effects of Mongol Rule in
I. The Rise of the Mongols, 1200–1260
A. Nomadism in Central and Inner Asia
1. Nomadism and Political intergration
• Nomadic groups depended on scarce water
and pasture resources
- in times of scarcity, conflicts occurred
- resulting in the extermination of smaller
groups and in the formation of alliances and
I. The Rise of the Mongols, 1200–1260
2. Social Organization
• Mongol groups were strongly hierarchical
• headed by a single leader or khan,
• khans had to ask that their decisions be ratified by a
council of the leaders of powerful families.
• Powerful Mongol groups demanded and received
tribute in goods and in slaves from those less
- Some groups were able to live almost entirely on
I. The Rise of the Mongols, 1200–1260
3. Marriage & Women
• Mongol groups formed complex federations that
were often tied together by marriage alliances.
• Women from prestigious families often played
an important role in negotiating these alliances.
• Wives and mothers of rulers traditionally
managed state affairs between the death of a
ruler and the selection of a successor,
- often working to secure a relative to the
I. The Rise of the Mongols, 1200–1260
4. Nomadism & Religion
• The seasonal movements of the Mongol tribes
brought them into contact with many religions
- Judaism, Christianity, Buddhism, and Islam.
• The Mongols accepted religious pluralism
• Mongol khans were thought to represent the Sky
God, who transcended all cultures and religions;
• khans were thus conceived of as universal rulers
who both transcended and used the various
religions of their subjects.
I. The Rise of the Mongols, 1200–1260
B. The Mongol Conquests
1. Genghis Khan 1206 - 1234
• under the leadership of Genghis Khan the
Mongols conquered all of North China and
were threatening the Southern Song.
• the Mongol realms were united, all
recognized the authority of the Great Khan in
I. The Rise of the Mongols, 1200–1260
Khubilai Khan and the Yuan Dynasty
declared himself Great Khan in 1265,
the other Mongol khans refused to accept him
Khubilai founded the Yuan Empire, with its capital at
Beijing in 1271;
in 1279, he conquered the Southern Song.
After 1279, the Yuan attempted to extend its control
to Southeast Asia.
Annam and Champa were forced to pay tribute to the
an expedition to Java ended in failure.
I. The Rise of the Mongols, 1200–1260
3. Mongol Conquests
• that may have contributed to the Mongols’ ability to conquer such
vast territories:
• Technology & Tactics
- superior horsemanship
- better bows
- technique of following a volley of arrows with a deadly cavalry
• Adaptability
- new military techniques, adopt new military technology, and
incorporate non-Mongol soldiers into their armies;
• Reputation
- slaughtering all those who would not surrender
- ability to take advantage of rivalries among their enemies.
I. The Rise of the Mongols, 1200–1260
C. Overland Trade and the Plague
1. Trade
The Mongol conquests opened overland trade routes
brought about an unprecedented commercial integration of Eurasia.
The growth of long-distance trade under the Mongols led to significant transfer
of military and scientific knowledge among Europe, the Middle East, China, Iran,
and Japan.
First passports
Marco Polo
2. Diseases
the bubonic plague also spread over the trade routes of the Mongol Empire.
The plague spread from China, to Central Asia and from there to the
Mediterranean world along trade routes.
Warm Up:
What were some of the effects of
Mongol conquest of Eurasia?
II. The Mongols & Islam
A. Mongol Rivalry
1. Religious Tensions in Central Asia
• In the 1260s the Il-khan Mongol Empire controlled
parts of Armenia and all of Azerbaijan, Mesopotamia,
and Iran.
• Relations between the Buddhist/shamanist Il-khan
Mongols and their Muslim subjects were tense
- the Mongols had murdered the last Abbasid caliph
- Mongol religious beliefs and customs were contrary to
those of Islam.
II. The Mongols & Islam
2. Inter-Mongolian Conflict
• At the same time, Russia was under the
domination of the Golden Horde
- led by Genghis Khan’s grandson Batu
- who had converted to Islam
• announced his intention to avenge the last caliph.
• This led to the first conflict between Mongol
II. The Mongols & Islam
3. Results
• European leaders attempted to make an alliance
with the Il-khans to drive out Muslims
- Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine,
• the Il-khans sought European help in driving the
Golden Horde out of the Caucasus.
• These plans for an alliance never happened
because the Il-khan ruler Ghazan converted to
Islam in 1295.
