Warm Up: What do you think of when you hear “Mongolia” or “Mongolians”? Read: Observations of Mongol Life Using your textbooks answer the following questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. Define nomadism. Describe the religious beliefs of the Mongols. Where were the Mongols able to conquer? Why were the Mongols able to conquer such a vast territory? 5. Describe the effects of Mongol Rule in Eurasia. I. The Rise of the Mongols, 1200–1260 A. Nomadism in Central and Inner Asia 1. Nomadism and Political intergration • Nomadic groups depended on scarce water and pasture resources - in times of scarcity, conflicts occurred - resulting in the extermination of smaller groups and in the formation of alliances and out-migration. I. The Rise of the Mongols, 1200–1260 2. Social Organization • Mongol groups were strongly hierarchical organizations • headed by a single leader or khan, • khans had to ask that their decisions be ratified by a council of the leaders of powerful families. • Powerful Mongol groups demanded and received tribute in goods and in slaves from those less powerful. - Some groups were able to live almost entirely on tribute. I. The Rise of the Mongols, 1200–1260 3. Marriage & Women • Mongol groups formed complex federations that were often tied together by marriage alliances. • Women from prestigious families often played an important role in negotiating these alliances. • Wives and mothers of rulers traditionally managed state affairs between the death of a ruler and the selection of a successor, - often working to secure a relative to the position. I. The Rise of the Mongols, 1200–1260 4. Nomadism & Religion • The seasonal movements of the Mongol tribes brought them into contact with many religions - Judaism, Christianity, Buddhism, and Islam. • The Mongols accepted religious pluralism • Mongol khans were thought to represent the Sky God, who transcended all cultures and religions; • khans were thus conceived of as universal rulers who both transcended and used the various religions of their subjects. I. The Rise of the Mongols, 1200–1260 B. The Mongol Conquests 1. Genghis Khan 1206 - 1234 • under the leadership of Genghis Khan the Mongols conquered all of North China and were threatening the Southern Song. • the Mongol realms were united, all recognized the authority of the Great Khan in Mongolia. I. The Rise of the Mongols, 1200–1260 2. • • • • • - Khubilai Khan and the Yuan Dynasty declared himself Great Khan in 1265, the other Mongol khans refused to accept him Khubilai founded the Yuan Empire, with its capital at Beijing in 1271; in 1279, he conquered the Southern Song. After 1279, the Yuan attempted to extend its control to Southeast Asia. Annam and Champa were forced to pay tribute to the Yuan an expedition to Java ended in failure. I. The Rise of the Mongols, 1200–1260 3. Mongol Conquests • that may have contributed to the Mongols’ ability to conquer such vast territories: • Technology & Tactics - superior horsemanship - better bows - technique of following a volley of arrows with a deadly cavalry charge. • Adaptability - new military techniques, adopt new military technology, and incorporate non-Mongol soldiers into their armies; • Reputation - slaughtering all those who would not surrender - ability to take advantage of rivalries among their enemies. I. The Rise of the Mongols, 1200–1260 C. Overland Trade and the Plague 1. Trade • The Mongol conquests opened overland trade routes • brought about an unprecedented commercial integration of Eurasia. Silk Porcelain • The growth of long-distance trade under the Mongols led to significant transfer of military and scientific knowledge among Europe, the Middle East, China, Iran, and Japan. First passports Marco Polo 2. Diseases • the bubonic plague also spread over the trade routes of the Mongol Empire. • The plague spread from China, to Central Asia and from there to the Mediterranean world along trade routes. Warm Up: What were some of the effects of Mongol conquest of Eurasia? II. The Mongols & Islam A. Mongol Rivalry 1. Religious Tensions in Central Asia • In the 1260s the Il-khan Mongol Empire controlled parts of Armenia and all of Azerbaijan, Mesopotamia, and Iran. • Relations between the Buddhist/shamanist Il-khan Mongols and their Muslim subjects were tense - the Mongols had murdered the last Abbasid caliph - Mongol religious beliefs and customs were contrary to those of Islam. II. The Mongols & Islam 2. Inter-Mongolian Conflict • At the same time, Russia was under the domination of the Golden Horde - led by Genghis Khan’s grandson Batu - who had converted to Islam • announced his intention to avenge the last caliph. • This led to the first conflict between Mongol domains. II. The Mongols & Islam 3. Results • European leaders attempted to make an alliance with the Il-khans to drive out Muslims - Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine, • the Il-khans sought European help in driving the Golden Horde out of the Caucasus. • These plans for an alliance never happened because the Il-khan ruler Ghazan converted to Islam in 1295. II. The Mongols & Islam B. Islam and the State 1. Mongol Taxation • The goal of the Il-khan State was to collect as much tax revenue as possible, which it did through a tax farming system. • Short Term: - tax farming system was able to deliver large amounts of grain, cash and silk. • long term: - over-taxation led to increases in the price of grain, a shrinking tax base, and, by 1295, a severe economic crisis. II. The Mongols & Islam 2. Attempts at Reform • Attempts to end the economic crisis - tax reduction programs - introduction of paper money - failed to avert a depression that lasted until 1349. • Thus the Il-khan domains fragmented - Mongol nobles fought each other for diminishing resources - Mongols from the Golden Horde attacked and divided the Il-khan Empire. II. The Mongols & Islam 3. Timur • As the Il-khan Empire and the Golden Horde declined • Timur, the last Central Asian conqueror, built the Jagadai Khanate in central and western Eurasia. • Timur’s descendants, the Timurids, ruled the Middle East for several generations II. The Mongols & Islam C. Culture and Science in Islamic Eurasia 1. Literature • the historian Juvaini wrote the first comprehensive account of the rise of the Mongols under Genghis Khan. • Juvaini’s work inspired the work of Rashid al-Din, who produced a history of the world that was published in a number of beautifully illustrated editions. Rashid al-Din, a Jew converted to Islam who served as adviser to the Il-khan ruler, was a good example of the cosmopolitanism of the Mongol world. • The Timurids also supported notable historians including the Moroccan Ibn Khaldun (1332–1406). II. The Mongols & Islam 2. Science • Muslims under Mongol rulership also made great strides in astronomy, calendar-making, and the prediction of eclipses. - Their innovations included the use of epicycles to explain the movement of the moon around the earth, - the invention of more precise astronomical instruments, - collection of astronomical data from all parts of the Islamic world and China for predicting eclipses with greater accuracy. II. The Mongols & Islam 3. Math • Muslim scholars adapted the Indian numerical system, • devised the method for indicating decimal fractions, • calculated the value of pi more accurately than had been done in classical times. • Muslim advances in science, astronomy, and mathematics were passed along to Europe - had a significant effect on the development of European science and mathematics. Warm Up: • Describe advances that were made during Mongol rule. III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia A. 1. • • • • Russia and Rule from Afar Mongol Rule in Russia After the defeat of the Kievan Rus, the Mongols of the Golden Horde made their capital at the mouth of the Volga, which was also the end of the overland caravan route from Central Asia. the Mongols ruled Russia “from afar,” leaving the Orthodox Church in place and using the Russian princes as their agents. the main goal of the Golden Horde was to extract as much tax revenue as possible from their subjects. III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia 2. Rise of Moscow • Prince Alexander of Novgorod had assisted the Mongols in their conquest of Russia, • As a result, the Mongols favored Novgorod and Moscow (ruled by Prince Alexander’s brother). • Mongol conquest led to devastation of the Ukrainian countryside • caused the Russian population to shift from Kiev toward Novgorod and Moscow, • Moscow emerged as the new center of the Russian civilization. III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia 3. • • • - Effects of Mongol Domination Historians Debate: Negative effect on Russia, bringing economic depression and cultural isolation The Kievan state was already declining when the Mongols came, over-taxation of Russians under Mongol rule was the work of the Russian princes, Russia was isolated by the Orthodox church, the structure of Russian government did not change drastically under Mongol rule. III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia 4. End of Mongol Rule in Russia • Ivan III, the prince of Moscow, ended Mongol rule in 1480 and adopted the title of tsar. III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia B. 1. • • • • New States in Eastern Europe and Anatolia Europe Divided Europe was divided the political forces of the papacy and those of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II (12121250). As a result, Eastern Europe—particularly Hungary and Poland—faced the Mongol attacks alone. III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia 2. Teutonic Knights • German speaking Christian order of knights • “Northern Crusade” • Goal was to Christianize the Slavic population of Northern Europe • Defeated by Mongols and Alexander Nevskii in 1242 III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia 3. Mongol Conquest in Europe • The Mongol armies that attacked Europe were actually an international force • including Mongols, Turks, Chinese, Iranians, and Europeans • led by Mongol generals. • “Mongol” armies drove to the outskirts of Vienna, striking fear into the hearts of the Europeans • the Mongols withdrew in December 1241 so that the Mongol princes could return to Mongolia - elect a successor to the recently deceased Great Khan Ogodei. III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia 4. Cultural Exchange • Despite widespread fear of Mongol invasions, Europeans did learn from their contact with the Mongols - Diplomatic passports, coal mining, movable type, advanced metallurgy, mathematics, gunpowder, and canons Mongol Invasions of Europe Read: Journey to the Land of the Tartars The Human Record, pages 426-430 1. How does William of Rubruck characterize the Mongol lifestyle? 2. Describe the Mongol diet. Analyze why the Mongols eat what and how they do? 3. How does William of Rubruck characterize the status of Mongol women? 4. Based on this evidence, do you think that Rubruck had a positive or negative attitude toward to Mongols? Be specific in supporting your conclusion. III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia 5. Lithuania • Maintained independence by cooperating with Mongols • Period of political centralization and military strengthening • Dominated neighbors, Poland and the Teutonic Knights III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia 6. The Balkans • Independent well organized Kingdoms arose in uncertainty of Mongol chaos and Byzantine collapse • Serbia • Archbishop became an independent patriarch • King Stephan Dushan (1308-1355) crowned “Tsar of the Serbs, Greeks, Bulgarians and Albanians” • Kingdom disappeared after defeat by the Ottomans at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 III. Regional Responses in Western Eurasia 7. The Ottoman Empire • Established a state in Anatolia • Took advantage of declining power of Mongols and the Byzantines • Captured Constantinople in 1453. IV. Mongol Domination in China A. The Yuan Empire (1279-1368) 1. Conquest (1206-1271) • Mongols conquered the Jin, Tanggut and Southern Song Dynasties • In 1271, Khublia Khan declared himself emperor of a unified China - Yuan Dynasty Read: Description of the World The Human Record: Pages 431-435 • Answer questions #1-4 Warm Up: • What impact did the Mongols have on trade along the Silk Road? Collect HW IV. Mongol Domination in China 2. Mongol adapt Chinese Practices • Kubilai Khan gave his oldest son a Chinese name • Confucian scholars participated in education of the Khan’s children • Buddhist and Daoist leaders invited to court IV. Mongol Domination in China 3. • • • • Bejing Yuan Dynasty capital city Terminus (end) of silk Road Created closed Imperial complex The “Forbidden City” More Chinese than Mongolian IV. Mongol Domination in China 4. Unification • Mongols unified China - Had been divided among Tangutt, Jin and Southern Song Empires • Each had different languages, writing systems, forms of government and culture • The Mongols encouraged traditional Chinese government and culture • Permanent reunification of China IV. Mongol Domination in China 5. • 1) 2) 3) 4) Social Ranking Legally defined based of race and function Mongols Warriors Central Asians and Middle Easterners Census takers and tax collectors Northern Chinese Southern Chinese IV. Mongol Domination in China 6. • • • • • Mongol Government China divided into provinces Government officials centrally appointed Tax farming Use of Western Asian officials Census Tax collecting Confucianism weakened Status of merchants and doctors elevated IV. Mongol Domination in China 7. Trade and communication • Horse based courier system maintained close communication within empire • Roads were policed and safe • China reconnected to the Silk Road • cities and ports prospered • trade recovered • merchants flourished IV. Mongol Domination in China 8. Urban Life • flourishing mercantile economy led the Chinese gentry elite to move into the cities • where a lively urban culture of popular entertainment, • vernacular literature, • and the Mandarin dialect of Chinese developed IV. Mongol Domination in China 9. Rural Life • cotton growing, spinning, and weaving were introduced to mainland China from Hainan Island • Mongols encouraged the construction of irrigation systems • farmers in the Yuan were overtaxed and brutalized while dams and dikes were neglected Warm Up: What were some of the effects of Mongol rule on China? Quiz Chapter 12 Tuesday IV. Mongol Domination in China 10. Effects of Mongol Rule • Yuan period China’s population