II. The Mongols & Islam
B. Islam and the State
1. Mongol Taxation
• The goal of the Il-khan State was to collect as much tax
revenue as possible, which it did through a tax farming
• Short Term:
- tax farming system was able to deliver large amounts of
grain, cash and silk.
• long term:
- over-taxation led to increases in the price of grain, a
shrinking tax base, and, by 1295, a severe economic crisis.
II. The Mongols & Islam
2. Attempts at Reform
• Attempts to end the economic crisis
- tax reduction programs
- introduction of paper money
- failed to avert a depression that lasted until 1349.
• Thus the Il-khan domains fragmented
- Mongol nobles fought each other for diminishing
- Mongols from the Golden Horde attacked and
divided the Il-khan Empire.
II. The Mongols & Islam
3. Timur
• As the Il-khan Empire and the Golden Horde
• Timur, the last Central Asian conqueror, built
the Jagadai Khanate in central and western
• Timur’s descendants, the Timurids, ruled the
Middle East for several generations
II. The Mongols & Islam
C. Culture and Science in Islamic Eurasia
1. Literature
• the historian Juvaini wrote the first comprehensive
account of the rise of the Mongols under Genghis Khan.
Juvaini’s work inspired the work of Rashid al-Din, who
produced a history of the world that was published in a
number of beautifully illustrated editions.
Rashid al-Din, a Jew converted to Islam who served as
adviser to the Il-khan ruler, was a good example of the
cosmopolitanism of the Mongol world.
• The Timurids also supported notable historians including
the Moroccan Ibn Khaldun (1332–1406).
II. The Mongols & Islam
2. Science
• Muslims under Mongol rulership also made great
strides in astronomy, calendar-making, and the
prediction of eclipses.
- Their innovations included the use of epicycles to
explain the movement of the moon around the earth,
- the invention of more precise astronomical
- collection of astronomical data from all parts of the
Islamic world and China for predicting eclipses with
greater accuracy.
II. The Mongols & Islam
3. Math
• Muslim scholars adapted the Indian numerical system,
• devised the method for indicating decimal fractions,
• calculated the value of pi more accurately than had
been done in classical times.
• Muslim advances in science, astronomy, and
mathematics were passed along to Europe
- had a significant effect on the development of
European science and mathematics.
Warm Up:
• Describe advances that were made during
Mongol rule.
III. Regional Responses in Western
Russia and Rule from Afar
Mongol Rule in Russia
After the defeat of the Kievan Rus,
the Mongols of the Golden Horde made their capital at
the mouth of the Volga,
which was also the end of the overland caravan route
from Central Asia.
the Mongols ruled Russia “from afar,”
leaving the Orthodox Church in place
and using the Russian princes as their agents.
the main goal of the Golden Horde was to extract as much
tax revenue as possible from their subjects.
III. Regional Responses in Western
2. Rise of Moscow
• Prince Alexander of Novgorod had assisted the
Mongols in their conquest of Russia,
• As a result, the Mongols favored Novgorod and
Moscow (ruled by Prince Alexander’s brother).
• Mongol conquest led to devastation of the Ukrainian
• caused the Russian population to shift from Kiev
toward Novgorod and Moscow,
• Moscow emerged as the new center of the Russian
III. Regional Responses in Western
Effects of Mongol Domination
Historians Debate:
Negative effect on Russia,
bringing economic depression and cultural isolation
The Kievan state was already declining when the
Mongols came,
over-taxation of Russians under Mongol rule was the
work of the Russian princes,
Russia was isolated by the Orthodox church,
the structure of Russian government did not change
drastically under Mongol rule.
III. Regional Responses in Western
4. End of Mongol Rule in Russia
• Ivan III, the prince of Moscow, ended Mongol
rule in 1480 and adopted the title of tsar.
III. Regional Responses in Western
New States in Eastern Europe and Anatolia
Europe Divided
Europe was divided
the political forces of the papacy and those of
the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II (12121250).
As a result,
Eastern Europe—particularly Hungary and
Poland—faced the Mongol attacks alone.
III. Regional Responses in Western
2. Teutonic Knights
• German speaking
Christian order of
• “Northern Crusade”
• Goal was to Christianize
the Slavic population of
Northern Europe
• Defeated by Mongols
and Alexander Nevskii in
III. Regional Responses in Western
3. Mongol Conquest in Europe
• The Mongol armies that attacked Europe were actually an
international force
• including Mongols, Turks, Chinese, Iranians, and
• led by Mongol generals.
• “Mongol” armies drove to the outskirts of Vienna, striking
fear into the hearts of the Europeans
• the Mongols withdrew in December 1241 so that the
Mongol princes could return to Mongolia
- elect a successor to the recently deceased Great Khan
III. Regional Responses in Western
4. Cultural Exchange
• Despite widespread fear of Mongol invasions,
Europeans did learn from their contact with
the Mongols
- Diplomatic passports, coal mining, movable
type, advanced metallurgy, mathematics,
gunpowder, and canons
Mongol Invasions of Europe
Read: Journey to the Land of the
The Human Record, pages 426-430
1. How does William of Rubruck characterize the
Mongol lifestyle?
2. Describe the Mongol diet. Analyze why the
Mongols eat what and how they do?
3. How does William of Rubruck characterize the
status of Mongol women?
4. Based on this evidence, do you think that
Rubruck had a positive or negative attitude
toward to Mongols? Be specific in supporting
your conclusion.
III. Regional Responses in Western
5. Lithuania
• Maintained independence by cooperating
with Mongols
• Period of political centralization and military
• Dominated neighbors, Poland and the
Teutonic Knights
III. Regional Responses in Western
6. The Balkans
• Independent well organized Kingdoms arose in
uncertainty of Mongol chaos and Byzantine collapse
• Serbia
• Archbishop became an independent patriarch
• King Stephan Dushan (1308-1355) crowned “Tsar of
the Serbs, Greeks, Bulgarians and Albanians”
• Kingdom disappeared after defeat by the Ottomans at
the Battle of Kosovo in 1389
III. Regional Responses in Western
7. The Ottoman Empire
• Established a state in Anatolia
• Took advantage of declining power of
Mongols and the Byzantines
• Captured Constantinople in 1453.
IV. Mongol Domination in China
A. The Yuan Empire (1279-1368)
1. Conquest (1206-1271)
• Mongols conquered the Jin, Tanggut and
Southern Song Dynasties
• In 1271, Khublia Khan declared himself
emperor of a unified China
- Yuan Dynasty
Read: Description of the World
The Human Record: Pages 431-435
• Answer questions #1-4
Warm Up:
• What impact did the Mongols have on trade
along the Silk Road?
Collect HW
IV. Mongol Domination in China
2. Mongol adapt Chinese Practices
• Kubilai Khan gave his oldest son a Chinese
• Confucian scholars participated in education
of the Khan’s children
• Buddhist and Daoist leaders invited to court
IV. Mongol Domination in China
Yuan Dynasty capital city
Terminus (end) of silk Road
Created closed Imperial complex
The “Forbidden City”
More Chinese than Mongolian
IV. Mongol Domination in China
4. Unification
• Mongols unified China
- Had been divided among
Tangutt, Jin and Southern
Song Empires
• Each had different
languages, writing systems,
forms of government and
• The Mongols encouraged
traditional Chinese
government and culture
• Permanent reunification of
IV. Mongol Domination in China
Social Ranking
Legally defined based of race and function
Central Asians and Middle Easterners
Census takers and tax collectors
Northern Chinese
Southern Chinese
IV. Mongol Domination in China
Mongol Government
China divided into provinces
Government officials centrally appointed
Tax farming
Use of Western Asian officials
Tax collecting
Confucianism weakened
Status of merchants and doctors elevated
IV. Mongol Domination in China
7. Trade and communication
• Horse based courier system maintained close
communication within empire
• Roads were policed and safe
• China reconnected to the Silk Road
• cities and ports prospered
• trade recovered
• merchants flourished
IV. Mongol Domination in China
8. Urban Life
• flourishing mercantile economy led the
Chinese gentry elite to move into the cities
• where a lively urban culture of popular
• vernacular literature,
• and the Mandarin dialect of Chinese
IV. Mongol Domination in China
9. Rural Life
• cotton growing, spinning, and weaving were
introduced to mainland China from Hainan
• Mongols encouraged the construction of
irrigation systems
• farmers in the Yuan were overtaxed and
brutalized while dams and dikes were
Warm Up:
What were some of the effects of
Mongol rule on China?