declined by perhaps as much as 40 percent, • with northern China seeing the greatest loss of population, • while the Yangzi Valley actually saw a significant increase. • Possible reasons for this pattern include: • warfare, the flooding of the Yellow River, north-south migration, and the spread of diseases, including the bubonic plague in the 1300s. IV. Mongol Domination in China B. Scientific and Cultural Exchange 1. Exchange of Goods • Between Yuan China and Il-khan Iran • China sent silks and porcelain west • Muslims oversaw engineering projects and weapons manufacturing of Yuan armies IV. Mongol Domination in China 2. • • - Exchange of Ideas Chinese ideas and technology Astronomy, herbal medicine Iranian ideas and technology Observatory, doctors and medical text IV. Mongol Domination in China C. 1. • • • Fall of the Yuan Empire Collapse Infighting among Mongol princes Farmer rebellions Zhu Yuanzhang led a military campaign that destroyed the Yuan Empire • Founded the Ming dynasty IV. Mongol Domination in China 2. Legacy • Cultural diversity - Mongols, Muslims Jews and Christians remained in China • Mongols returned to Mongolia - Sense of Mongol unity V. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia 1200-1500 A. Korea from the Mongols to the Yi, (1231-1500) 1. Mongol Domination • Korea’s leaders initially resisted the Mongol invasions • gave up in 1258 when the king of Koryo surrendered and joined his family to the Mongols by marriage. • The Koryo kings then fell under the influence of the Mongols, • Korea profited from exchange with the Yuan in which new technologies: • including cotton, gunpowder, astronomy, calendar making, and celestial clocks were introduced. V. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia 1200-1500 2. • • • • Koryo Collapse shortly after the fall of the Yuan replaced by the Yi dynasty. the Yi reestablished local identity restored the status of Confucian scholarship while maintaining Mongol administrative practices and institutions. V. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia 1200-1500 3. Yi dynasty • Technological innovations of the Yi period include: • the use of moveable type in copper frames, meteorological science, a local calendar, the use of fertilizer, and the engineering of reservoirs. • The growing of cash crops, particularly cotton, became common during the Yi period. V. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia 1200-1500 4. Military Technology • The Koreans were innovators in military technology. • Among their innovations were: • patrol ships with cannon mounted on them, gunpowder arrow-launchers, and armored ships. V. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia 1200-1500 B. Political Transformation in Japan 1. Attempted Mongol Conquest • The first (unsuccessful) Mongol invasion of Japan in 1274 made the decentralized local lords of Kamakura Japan develop a greater sense of unity • the shogun took steps to centralize planning and preparation for the expected second assault. • The second Mongol invasion (1281) was defeated by a combination of Japanese defensive preparations and a typhoon - Kamikaze – Divine Wind . • The Kamakura regime continued to prepare for further invasions. • As a result: - the warrior elite consolidated their position in Japanese society, - trade and communication within Japan increased, - but the Kamakura government found its resources strained by the expense of defense preparations. V. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia 1200-1500 2. Collapse of the Kamakura Shogunate • The Kamakura shogunate was destroyed in a civil war • the Ashikaga shogunate was established in 1338. • The Ashikaga period was characterized by a relatively weak shogunal state and strong provincial lords • who sponsored the development of markets, religious institutions, schools, increased agricultural production, and artistic creativity. V. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia 1200-1500 3. • • • Decentralization in Japan After the Onin war of 1477, the shogunate exercised no power the provinces were controlled by independent regional lords who fought with each other. • The regional lords also carried out trade with continental Asia. V. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia 1200-1500 C. The Emergence of Vietnam 1. Political Division • Vietnam was divided between two states: - the Chinese-influenced Annam in the north - the Indian-influenced Champa in the south. • after the fall of the Yuan Empire, they began to fight with each other. V. Centralization and Militarism in East Asia 1200-1500 2. Independence and Unification • The Ming Dynasty ruled Annam through a puppet government for almost thirty years in the early 15th century - threw off Ming control in 1428. • By 1500 Annam had completely conquered Champa - established a Chinese-style government over all of Vietnam.