Quiz Chapter 12
IV. Mongol Domination in China
10. Effects of Mongol Rule
• Yuan period China’s population declined by perhaps
as much as 40 percent,
• with northern China seeing the greatest loss of
• while the Yangzi Valley actually saw a significant
• Possible reasons for this pattern include:
• warfare, the flooding of the Yellow River, north-south
migration, and the spread of diseases, including the
bubonic plague in the 1300s.
IV. Mongol Domination in China
B. Scientific and Cultural Exchange
1. Exchange of Goods
• Between Yuan China and Il-khan Iran
• China sent silks and porcelain west
• Muslims oversaw engineering projects and
weapons manufacturing of Yuan armies
IV. Mongol Domination in China
Exchange of Ideas
Chinese ideas and technology
Astronomy, herbal medicine
Iranian ideas and technology
Observatory, doctors and medical text
IV. Mongol Domination in China
Fall of the Yuan Empire
Infighting among Mongol princes
Farmer rebellions
Zhu Yuanzhang led a military campaign that
destroyed the Yuan Empire
• Founded the Ming dynasty
IV. Mongol Domination in China
2. Legacy
• Cultural diversity
- Mongols, Muslims Jews and Christians
remained in China
• Mongols returned to Mongolia
- Sense of Mongol unity
V. Centralization and Militarism in East
Asia 1200-1500
A. Korea from the Mongols to the Yi, (1231-1500)
1. Mongol Domination
• Korea’s leaders initially resisted the Mongol invasions
• gave up in 1258 when the king of Koryo surrendered
and joined his family to the Mongols by marriage.
• The Koryo kings then fell under the influence of the
• Korea profited from exchange with the Yuan in which
new technologies:
• including cotton, gunpowder, astronomy, calendar
making, and celestial clocks were introduced.
V. Centralization and Militarism in East
Asia 1200-1500
Koryo Collapse
shortly after the fall of the Yuan
replaced by the Yi dynasty.
the Yi reestablished local identity
restored the status of Confucian scholarship
while maintaining Mongol administrative
practices and institutions.
V. Centralization and Militarism in East
Asia 1200-1500
3. Yi dynasty
• Technological innovations of the Yi period
• the use of moveable type in copper frames,
meteorological science, a local calendar, the use
of fertilizer, and the engineering of reservoirs.
• The growing of cash crops, particularly cotton,
became common during the Yi period.
V. Centralization and Militarism in East
Asia 1200-1500
4. Military Technology
• The Koreans were innovators in military
• Among their innovations were:
• patrol ships with cannon mounted on them,
gunpowder arrow-launchers, and armored
V. Centralization and Militarism in East
Asia 1200-1500
B. Political Transformation in Japan
1. Attempted Mongol Conquest
• The first (unsuccessful) Mongol invasion of Japan in 1274 made the
decentralized local lords of Kamakura Japan develop a greater sense of
• the shogun took steps to centralize planning and preparation for the
expected second assault.
• The second Mongol invasion (1281) was defeated by a combination of
Japanese defensive preparations and a typhoon
- Kamikaze – Divine Wind .
• The Kamakura regime continued to prepare for further invasions.
• As a result:
- the warrior elite consolidated their position in Japanese society,
- trade and communication within Japan increased,
- but the Kamakura government found its resources strained by the expense
of defense preparations.
V. Centralization and Militarism in East
Asia 1200-1500
2. Collapse of the Kamakura Shogunate
• The Kamakura shogunate was destroyed in a civil
• the Ashikaga shogunate was established in 1338.
• The Ashikaga period was characterized by a
relatively weak shogunal state and strong
provincial lords
• who sponsored the development of markets,
religious institutions, schools, increased
agricultural production, and artistic creativity.
V. Centralization and Militarism in East
Asia 1200-1500
Decentralization in Japan
After the Onin war of 1477,
the shogunate exercised no power
the provinces were controlled by
independent regional lords who fought with
each other.
• The regional lords also carried out trade with
continental Asia.
V. Centralization and Militarism in East
Asia 1200-1500
C. The Emergence of Vietnam
1. Political Division
• Vietnam was divided between two states:
- the Chinese-influenced Annam in the north
- the Indian-influenced Champa in the south.
• after the fall of the Yuan Empire, they began
to fight with each other.
V. Centralization and Militarism in East
Asia 1200-1500
2. Independence and Unification
• The Ming Dynasty ruled Annam through a puppet
government for almost thirty years in the early
15th century
- threw off Ming control in 1428.
• By 1500 Annam had completely conquered
- established a Chinese-style government over all
of Vietnam.

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